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ENRICO  TORRINI,  Publisher. 


Siena,  Tip.  e  Lit.  Sordomuti  di  L.  Lazzeri 


H.  Burton    photo. 




FOR  some  years  there  has  been  an  ever  in- 
creasing demand  for  an  adequate  English 
Guide  to  Siena;  and,  indeed,  I  have  heretofore  only 
been  deterred  from  attempting  to  supply  what 
I  am  well  satisfied  is  a  real  want,  by  the  dif- 
ficulty of  finding  an  author  upon  whose  know- 
ledge and  accuracy  I  felt  able  to  rely.  It  is 
not  every  art  critic  who  is  capable  of  writing 
History,  and  many  historians  are  lamentably 
ignorant  of  the  first  principles  of  Art.  This 
difficulty  has  been  finally  solved  by  the  employ- 
ment of  two  different  persons,  each  thoroughly 
competent  in  his  or  her  particular  line. 

The  writing  of  the  Guide  Book  proper  has 
been  entrusted  to  Miss  L.  M.  Olcott,  who  for 
several  years  has  devoted  special  attention  to 
the  study  of  Sienese  Art,  and  who  has  en- 
joyed the  advantage  of  the  counsel  and  assist- 
ance of  two  such  well-known  and  authoritative 
critics  as  Mr  Bernhard  Berenson  and  Mr  F.  Ma- 
son Perkins. 

The  Historical  Introduction,  on  the  other  hand, 
is  from  the  pen  of  Mr  William  Heywood,  the 
only  Englishman  whose  name  appears  among 
the  list  of  Corresponding"  Associates  of  the  Com- 
missione  Senese  di  Stoj'ia  Patria,  and  whose  pro- 
longed residence  in  Siena  has  already  borne 
fruit  in  more  than  one  work  dealing  with  the 
history  of  the  mediaeval  Commune. 

It  only  remains  to  add  that,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  Appendix,  there  has  been  no  col- 
laboration between  the  writers  of  the  separate 
parts.  Each  is  exclusively  responsible  for  his 
or  her  respective  section. 

Enrico  Torrixi,  Editor. 
Siena,   i^oj. 


Part  I 

BY  William  Hey  wood 

Topographical Page  3 

Works  Consulted 7 

Historical  Sketch 19 

Literary  History 129 

The  "  Palio  delle  Contrade  " 144 

Part  II 

BY  Lucy  Olcott 

Prefatory  Note 151 

Introductory 153 

Architecture 153 

Sculpture 166 

Painting 175 

The  Minor  Arts 194 

Itinerary 198 

Terzo  di  Citta 198 

—    Vill   — 

Terzo  di  vS.  Martino       ....   Page  279 

Terzo  di  Camollia 296 

Environs 339 

Appendix 345 

English  Works  on  vSiena 347 

Useful  information 362 

Index 367 

Additions  and  Corrections 383 






No:  ci   traemmo  alia  citta  di  Siena, 
La  quale  e  posta  in  parte  forte  e  sana, 
Di  leggiadria,  di  bei  costumi  plena, 
Di  vaghe  donne  e  d'  homini  cortesi, 
Con  aer  dolce  lucida  e  serena. 

Fazio  degli  Uberti,  //  dittamondo 

Its  built  high  and  low,  with  many  high 

towers  in  it  ;    and  this  makes  it  seen 

thirty  miles  off  on  Romes  side.  The  people 
here  are  very  civil,  and  euen  sociable  too ; 
which  together  with  the  good  ayre,  the 
good  exercises  for  gentlemen,  the  good  lan- 
guage, and  the  great  priuiledges,  make 
many  strangers  draw  bridle  here,  and  som- 
mer  it  at  Siena,  the  Orleans  of  Italy. 

'  R.  Lassels.     The  Voyage  of  Italy. 

SIENA  is  60  miles  by  rail  south  of  Florence 
and  160  north-west  of  Rome,  and  is  situated 
at  an  altitude  of  1330  feet  above  the  sea  level.. 
Its  climate  is  probably  pleasanter  than  that 
of  any  other  Tuscan  city.  With  Florence  in 
particular  it  compares  most  favourably,  being 
far  cooler  in  summer,  and,  if  not  actually  warmer 
in  winter,  at  least  apparently  so,  by  reason  of 
its  drier  atmosphere  and  greater  freedom  from 
cold  winds. 

—   4  — 

The  city  stands  upon  three  hills,  along  the 
ridges  of  which  its  three  principal  thoroughfares 
extend.  This  gives  it,  as  seen  from  the  summit 
of  the  Torre  del  ^langia,  something  of  the  ap- 
pearance of  a  huge  star-fish  with  three  rays.  Pos- 
sibly it  is  to  this  conformation  that  the  town 
owes  its  division  into  Tei'zi  or  Terzieri,  viz.  the 
Terzo  di  Citta,  the  Terzo  di  San  Martino  and 
the  Terzo  di  Camollia — a  division  which  goes 
back  to  the  earliest  days  of  the  Commune  and 
which  is  still  maintained. 

These  Terzi  are  again  divided  into  17  con- 
trade  or  wards,  each  with  a  distinct  appellation, 
chapel  and  flag  of  its  own.  Of  these  conb-ade 
the  Terzo  di  Citta  and  the  Terzo  di  Camollia 
each  contain  six,  that  of  San  Martino  five. 

A  special  condition  is  created  by  the  zone 
which  surrounds  the  periphery  of  the  city  and 
which  bears  the  name  of  the  Masse. 

The  area  within  the  walls  of  Siena  is  about 
2  I  square  miles. 

Anciently  the  city  was  furnished  with  nu- 
merous gates,  at  one  time  as  many  as  thirty-six. 
Today  these  are  reduced  to  eight,  including  the 
Barriera  San  Lorenzo. 

The  water-supply  is  drawn  from  natural 
springs  in  the  surrounding  hills,  and  is,  at  any 
rate  at  its  source,  of  excellent  quality.  What 
impurities  it  may  have  accumulated  before  it 
reaches  the  public   fountains  is  another   matter. 

It  is  brought  to  the  city  through  subterranean 
acqueducts  which  are  known  as  bottini,  and  which 
by  successive  excavations  have  attained  a  length 
of  more  than  fifteen  miles.  It  is  recorded  that 
the  Emperor  Charles  V.,  when  he  inspected  them 
in  1535,  declared  that  Siena  was  more  beautiful 
under  than  above  ground.  On  this  matter  the 
imperial  judgment  may  be  open  to  question  ; 
but  the  bottini  certainly  well  repay  a  visit.  They 
are  quite  practicable  even  for  ladies. 

The  population  of  Siena  at  the  last  census 
was  27,306,  thus  showing  an  increase  of  2102 
during  the  preceding  decade.  The  population 
of  the  Masse  is   10,317. 

The  Province  of  Siena,  comprising  about 
1467  square  miles  and  37  communes,  has  a  total 
population  of  233,874. 

The  Diocese  of  Siena  is  an  Archbishopric, 
dating  from  1459,  and  includes  18  city  and  95 
rural  parishes  divided  into   12   vicariates. 

The  city  possesses  a  University  which  ex- 
isted at  least  as  early  as  the  13th  century,  and 
which  is  limited  to  the  faculties  of  law  and 
medicine.  Among  other  public  institutions  the 
following  are  the  more  important: — the  Town 
Library  (Biblioteca  Comicnale)  first  opened  to  stu- 
dents in  the  17th  century;  the  Archivio,  a  record 
office,  instituted  in  1858,  containing  a  valuable 
and  splendidly  arranged  collection  of  documents; 
the   Fine   Arts   Institution    (Accadeviia  delle  Belle 

—  6  — 

Arti)  founded  in  1816  ;  and  the  natural  history 
museum  of  the  Accademia  del  Fisiocritici ,  inaugu- 
rated in  the  same  year.  There  are  also  many 
flourishing  charities,  including  an  excellent  hos- 
pital and  a  school  for  the  deaf  and  dumb. 

There  are  English  Church  Services  for  a  few 
weeks  in  the  Spring  (beginning,  as  a  rule,  the 
Sunday  before  Easter).  They  are  generally  held 
at  the  Chiesa  Cristiana  Evangelica,  in  the  Viale 
Curtatone,  a  few  steps  from  the  Pensione  Chiu- 

The  City  of  Siena  itself  cannot  be  satisfactor- 
ily seen  in  less  than  a  week ;  and,  even  so,  only 
by  dint  of  very  hard  work.  If  it  is  desired 
to  visit  the  various  places  of  interest  in  the 
neighbourhood,  at  least  double  that  time  should 
be  allowed. 


I  shall  desire  that  the  learned  reader 
will  not  conceive  any  opinion  against  any 
part  of  this,,,  volume,  until  he  shall  have 
read  over  the  whole,  and  diligently  searched 
out  and  well  considered  of  the  several 
authorites...  which  we  have  cited  and  set 
down  for  warrant  and  confermation  of  our 

Lord  Coke 

The  following  list,  so  far  from  purporting* 
to  constitute  a  complete  Bibliography,  contains 
only  the  more  important  works  actually  consulted 
in  the  preparation  of  the  historical  section  of 
this  Guide.  I  have,  in  fact,  been  careful  to 
include  only  such  books  as  are  likely  to  be  of 
use  to  the  passing  visitor  who  wishes  to  obtain 
such  a  general  idea  of  the  history  of  Siena  as 
may  enable  him  to  adequately  appreciate  her 
treasures  of  Architecture  and  of  Art. 


//  Constituto  dei  Consoli  del  Placito  del  Coinune  di 
Siena  pubblicato  da  LODOVICO  Zdekauer, 
Siena,  Enrico  Torrini,   1890. 

//  Constituto  del  Coniune  di  Siena  dell'  amio  1262, 
pubblicato    sotto    gli    auspici    della    facolta 

giuridica  di  Siena  da  LODOVICO  Zdekauer, 
Milano,  Ulrico  Hoepli,    1897. 

[Note.  This  work  contains  onl}-  the  first  three  Distinctions  and  a 
portion  of  the  fourth.  The  remainder  of  the  Constitiito  up  to 
Dist.  V.  Rjibric  248  is  published  b)-  Professor  Zdekauer  in  the 
"  Bullettino  Senese  di  Storia  Patria  "  vols.  I-III  (1894-6)  under 
the  title  of  II  framniento  degli  nltimi  due  libri  del  piii  antico 
Constituto  senese ;  while  in  volume  V.  of  the  same  periodical 
(pages  211-228)  U.  G.  Moxdolfo  has  published  U  ultima  parte 
del  Constitiito  Senese  del  1262  ricostruita  dalla  Riforma  succes- 

Statuti  O'iminali  del  foro  ecclesiastico  di  Siena  (sec. 

XIII-XIV)  pubblicati  da  L.  Zdekauer  nel 

^'Bullettino  Senese  di  Storia  Patria",  Vol.  VII 

Ordinamenti  Militari  Senesi  &q\  1307,  pubblicati  da 

E.  Casanova  nell'  "  Archivio   Storico   Ita- 

liano  "'.  Dispensa  3.^  del   1899. 
Statuti  Senesi,  Bologna,  G.  Romagnoli,  1863-187 7. 

Volume  I.  (per  cura  di  Filippo-Luigi  Polidori)  Statuto  del  Co- 
mune  di  Montagutolo  —  Stattcto  delV  Arte  dei  Carnajuoli  di  Siena 

—  Statuto  deir  Arte  della  Lana. 

Volume  II.  (per  cura  di  LuciAxo  Baxchi)  Statuto  della  Societa 
del  Padule  d'  Orgia  —  Statuto  delV  Arte  della  Lana  di  Radicondoli 

—  Statuto   deir  Ai-te   dei  Chiavari  di  Siena   —  Statuto   delV  Arte 
de'  Cuoiai  e  Calzolai  di  Siena. 

Volume  III.  (per  cura  di  LuciAxo  Baxchi)  Statuto  delta  Spedale 
di  Siena. 

La  sesta  Distintione  del  Costoduto  del  Comiine  di  Siena 
dans  "  Le  Statut  des  neuf  Gouverneurs  et 
Defenseurs  de  la  Commune  de  Sienne  "  par 
JULIEX  LuCHAIRE.  Extrait  des  Melanges  d'Ar- 
cheologie  e  d' Histoire  publics  par  I'Ecole  fran- 
caise  de  Rome.  T.  XXI  (Rome,  Imprimerie 
de  la  Paix  de  Philippe  Cuggiani,   1901). 

—  9  — 
P7'ovvedi77ienti  cco7iomici  della  Repubblica  di  Sie7ia  7iel 

1382,   per  cura  di   A.  LisiNi,   Siena,  Enrico 

Torrini,    1895. 
Statuti  delle  Arti  per   cura   di    G.  MiLANESi    nei 

DociL7ne7iti per  la  Sto7ia  deW  A7'te  Senese  (Siena, 

O.  Porri,   1854)  vol.  I  pag.    1-135. 


Besides  the  numerous  documents  which  have 
been  printed  from  time  to  time  in  the  Bulletti7io 
Se7iese  di  Storia  P atria,  in  the  Miscella7iea  Sto7'ica 
Se7iese,  in  the  Dociu7ie7iti  per  la  Storia  dell'  Arte 
Se7iese  of  G.  MiLAXESi,  in  the  Nttovi  Doc2C77ie7iti 
of  BORGHESI  and  Banchi,  and  in  the  notes  and 
appendices  of  many  of  the  works  hereinafter 
cited,  the  student  should  consult  the  Codice  della 
Citta  d'  07'vieto  by  L.  Fuisil,  and  the  Docu77ie7iti 
dell'  x4.7itica  Costituzio7ie  del  Co77tii7ie  di  Fire7ize  by 
P.  Santini,  being  volumes  VIII  and  X  of  the 
"  Documenti  di  Storia  Italiana  "  published  by 
the  Royal  Deputation  for  the  Provinces  of  Tus- 
cany and  Umbria.  They  contain  many  of  the 
treaties  and  conventions  entered  into  between 
Siena  and  Orvieto  and  Siena  and  Florence. 

In  volume  IX  of  the  same  series,  the  celeb- 
rated Lib7'o  di  Mo7itape7'ti  was  edited  by  C.  Paoli. 
It  contains  the  original  registers  of  the  Florentine 
army  which  was  destroyed  in    1260. 

It  may  be  noticed  that  in  volume  V  of  the 
Bullettiiio  Se7iese   di  Sto7'ia  Pat7'ia,    A.  LiSlNl    has 

published  an  Inventory  of  all  the  documents  con- 
tained in  the  five  Instriimentarii  of  the  Republic, 
known  as  the  Caleffo  Vecchio,  the  Caleffo  dell'As- 
sunta,  the  Caleffo  nero,  the  Caleffo  rosso  and  the 

It  is  probably  superfluous  to  remark  that 
the  Antiquitates  of  ]MURAT0RI  contain  documents 
relative  to  Siena. 

AIURATORI,  Re7'iu}i  Italicarum  Sa'iptores. 

Vol.  XV.  Cronica  Satiese    r Andrea  Dei:   Agnolo  di  Tuva;  Nero 

di  Donati). 
Vol.  XX.  Historia  Senensis. 
Vol.  XXIII.  Cronica  Sanese  di  Allegretto  AUegretti. 

Framviento  di  ufia  Cronachetta  Senese  d'  Anonimo  del 
Secolo  XIV  per  cura  di  X.  ^Mexgozzi  ed 
A.  LisiNl,  Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri,   1893. 

La  cronaca  di  Bindino  da  Travale  (13 15-14 16)  per 
cura  di  V.  Lusixi,  Siena,  Tip.  wS.  Bernar- 
dino,  1900. 

Due  Cronache  sulla  sconfitta  di  Montaperto,  pubbli- 
cate  per  cura  di  Giuseppe  Porri  nella 
"  ^liscellanea  Storica  Sanese  ",  Siena  1844, 
presso  Onorato  Porri. 

Carlo  Quinto  in  Siejia  nell'  Aprile  del  1536,  relazione 
di  2171  contemporaneo ,  pubblicata  per  cura  di 
PlETRO  Vigo,  Bologna,  G.  Romagnoli,  1884. 

//  Campo  Imperiale  sotto  Montalcino  net  MDLIII 
narrazioiie  storica  di  Anonimo  contemporaneo, 
pubblicata  da  L.  Baxchi  ed  A.  Lisixi,  Siena, 
Gati,   1885. 

—   II   — 

Diario  delle  Cose  avvenute  in  Siena  dai  20  luglio  1550 
ai  28  giugno  7555  scritto  da  AleSSANDRO  Soz- 

[This  Diario  is  published  in  vol.  II  of  the  Archivio  Storico  Ita- 
liano  (1842).  It  contains  other  narratives  and  documents  relative 
to  the  fall  of  the  Republic]. 

Relazione  della  Gue7'ra  di  Siena  di  Don  Antonio  di 
Montaho  tradotta  dallo  Spagnolo  da  Don  Garzia 
di  Montalvo  suo  figlio,  Torino,  Tip.  V.  Ver- 
cellino,    1863. 

Comentarii  di  Stato  e  di  Gnerra  del  Sig.  BlAGGIO 
DI  MONLUC,  viaresciallo  di  Francia,  nnova- 
7nente  tradotti  dalla  Lingua  Francese  nelV Italiana 
per  D.  Giulio  Feri'ari  Creniojiese,  In  Cremona, 
per  Marc' Antonio  Belpieri,  MDCXXVIII. 


//  primo  libro  delle  Istorie  Sanesi  di  MarcANTO- 
xio  Bellarmati,  pubblicato  per  cura  di  G. 
PORRI  nella  "  Miscellanea  Storica  Sanese  ", 
Siena  O.  Porri,   1844. 

Malavolti,  Orlando,  Historia  de'fatti  e  gnerre 
de'  Sanesi,   In  Venetia,    1599. 

TOMMASI,  GlUGURTA,  Historie  di  Siena,  In  Ve- 
netia  1626. 

PeCCI,  Gio.  Antonio,  Storia  del  Vescovado  della 
Citta  di  Siena,   Lucca,    1748. 

—  Memorie  storico-critiche  della  Citta  di  Siena  (4  vol.) 
Siena,  A.  Bindi,   1 755-1 760. 

BUONSIGNORI,  V.  Storia  della  Rep2ibblica  di  Siena 
esposta  in  compendio,   Siena,    1856. 



Le  Pompe  Sanesi  o'  vero  Relazione  delli  Juiomini,  e 
donne  ilhistri  di  Siena  e  siio  stato,  scritta  dal 
Padre  Maestro  Fr.  IsiDORO  UgurGIERI  Az- 
ZOLINI.  In  Pistoia  nella  Stamperia  di  Pier' An- 
tonio Fortunati,    1649. 

Diario  Sanese  opera  di  GiROLAMO  GiGLI  in  ciii  si 
veggono  alia  giornata  tiitti  gli  avvenimenti  piii 
ragg2iardevoli  spettanti  si  alio  spiritiiale  si  al  tem- 
porale  della  Citta  e  Stato  di  Siena,  con  la  notizia 
di  molte  Nobili  Famiglie  di  Essa  delle  qnali  e 
caduto  in  acconcio  il parlarne  (seconda  edizione) 
Siena,  Tip.  dell' Ancora,   1854. 

Diziona7'io  geogi^ajico  fisico  storico  della  Toscana  con- 
tenente  la  descrizione  di  tutti  i  hioghi  del  Gran- 
diicato  &c.  compilato  da  Emanuele  Repetti, 
Firenze,   1833-1846. 

Siena  e  il  sno  territorio.     Siena,  L.  Lazzeri,  1862. 

Bidlettino  Senese  di  Stoi'ia  Patria  vol.  I-IX.  (1894- 

Miscellanea  Storica  Senese  vol.   I-V  (i  893-1 898). 


G.  RONDOXI,  Tradizioni  popolari  e  leggende  di  un 
Coimine  medioevale  e  del  sno  contado,  Firenze, 
Rassegna  Nazionale,   1880. 


P.  Rossi,  Le  Origini  di  Siena  —  I.  Siena  avanti 
il  Dominio  Romano.     IL   Siena  Colonia  Romana 

(Conferenze  tenute  nella  R.  Accad.  de'  Rozzi 
per  cura  della  Commissione  Senese  di  Storia 
Patria,  il  i6  marzo  1895  ed  il  3  aprile  1897) 
Siena,  Lazzeri. 

G.  RONDONI,  Sena  Vetus  0  il  Comune  di  Siena 
dalle  Origini  alia  battaglia  di  Montaperti,  Estrat- 
to  dalla  Rivista  Storica  Italiana  vol.  IX,  fa- 
scicolo  I-II  anno  1892,  Torino,  Fratelli  Boc- 
ca,  1892. 

L.  BaxcHI,  //  memoriale  delle  offesefatte  al  Comiine  e 
ai  Cittadinidi  Siena  ordinate  nell'annoMCCXXIlI 
dal  Potesta  Bonifazio  Gnicciardi  Bolognese,  pub- 
blicato  nel  "  Arch.  Stor.  It.  "  Serie  III, 
T.  XXII,  (1875)  pag.   197-234. 

L.  Zdekauer,  La  Vita  Privata  dei  Senesi  nel  Dic- 
gento,   Siena,  Lazzeri,    1896. 

—  La  Vita  Pubblica  dei  Senesi  nel  Dugento,   Siena, 

Lazzeri,   1897. 

—  Sidle  Origini  dello  Studio  Senese,  Siena,  C.  Nava, 


—  II  Mercante  Senese  nel  Diigento,   Siena,  C.  Nava, 


L.  BanCHI,  GH  Ordinamenti  Economici  dei  Comuni 
Toscani  nel  medio  evo  e  segnatamente  del  Comune 
di  Siena  Parte  prima,  La  Lira  o  V  Estimo  in 
"  Atti  della  R.  Accad.  dei  Fisiocritici  di 
Siena  ",  Serie  III  vol.  II,  Siena,  Tip.  del- 
r  Ancora,    1879. 

C.  Paoli,  Siena  alle  Fiere  di  Sciampagna,  Siena, 

—    14   — 

F.  Patetta,  Caorsini  Senesi  in  Inghilterra  nel  sc- 
colo  XIII  in  "  Bullettino  Senese  di  Storia 
Patria  "  vol.  IV,  (1897)  311-344. 

Berlixghieri,  Notizie  degli  Aldoh-andeschi,  Siena, 
O.  Porri,    1842. 

F.  E.  Baxdixi  Piccolomixi,  Del  Conte   Umberto 

di   Guglielmo  Aldobrandeschi  da  S.  Fiora  negli 
"  Atti  e  memorie  della  R.  Accad.  dei  Rozzi  " 

III,  73-83- 

C.  PaoLI,  La  Battaglia  di  Montaperti,  Estr.  dal 
vol.  II  del  "  Bullettino  della  Societa  Senese 
di  Storia  Patria  ",  Siena,  Tip.  dell'Ancora, 

A.  ProfesSIOX'^E,  Corradino  di  Svevia  e  il  siio  Pas- 

saggio  per  Siena,    Verona,    Fratelli   Drucker, 

B.  AquaroX^E,  Dante  in  Siena  ovvej'o  acceujii  nella 

Divina   Commedia  a  cose  Sanesi,   Citta   di   Ca- 
stello,  vS.  Lapi,    1889. 

C.  Paoli,  /  ''  Monti  "  0  fazioni  7iella  Repiibblica 

di  Siena  nella  "  Xuova  Antologia  "  Serie  III 
vol.   34  fasc.    15. 

G.  Arias,  La  Compagnia  Bancaria  dei  Bonsignori, 

in  Studi  e  Dociunenti  di  Storia  del  Diritto,   Fi- 
renze,  Successori  Le  Monnier,   1901  (^). 

(')  Since  the  statements  of  Dott.  Arias  are  not  always  to  be  implic- 
itlj-  relied  upon,  this  work  should  onl}*  be  read  in  connection  with  E. 
Casanova's  valuable  review  of  the  same — See  the  Bullettino  Senese  di 
Storia  Patria,  Vol.  VIII  (1901)  pp.  46  et  seq. 

—   15  — 
N.  MenCtOZZI,    //  Monte    dei  Paschi   di  Siena   e   le 
azieiide  in  esso  riiinite,   vol.  I,  Siena,  Lazzeri, 


L.  Banchi,  /  Porti  della  Maremma  Senese  diirante 
la  Repiibblica. 

[It  is  published    in  successive    numbers    of    the    "  Arch.  Stor.  It.   " 
beginning  with  the  year  1869]. 

A.  ProfessiONE,   Siena  e  le  Conipag7iie  di  Ventura 

nella  seconda  meta  del  sec.  XIV.     Civitanova, 

D.  Natalucci,   1898. 
C.  Falletti-Fossati,    Costumi  Senesi  7iella  seconda 

meta  del  secolo  XIV.  Siena,  Tip.  dell'Ancora, 

L.  Zdekauer,  Lo  Studio  di  Siena  nel  Rinascimento, 

Milano,  U.  Hoepli,   1894. 
L.  FuAIl  e  A.  LiSlNl,    L'  incoritro  di  Federigo  III 

Imperatoi'e  con  Eleonora  di  Portogallo,  sna  novella 

sposa,   e  il  loro  soggiorno  in  Siena,   Siena,  Tip. 

Lazzeri,   1878. 
C.   Paoli,  Del  magistrato  di  Balia  nella  Repiibblica 

di  Siena,    notizie  e  dociimejiti  in  "  Atti  e  me- 

morie  della  vSezione  Letteraria  di  Storia  Pa- 

tria  della  R.  Accad.  dei  Rozzi  di  Siena  ". 

Nuova  Serie  (i 870-1 888)  III,   11 3-1 59. 
U.  G.  MONDOLFO,  Pandolfo  Petrucci  Signo7'e  di  Siena, 

Siena,  Tip.  Cooperativa,   1899. 
C.  Falletti-Fossati,   Principali  cause  della  Cadnta 

della  Repubb.  Senese  in  "  Atti  della  R.  Accad. 

dei  Fisiocritici  di  Siena  ". 
B.  Aquarone,  GH  Ultimi  Anni  della  Storia  Repub- 

blicana  di  Siena,  Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri,  1 869-1 870. 

—   i6  — 

G.  ROXDOXI,  Siena  nel  secolo  XVI  nella  "  Vita 
Italiana  nel  Cinquecento  "  ^lilano,  Fratelli 
Treves,    1897. 

A.  COPPIXI,  Piero  Strozzi  nell'  assedio  di  Siena, 
Firenze,  G.  B.  Paravia  &  C.°,    1902. 


Vita  del  Beato  Bernardo  Toloniei,  fondatore  della  Con- 
gregazione  di  Monte  Oliveto,  dell'  Ordine  di  S.  Be- 
nedetto di  D.  Bernardo  ]\Iaria  ]\Iarechau 
tradotta  dal  francese  dal  Parr.  Telemaco 
Barbetti,  Siena,  Tip.  S.  Bernardino,  1890. 

La  Vita  del  Beato  Giovanni  Colo^nbini  da  Siena,  Fon- 
datore dell'  Ordine  di  Poveri  Giesiiati,  composta 
per  Feo  Belcari,  Impresso  in  Siena  per 
Calisto,  Francesco  di  Simone  Bindi.  A  Di 
XXVII.  d'  Ottobre,  M.  D.  XLI.  Ad  Istantia 
di  Giovanni  di  Alessandro  Libraio. 

Della  Vita  e  degli  scritti  di  Giovanni  Colombini  da 
Siena,  G.  Pardi  nel  "  Bullettino  Senese  di 
Storia  Patria  "  vol.  II  (1895). 

Stoj'ia  di  S.  Caterina  da  Siena  e  del  Papato  del  sno 
tempo  per  AlfoXSO  Capecelatro,  Siena, 
Tip.  S.  Bernardino,   1878. 

Le  lettere  di  Santa  Caterina  da  Sieiia,  per  ciira  di 
N.  TOMMASEO,  Firenze,  Barbera,   i860. 

S.  Bernardino  da  Siena,  opera  di  PaoLO  Thureau- 
Daxgin  tradotta  in  lingua  italiana  da  Mons. 
Telemaco  Barbetti,  Siena,  Tip.  S.  Ber- 
nardino,  1897. 

—    17   — 

Storia  di  San  Bernardino  da  Siena  e  del  siio  tempo, 
F.  Alessio,  Mondovi,  Tip.  Vesc.  edit.  B.  Gra- 
ziano,    1899. 

L '  Eloquenza  di  S.  Bernardino  da  Siena  e  della  sna 
scuola  D.  DOMENICO  RONZONI,  Siena,  presso 
la  Direzione  della  Biblioteca  del  Clero,  1899. 

Le  Prediche  volgari  di  San  Bei'na^'dino  da  Siena  dette 
nella  piazza  del  Campo  V anno  MCCCCXXVII 
ora  primamente  edite  da  LuCIANO  BaxCHI, 
(3  vol.)  Siena,  Tip.  S.  Bernardino,  1 880-1 888. 


Le  Novelle  di  Gentile  Sermini  da  Siena  ora  per 
la  prima  volta  raccolte  e  pubblicate  nella  loro  iii- 
tegrita,  In  Livorno,  Coi  tipi  di  Francesco 
Vig-o,   1874. 

Storia  di  Due  Amanti  di  Enea  Silvio  PiCCOLO- 
MINI  dipoi  Pio  II  Pontejice,  Milano,  G.  Daelli, 

Novelle  di  Antori  Senesi,  being  vols.  1 4  and  1 5  of 
the  Raccolta  de' Novellieri  Italia?ii,  IMilano,  per 
Giovanni  Silvestri,   18 15. 

Tre  Novelle  inedite  di  PlETRO  FORTINI  Senese, 
Bologna  G.  Romagnoli  1877  (in  the  "  Scelta 
di  Curiosita  Letterarie  inedite  o  rare  dal  se- 
colo  XIII  al  XVII  "  Dispensa  CLV). 

Novelle  di  PlETRO  FORTIXI  Senese  —  Le  Giornate 
delle  Novelle  de' Novizi  in  the  "  Bibliotechina 
Grassoccia  "  Firenze,  II  "  Giornale  di  Eru- 
dizione  "  Editore,   1 888-1 891. 

—    lb    — 

Raccolta  di  Burle,  Facetie,  Motti  e  Buffonerie  di  trc 
huotnini  Sanesi,  cioe  Salvadoi'e  di  Topo  Sca?-- 
pellino,  lac 0)710,  alias  Scacazzone,  e  Ma?'ianotto 
Secitrini,  fattore  delV  Opera  del  Diiomo  di  Siena, 
poste  insieme  da  AleSSAXDRO  DI  GiROLAMO 
SOZZIXI  Sanese,  per  passar  tempo,  e  fuggir 
r  otio,   Siena,  O.  Porri,    1S65. 

La  Raffaella  ovvero  Delia  bella  creanza  delle  donne, 
dialogo  di  AlESSANDRO  PiCCOLOMIXI,  5/^?'- 
dito  Intronato,   ]\Iilano,  G.  Daelli,    1862. 

Le  Novelle  di  Scipione  Bargagli  premessavi  la  7iar- 
7'azione  dell'  Assedio  di  Siena,  prima  edizione 
Senese  per  ciira  di  LUCIAXO  Baxchi,  Siena, 
Gati,    1873. 


Docuvienti  per  la  Storia  delV  Arte  Senese  raccolti  ed 
ilhcstrati  dal  Dott.  Gaetaxo  Milaxesi,  Siena, 
O.  Porri,    1854-6. 

Nuovi  Dociimenti  per  la  Storia  dell'  Arte  Senese  rac- 
colti da  S.  BoRGHESi  e  L.  Baxchi,  Siena, 
Enrico  Torrini,   1898. 

Sulla  Storia  deW  Arte  Toscana,  Scritti  Varj,  di  Gae- 
TAXO  Milaxesi,  Siena,  Tip.  Sordomuti,  1873. 

[Note.  There  are,  of  course,  several  valuable  articles  on  artistic  sub- 
jects in  the  Biillettino  Senese  di  Storia  Patria.] 


I  hold  that  nothing  is  more  withering 
in  its  effects,  and  nothing  more  contempt- 
ible, than  a  contempt  for  the  glories  of  the 

J.  B.  LiGHTFOOT,  D.  D.,  Historical  Essays 

Et  pourtant,  s'il  fallait  voir  s'abimer 
r  Italie  avec  son  passe  ou  1'  Amerique  avec 
son  avenir,  laquelle  laisserait  le  plus  grand 
vide  au  cceur  de  I'humanite  ?  Qu'est-ce  que 
V  Amerique  tout  entiere  aupres  d'  un  raj-on 
de  cette  gloire  infinie  dont  brille  en  Italie 
une  ville  de  second  ou  de  troisieme  ordre, 
Florence,  Pise,  Sienne,  Perugia?  Avant  de 
tenir  dans  echelle  de  la  grandeur  humaine 
un  rang  comparable  a  ces  villes-la,  New 
York  et  Boston  ont  bien  a  faire. 

Ernest  Renan,  Etudes  d'Histoire  Religieuse 

THE  origin  of  Siena,  like,  that  of  other  Italian 
cities,  is  lost  in  a  mist  of  legend.  It  was 
probably  founded  by  the  Etruscans,  and  then, 
falling  under  Roman  rule,  became  the  colony 
Saena  Julia,  in  the  reign  of  Augustus  or  a  little 
earlier.       Few  memorials  of   the  Roman  era  or 

of  the  first  centuries  of  Christianity  remain  to 
us,  and  none  at  all  of  the  interval  preceding  the 
Longobard  period.  The  city  as  we  see  it  today 
is  wholly  mediaeval  (^). 

According  to  a  very  ancient  legend,  which 
probably  has  some  foundation  in  fact,  Siena  was 
converted  to  Christianity  early  in  the  fourth 
century  by  Ansano,  a  noble  Roman,  who  sealed 
his  faith  by  martyrdom  at  Dofana  on  the  Arbia. 
In  1 107,  his  remains  were  brought  into  the  city 
through  the  Porta  Pispini,  which  thus  acquired 
its  alternative  name  of  Porta  San  Viene,  from 
the  cry  of  the  multitude  who  crowded  thither 
to  meet  the  sacred  relics,  shouting  exultantly, 
//  santo  viene  /  //  santo  viene  / 

We  have  documentary  evidence  that  during 
the  reign  of  Rotharis  (636-652)  the  Sienese  church 
was  governed  by  a  bishop  named  Maurus;  but 
■  all  attempts  to  trace  earlier  bishops  as  far  back 
as  the  5th  century  have  yielded  only  vague  and 
contradictory  results. 

Early  in  the  8th  century  the  famous  contro- 
versy between  the  sees  of  Arezzo  and  Siena 
commenced,  and  it  is  to  the  numerous  docu- 
ments which  refer  to  that  protracted  struggle  that 

(')  This  paragraph  I  have  taken  almost  verbatim  from  Professor 
Paoli's  Siena  in  the  "Encyclopaedia  Britannica  ",  XXII.  39,  The  article 
in  question  is  one  of  the  most  perfect  examples  of  condensation  combined 
with  lucidity  and  accuracy  with  which  I  am  acquainted.  I  have  more  than 
once  yielded  to  the  temptation  to  borrow  from  it. 


we  owe  nearly  all  the  information  which  we 
possess  concerning'  the  government  of  the  city 
during  the  Longobard  period.  From  these  Ave 
learn  that  Siena  was  not  subject  to  the  Dukes  of 
Tuscany,  but  formed  part  of  the  royal  patri- 
mony or  Jisciis,  and  was  administered  by  Gastaldi, 
one  of  whom,  a  certain  Warnefred — Magnificjis 
Waniefred  Castaldms  Senensis  Civitatis, — founded 
the  Abbey  of  S.  Eugenio,  Avhich  is  known  today 
as  il  Monistero.  In  the  quarrel  with  Arezzo, 
Gastaldi  and  citizens  alike  espoused  the  cause 
of  their  bishops,  and  the  uprising  of  the  whole 
Sienese  people  (Universiis  Senensis  Populus)  to 
t9,ke  vengeance  on  the  Aretines  (712)  seems  to 
point  to  a  nascent  sentiment  of  civic  unity. 

From  the  time  of  Charlemagne,  Siena  was 
ruled  by  Counts  of  Longobard  or  Frankish  race. 
Originally  their  jurisdiction  extended  from  the 
Val  di  Chiana  to  Monticiano,  and  from  Poggi- 
bonsi  to  San  Quirico  in  Osenna,  where  their 
contado  marched  with  that  of  Chiusi.  Thus  the 
Val  d'  Orcia  and  the  Val  di  ^lerse  were  outside 
the  Sienese  contado  which,  though  long,  was 
narrow,  and,  in  the  direction  of  the  Maremma, 
scarcely  passed  the  point  where  the  Arbia  joins 
the  Ombrone. 

About  the  middle  of  the  i  ith  century,  prob- 
ably between  the  years  1053  and  1056,  the  Em- 
peror Henry  III  granted  and  confirmed  to  John  II, 
Bishop    of    Siena,    many    rights    and    privileges 


such  as  the  possession,  among  other  places,  of 
the  Castellum  Vetus  (Castel  Vecchio),  the  oldest 
portion  of  the  city,  jurisdiction  over  those  who 
dwelt  on  the  episcopal  lands,  and  judicium  per 
pugnam  together  with  the  right  facere  mtinitiones 
in  omnibus  prosdictis  suce  Ecclesice,  ubicimique  necess- 
ariu7nfuerit,  and  that  free  from  interference  on  the 
part  of  any  Archbishop,  Bishop,  Duke,  Alargrave, 
Count,  Viscount  or  other  person  whatsoever. 

From  this  period  the  Sienese  prelates  pos- 
sessed temporal  as  Avell  as  spiritual  powers ;  and, 
in  the  course  of  the  next  fifty  years  they  succeed- 
ed in  ousting-  the  Counts  from  all  jurisdiction 
in  the  city  and  district,  although  these  latter 
still  continued  to  represent  the  Empire  more  or 
less  effectually  in  the  towns  of  the  contado. 

Thereafter,  in  the  first  half  of  the  12th  cen- 
tury, we  find  the  Bishops  and  the  Consuls  as- 
sociated in  the  government;  but,  by  this  tim.e, 
the  power  of  the  former  was  on  the  wane ;  and 
the  fate  of  Ranieri,  who  died  in  exile  in  1170, 
suffices  to  prove  how  completely  the  Sienese 
emancipated  themselves  from  ecclesiastical  rule. 

Already,  in  11 58,  the  Emperor  had  shown 
himself  favourably  disposed  towards  the  Com- 
mune, and  had  granted  fidelibus  nostris  Seuensibus, 
that  curious  privilegiiun  whereby  the  Counts  of 
Orgia  and  the  Seigniors  of  Orgiale  were  forbid- 
den cedijicare  aliquod  castellum  prope  civitatem  Senam 
usque  ad  duodecim  miliaria.        In   the    conflict   be- 

—   23   — 

tween  Barbarossa  and  the  Pope,  the  Sienese 
espoused  the  cause  of  the  former  and  the  au- 
thority of  the  Bishop  received  an  irreparable 
shock.  As  loyal  partisans  of  the  Emperor,  the 
Consuls  were  determined  to  compel  the  clergy 
to  transfer  their  allegiance  to  the  antipope,  and 
actually  went  so  far  as  to  imprison  certain  presbi- 
teros  meliores  civitatis  qiios  (says  Alexander,  in  a 
letter  written  from  Benevento  in  1168  or  1169) 
nos  cariores  habemiis.  No  diplomacy  could  pre- 
vent a  collision,  and  Bishop  Ranieri,  a  stanch 
adherent  of  the  Pope,  replied  to  the  violence  of 
the  consuls  by  pronouncing  the  anathema  of  the 
Church  against  them  and  against  their  principal 
partisans,  and  by  laying  Siena  and  its  suburbs 
under  an  interdict.  A  few  weeks  or  months 
later  he  was  compelled  to  flee  for  his  life,  never 
again  to  return  to  the  city  which  he  had  ruled 
for  forty  years.  The  age  of  a  government,  half 
feudal,  half  theocratic,  was  over,  and  the  greater, 
freer  and  grander  Imperial  or  Ghibelline  period 

Originally  the  government  of  Siena,  like 
that  of  every  other  Italian  commune,  was  essen- 
tially aristocratic.  Indeed  it  was,  perhaps,  more 
aristocratic  than  many  others  in  that  it  was  more 
deeply  impregnated  with  the  feudal  element. 
The  consuls  (of  whose  rule  we  have  documentary 
evidence  as  early  as   1125)  were  all  nobles,  and 

—    24    — 

the  order  of  Alagnati  or  Gentiluoinini  from  which 
they  were  chosen  was  perfectly  distinct  from 
the  merchants  and  artisans  who  formed  the  main 
body  of  the  citizens.  These  latter,  up  to  the 
middle  of  the  12th  century,  had  no  participation 
in  the  government  of  the  state ;  but  unfortunate- 
ly the  nobles  were  not  united,  and,  in  1147, 
their  dissentions  enabled  the  popolani,  or  lower 
classes,  to  enforce  their  claims  to  a  share  in  the 
public  offices.  The  consuls,  who  had  previously 
been  two  in  number,  were  increased  to  three 
by  the  admission  of  a  popolano,  and  at  the  same 
time  the  General  Council  was  reconstructed,  a 
gap  being  thus  made  in  the  barriers  of  class 
•privilege  which  was  destined  never  to  be  closed 

AVe  are  unable  to  fix  the  precise  date  of 
the  abolition  of  the  consulship;  but  the  institu- 
tion of  a  foreign  potesta  (a  form  of  government 
which  became  permanent  in  12  12)  gave  a  severe 
blow  to  the  elder  magistracy.  There  was,  how- 
ever, no  sudden  or  violent  chang'e,  and  for  some 
years  Consuls  and  Potesta  ruled  together,  the 
authority  of  the  latter  gradually  superseding 
that  of  the  former,  in  much  the  same  way  as, 
half  a  century  earlier,  the  power  of  the  Bishops 
had  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Consuls.  The 
constitution  of  the  Commune  Avas  sufficiently 
elastic  to  permit  of  tentative  arrangements,  and, 
as  late  as   1262,  a  rubric  was    still  to  be  found 

—   25   — 

in  the  Sienese  statutes  whereby  it  was  provided 
that  the  General  Council  should  decide  year  by 
year  whether  they  preferred  habere  potestate?n  sive 
consitles  (^). 

The  institution  of  the  potesta  forestiero  may 
probably  be  regarded  as  a  popular  victory,  since 
the  nobles  were  thereby  ousted  from  the  highest 
executive  and  judicial  office  in  the  gift  of  the 
Commune  ;  and,  in  this  connection,  it  is  interest- 
ing to  note  that  the  year  1 2 1 2  was  marked  by 
civic  tumult.  Then,  as  we  learn  from  the  chron- 
icles, "  St  Francis  of  Assisi  came  to  Siena,  and 
there  was  great  enmity  between  the  People 
and  the  nobles,  and  he  caused  peace  and  unity 
to  be  made  among  them  ".  According  to  the 
Fioretti,  blood  had  already  been  shed  when  the 
saint  intervened  to  stay  the  conflict.  It  would 
be,  perhaps,  too  hazardous  to  affirm  that  these 
dissentions  were  due  to  the  desire  of  the  Nobles 
to  reassume  their  old  consular  powers,  but  the 
coincidence  of  date  is  at  least  curious. 

From  this  period  the  triumph  of  the  de- 
mocracy was  merely  a  question  of  time.  Already, 
in  1209,  if  we  may  credit  Andrea  Dei,  were 
formed  the   Compagnie  pe7'  la    Citta  delle  Contrade, 

(1)  See  Constit.  del  C.  di  S.  Dist.  I  Ruhr.  135— A  similar  state  of 
afifairs  seems  to  have  existed  in  other  Communes.  Thus  in  Genoa  we  find 
the  consuls  binding  themselves  and  their  successors,  but  with  the  condition, 
"si  consules  tunc  fuerint  in  lanua"  fAttisoc.  lig.  I.  p.  325).  As  to  Pisa, 
see  G.  VoLPE,  Stiidi  sidle  Istituzioni  Comunali  a  Pisa,  Pisa,  Tip.  succes- 
sori  Fratelli  Nistri,   1902. 

—     26    - 

to  wit,  those  Societates  contratorum  or  armorum 
upon  which,  in  Siena  as  in  Bolog*na,  the  organ- 
ization of  the  People  rested;  while,  as  early 
as  12 13,  we  have  unimpeachable  testimony  of 
the  existence  of  a  Societas  Popiili  Senensis  which 
was  governed  by  three  Rectors.  In  an  instru- 
ment of  that  year,  drawn  and  attested  by  an 
imperial  notary,  these  officials  acknowledge  that 
they  have  received  from  the  Potesta  septemcen- 
tiini  libi-as  den.  Sen.  pro  facto  penarnni  turj'iiun. 
The  importance  of  this  document  can  hardly  be 
overrated,  since  it  demonstrates  that,  from  the  be- 
ginning of  the  13th  century,  the  People,  through 
their  representatives,  exercised  jurisdiction  over 
the  towers;  and  what  this  implies  we  realize 
when  we  recall  the  fact  that  the  towers  were 
the  special  glory  of  the  aristocracy,  and  that 
(as  Alalavolti  tells  us)  "  it  was  granted  to  many 
gentlemen  to  build  them  as  an  evidence  of  the 
splendour  and  nobility  of  their  families  ". 

In  Siena  the  problem  of  the  factions  is  a 
complex  one;  but,  in  the  13th  century,  the  strife 
between  them  was,  as  Professor  Zdekauer  re- 
marks, above  all  else  an  economic  strife.  In  the 
feudal  period  and,  in  fact,  during  the  whole  of 
the  time  during  which  the  nobles  dominated  the 
commune,  they  seem  to  have  enjoyed  immunity 
from  taxation,  and  it  was  only  when  the  People 
obtained  a  share  in  the  government  that  the 
magnati  were  at  last  compelled  to  bear  their  part 

—    27    — 

of  the  common  burden.  Moreover,  this  reform 
was  followed  by  another  of  almost  equal  impor- 
tance. The  first  method  of  direct  taxation  was 
a  duty  or  impost  pro  foculari  or  per  massaritiam, 
a  kind  of  family  or  hearth  tax  which  was  collect- 
ed impartially  from  rich  and  poor  alike.  A 
massaritia  apparently  consisted  of  a  minimum 
of  three  persons.  For  a  while  attempts  were 
made  to  obviate  the  injustice  of  this  tax  by 
varying  the  amount  exacted  according  to  the 
wealth  and  position  of  those  from  whom  it  was 
collected;  but,  as  time  went  on,  it  was  perceived 
that,  in  order  to  remedy  the  evil,  a  radical 
change  was  necessary.  The  new  system,  known 
by  the  name  of  the  Lira  or  Estwio,  was  based 
upon  the  principle  of  assessment,  each  individual 
being  taxed  according  to  the  declared  value  of 
his  property.  The  first  Lira  w^as  "  made  "  in 
iig8,  at  about  the  time  when  the  office  of  Po- 
testa  was  introduced  (^),  and  I  am  disposed  to 
believe  that  an  attentive  study  of  Sienese  history 
enables  us  to  discover  a  distinct  connection  be- 
tween the  successive  popular  victories  and  the 
various  extensions  of  the  Lira. 

In  the   1 2th  and  13th  centuries  there  was  a 
perpetual  influx   of   new    citizens   as  the   feudal 

(')  According  to  Malavolti,  the  first  Potesta  was  Orlando  Malapresa 
of  Lucca,  elected  in  June  1199  (Sienese  style)  ;  but,  as  early  as  1197,  in  a 
submission  of  Asciano,  we  find  a  record  of  that  office  as  well  as  of  the 

—    28    — 

seigniors  of  the  contado  were,  one  after  another, 
compelled  to  accept  the  overlordship  of  the  Com- 
mune; and,  after  the  year  1225,  it  was  required 
of  each  civis  novics,  as  a  condition  precedent  to 
his  admission  to  the  rights  and  privileges  of 
citizenship,  that  he  should  declare  the  quantity 
and  value  of  his  possessions  (bona  sua  omnia  al- 
libra7'e).  His  name  was  then  duly  registered  /;/ 
2ino  Hbro  ciini  tabnlis  among  the  cives  viaioi'es, 
viedioa-es  or  minores — a  classification  which,  if 
convenient  and  even  necessary  to  insure  equi- 
table taxation,  yet  served  to  taint  the  communal 
institutions  with  that  worst  and  most  invidious 
of  all  forms  of  class  distinction,  the  aristocracy 
of  mere  wealth  (nobilitas  divitiarum). 

The  new  social  standard,  thus  introduced, 
naturally  aroused  in  the  breasts  of  the  rich  popo- 
lani  a  desire  to  obtain  entrance  to  the  ranks  of 
the  viagnati.  The  Commune  interested  itself  in 
the  creation  of  knights,  contributing  towards 
their  expenses  out  of  the  public  purse,  and,  by 
admission  of  members  of  the  middle  class  to  an 
order  which  had  hitherto  been  open  only  to  the 
nobles,  did  much  to  modify  the  old  fundamental 
division  of  milites  and  popiilus  (^).     Nor  was  this 

(1)  The  Cavalieri  ftnilitesj  formed  a  class  apart ;  and,  although  thej- 
were  citizens,  were  governed  \>y  no  special  statute  (breve)  except  with  regard 
to  their  militarj'  duties.  In  their  relations  to  one  another  they  observed  the 
consueUidines  feudorum  as  far  as  the  Commune  would  permit  them  to  do 
so,  and  how  charj-,  at  first,  was  the  Commune  of  interfering  with  those 
customs  we  may  infer  from  the  fact  that  for  many  years  the  Potesta  swore 



Lombard!  photo. 

Palazzo  Pubblico 

the  worst.  By  their  loans  to  the  Commune,  the 
Arti  obtained  undue  influence  in  the  conduct  of 
public  affairs.  Money  became  the  criterion  of 
worth.  The  old  nobility  were  ruined  by  debt, 
and  the  commercial  spirit  so  far  prevailed  that 
even  the  vengeance  of  the  Republic  began  to 
take  a  pecuniary  form.  The  Memoriale  delle  offese 
was  the  natural  complement  of  the  Libro  dei 
Censi  (^). 

A  further  reform  in  the  government  was 
completed  between  1233  and  1240,  whereby  a 
new  magistracy  of  24  citizens  was  created,  which, 
from  the  number  of  its  members,  received  the 
name  of  the  CONSIGLIO  DEI  VENTIQUATTRO.      Ac- 

upon  taking  office:  Et pro  aliquo  vialeficio ,  quod  dominiis  fecerit  vel  cotnit- 
teret  in  villanum  vel  hominum  suum,  captione  vel  liberatione,  vel  quocumque 
modo  ipswn  offenderet,  eidem  domino  vel  alii  \qui\  pro  eo  faceret,  nullam 
penam  faciam  vel  dampnum  dabo.  (See  il  piic  aniico  ConstiUito  Senese — 
1262-1270— Distinction  V.  Rubric.  34).  The  Societas  militiim  possessed  its 
own  property  ;  nd  its  intercourse  with  the  Societas  Populi  was  regulated 
by  special  agreements  which  might  have  enabled  them  to  live  side  by  side 
without  too  much  friction,  had  not  the  milites,  by  holding  aloof  in  haughty 
contempt  of  mere  merchants  and  artisans,  taught  the  People  to  regard  them- 
selves as  the  true  representatives  of  the  entire  Commune.  Thus,  even  apart 
from  their  turbulence  and  tyranny,  the  magnati  had  from  the  first  sown  the 
seeds  of  their  own  subsequent  ruin. 

(')  The  Memoriale  delle  offese  (Memorialis  offensarumj  was  a  regis- 
ter wherein  were  officially  entered,  as  in  an  open  account,  all  the  injuries 
and  offences  suffered  by  the  commonwealth  at  the  hands  of  her  neighbours, 
to  the  end  that  they  might  be  repaid  in  due  season.  It  was  published  by 
L.  Banchi  in  the  Arch.  stor.  it..  Series  III,  vol.  XXII.  (1875)  pages  197-234- 
—The  Libro  dei  Censi  (Liber  Census  et  redditiium— the  "Book  of  Tributes,,) 
actually  forms  part  of  the  same  codex  as  the  Memoriale  delle  offese.  The 
introduction  to  the  former  has  been  printed  by  Professor  L.  Zdekauer,  in 
an  appendix  to  his   Vita  pubblica  dei  Setiesi  net  dugento. 

cording  to  the  best  opinion,  it  consisted  of  twelve 
nobles  and  twelve  popolajii.  Frankly  devoted  to 
the  imperial  cause,  this  council  proclaimed  its 
political  creed  in  its  title,  XXIIIL^^'  partis  Ghibcl- 
line  popiili  civitatis  et  coinitatus  senariim ;  and  the 
popolayii,  finding  it  eminently  adapted  to  assist 
them  in  the  attainment  of  their  ends,  endeavoured 
in  every  w^ay  to  augment  its  powers  and  to 
render  it  independent  and  supreme. 

Under  its  protection  they  provided  them- 
selves with  an  official  head  in  the  person  of  the 
so  called  Capitano  del  Popolo —  Capitanetis  popidi  et 
comunis  (a  magistracy  which,  according"  to  An- 
drea Dei,  was  established  in  1253),  and  then 
created  a  council  of  their  own,  the  Consilium 
Generate  Capitanei  et  Popicli.  Here  they  enacted 
law^s  which,  although  at  first  only  binding  upon 
members  of  the  Societas  Popidi,  were  in  the  course 
of  a  few  decades  imposed  upon  the  Commune. 
Thus  the  People  became  a  separate  and  indepen- 
dent political  party  with  full  consciousness  of 
its  ultimate  aims  and  of  the  means  by  which 
those  aims  were  to  be  attained.  In  1255  it  set 
up  its  own  bell,  on  the  pretext  that  the  bell  of 
the  Commune  was  not  loud  enough — aim  cam- 
pana  Comunis  non  bene  aiidiatur;  and,  in  a  docu- 
ment of  the  period,  we  read  of  2tniim  sigillum 
Populi  Se7iaruin  de  octone  in  quo  est  quidam  Leo 
desingnatus  ctini  croce  in  capite.  This  was  the  same 
lion  which,  if  the  legend  is  to  be  believed,  the. 

_  31    — 

Emperor  Otho  gave  to  the  People  as  their  device 
in  1209,  and  which  we  still  see  blazoned  about 
Siena.  The  book  containing  "  the  Ordinances 
of  the  People  and  the  names  of  the  men  who 
are  included  in  the  Sienese  People  "  was  copei'his 
de  corio  riibeo,  et  uno  Leone  biillariim  czivi  croce 
bullarum  in  capite  desingnatus ;  while,  in  1264,  a 
certain  Ventura  di  Gualtieri  was  condemned  to 
pay  a  fine  of  35  lire  because  he  had  painted 
upon  a  shield  the  figure  of  a  lion  standing  over 
a  prostrate  she-wolf  whose  bleeding  face  he  tore 
with  his  claws,  an  all  too  obvious  emblem  of  the 
approaching  subjection  of  the  Commune  to  the 
democratic  element. 

During  the  rule  of  the  nobles  and  the  mixed 
rule  of  the  nobles  and  popolani,  Siena  was  en- 
gaged in  a  succession  of  petty  wars  with  the  feudal 
seigniors  of  her  contado  (Scialenghi,  Aldobrande- 
schi,  Pannocchieschi,  Visconti  di  Campiglia,  &c.) 
who,  one  after  another,  were  compelled  to  make 
submission  to  the  Commune ;  while,  during  the 
greater  part  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  she 
w^as  perpetually  embroiled  with  Florence. 

vSiena  was  Ghibelline,  Florence  Guelf ;  either 
in  the  absence  of  the  other  might  well  have  dom- 
inated all  Tuscany;  each  had  need  of  expansion, 
and  their  frontier  lines  were  doubtful. 

During  the  protracted  hostilities  which  this 
state  of  things  naturally  produced,  the  arms  of 

Florence  were  generally  successful,  and  Siena, 
overmatched  and  overborne,  was  content  for  the 
most  part  to  stand  on  the  defensive,  so  that  it 
could  be  truthfully  said  of  her,  after  a  victory, 
inde  triiimphasti  pacevi  quia  semper  amasti. 

"With  the  instinct  of  a  people  born  to  great 
destinies,  the  Florentines  lost  no  opportunity  of 
thwarting  and  crippling  the  rival  commune ;  and 
the  latter,  fearing  to  be  hemmed  in,  in  the  di- 
rection of  Montepulciano,  and  so  menaced  at  once 
both  on  the  front  and  on  the  rear,  put  forth  all 
her  strength  to  preserve  that  lofty  frontier  city, 
the  key  of  the  Val  di  Chiana,  together  Avith  the 
towns  of  Poggibonsi  and  of  Montalcino.  From 
Poggibonsi  she  might  hope  to  arrest,  at  the 
mouth  of  her  defiles,  the  advance  of  the  enemy 
by  the  way  of  the  Val  d'  Elsa ;  while  from  Mon- 
talcino she  was  able  to  dominate  the  Alaremma, 
to  guard  against  invasion  from  the  direction  of 
Montieri  and  Volterra,  and  to  prevent  herself 
from  being  cut  off  from  her  natural  ally,  imperial 
Pisa.  But  the  enmity  of  Florence  was  tireless 
and  implacable,  and,  not  content  with  open  hos- 
tilities, she  intrigued  perpetually,  fomenting  dis- 
cord and  rebellion  among  the  tributary  com- 
munes and  vassals  of  the  contado.  As  early  as 
1 174,  the  bloody  victory  of  Asciano  enabled  her 
to  dictate  the  harshest  terms  to  her  well  nigh 
ruined  neighbour,  while  in  1203,  the  iniquitous 
arbitrament  of  Ogerio  pushed  her  frontiers  south- 

—  33   — 
ward    as    far    as    the    Staggia,    and    Siena    was 
forced  to  build  the  two  strong  fortresses  of  Mon- 
tereggioni  and  Querciagrossa  to  guard  her  new 

With  Florence  was  united  Orvieto,  and  the 
Sienese  territory  was  horribly  devastated,  the 
insolent  invaders  extending  their  inroads  up  to 
the  very  gates  of  the  city,  and  hurling  from 
their  mangonels  asses  "  e  altra  bruttura  "  over 
the  walls.  In  1230,  they  actually  burst  through 
the  Porta  Camollia  and  penetrated  into  the  towm 
as  far  as  S.  Pietro  alia  Magione  ;  the  Count 
Alberto  di  Mangone  hung  his  shield  upon  the 
gate  in  token  of  victory ;  and,  says  the  Florentine 
chronicler,  "  had  they  not  been  pitiful  they  might 
have  destroyed  all  Siena  with  fire  and  sword  ". 

Montepulciano  andMontalcino  were  lost,  and 
the  Aldobrandeschi  divided  in  their  allegiance. 
It  appeared  that  Siena  Avas  doomed  to  destruc- 
tion. She  was  surrounded  on  every  side  and 
clutched,  as  it  were,  in  the  claws  of  her  relentless 
enemy,  at  last,  it  seemed,  secure  of  her  prey. 
But  the  indomitable  Ghibelline  city  was  not  dis- 
mayed. She  turned  in  the  hour  of  her  need  to 
the  blond  and  beautiful  knight  Manfred  (^),  and, 
animated  by  the  most  ardent  courage,  gathered 
all  her  forces  for  the  final  struggle.     The  great 

Biondo  era  e  bello,  e  di  gentile  aspetto. 

Piugatorio  III.   107. 

—  34  -- 
day  of  Montaperto  (4.  Sept.  1260)  saw  the  haughty 
Florence  humbled  in  the  dust  and  her  ancient 
people  "  broken  and  brought  to  naught  ".  The 
flower  of  her  army  perished  on  the  field  of  battle 
or  were  led  captive  by  the  victors;  while  so 
great  was  the  consternation  of  the  fugitives  that 
they  abandoned  all  hope  of  further  resistance 
and  voluntarily  exiled  themselves  from  their  na- 
tive city. 

For  the  moment  the  Guelf  cause  seemed 
lost,  and  Siena  was  supreme  in  Tuscany.  Yet, 
as  the  event  proved,  she  had  conquered  little 
more  than  the  right  to  live,  for  scarcely,  after 
more  than  a  century  of  conflict,  had  she  planted 
her  heel  upon  the  neck  of  her  enemy,  than  the 
wheel  of  Fortune  spun  round,  and  the  death  of 
INIanfred  changed  the  whole  aspect  of  affairs. 
The  high  hopes  of  the  victors  were  buried  Avith 
their  suzerain  beneath  the  g?'ave  mora  at  the 
bridge-head  of  Benevento  ;  the  battle  of  Colle 
ruined  the  Ghibellines;  and  Siena  herself  became 

During  the  decade  which  followed  the  Battle 
of  Alontaperto  the  march  of  events  was  rapid. 
On  the  8th  September  Montalcino  submitted  and 
humbly  sued  for  pardon  ;  on  the  13th  the  Guelfs 
fled  from  Florence,  and  on  the  i6th  the  Count 
Giordano,  the  vicar  of  king  Alanfred,  together 
with  the  Count  Guido  Novello  and  the  Ghibel- 

—  35  — 
line  fuorusciti,  entered  the  city.  In  December 
Pistoia  made  her  peace  with  the  victors  ;  the 
following  July  IMontepulciano  surrendered  and 
received  a  Sienese  Potesta ;  only  Arezzo  and 
Lucca  remained  faithful  to  the  Guelf  cause ;  and  of 
these  the  former  was  compelled  to  yield  in  1262, 
the  latter  in  1264.  With  the  accession  of  Lucca 
to  the  Ghibelline  league  the  Florentine  exiles 
lost  their  last  refuge  in  Tuscany,  and  fled  across 
the  Apennines  to  Bologna,  where,  says  Villani, 
"  they  abode  in  much  discomfort  and  penury  ". 
Thus  the  Ghibelline  arms  were  everywhere 
successful  when  the  landing  of  Charles  of  Anjou 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber  (May  1265)  and  the 
decisive  victory  of  Benevento  (26  February  1266) 
revivified,  in  a  moment,  the  apparently  moribund 
Guelf  party.  In  November,  the  always  cowardly 
Count  Guido  Novello  (^)  fled  from  Florence,  which 
was  thenceforth  lost  to  the  Ghibellines ;  and, 
in  the  following  year,  Lucca,  Pistoia,  Volterra, 
Prato,  San  Gimignano  and  Colle  di  Val  d'  Elsa 
joined  the  Guelf  league  or  tagHa  under  the  com- 
mand of  Philip  de  Montfort,  whom  Charles  had 
sent  to  Tuscany  with  800  French  men-at-arms. 
Pisa  and  Siena  alone  remained  Ghibelline,  and 

(')  I  am  not,  I  trust,  unjustly  blackening  the  memorj' of  this  prudent 
gentleman.  We  shall  see  him  again  spurring  hard  out  of  the  rout  of  Colle; 
while  ten  years  later,  at  the  Battle  of  Campaldino,  it  is  recorded  in  the 
chronicle  of  Dino  Compagni  that  "  il  Conte  Guido  non  aspetto  il  fine,  ma 
sanza  dare  colpo  di  spada  si  parti  ". 

.      -  36  -- 

all  their  hopes  were  centred  on  the  youthful  Cor- 
radino  whom  they  earnestly  besought  to  come 
to  their  assistance.  Xor  did  they  plead  to  deaf 
ears.  In  October  1267  he  arrived  at  Verona 
with  3000  men-at-arms  and  a  considerable  body 
of  footsoldiers  ;  in  January,  1268,  he  entered  Pa- 
Aia ;  in  April  he  was  at  Pisa,  and  thence  he 
advanced  to  Siena,  there  to  be  welcomed  with 
the  Avildest  enthusiasm.  Poggibonsi  flung  off 
the  Florentine  yoke,  and  other  towns  prepared 
to  follow  her  example  ;  five  hundred  French 
men-at-arms  fell  into  an  ambush  at  Ponte  a  Valle, 
and  such  of  them  as  were  not  cut  to  pieces  were 
led  captive  to  Siena ;  while  to  the  southward 
the  newly  acquired  kingdom  of  the  Angevin 
blazed  out  into  rebellion. 

But  the  exultation  of  the  Ghibellines  was 
soon  to  be  turned  to  mourning  by  the  fatal  day 
of  Tagliacozzo,  and  by  the  tragic  end  of  Corra- 
dino,  two  months  later,  on  the  Piazza  del  Mercato 
at  Naples  (29  Oct.  1268).  For  more  than  a  year 
Siena  remained  faithful  to  a  lost  cause,  and  car- 
ried on  a  well  nigh  hopeless  struggle  against 
overwhelming  odds.  One  after  another  the  towns 
and  castles  of  her  contado  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  Guelf  exiles,  who  made  their  head-quarters  at 
Colle  di  Val  d'  Elsa,  and  soon  became  so  bold 
that  they  pushed  their  incursions  even  to  the 
walls  of  the  city. 

Such  a  state  of  things  was  intolerable,  and, 

—  37  - 
on  the  8th  June  1269,  the  Sienese  marched  out 
of  the  Porta  Camollia  under  the  command  of 
Provenzano  Salvani  (').  They  were  reinforced  by 
some  Pisan  levies,  and  by  the  Count  Guido  No- 
vello  with  a  body  of  Florentine  Ghibellines  and 
German  men-at-arms  who  had  escaped  from  the 
rout  of  Tagliacozzo.  In  all,  the  army  consisted 
of   1400  cavalry  and  8000  footsoldiers. 

The  allies  drew  near  to  Colle  on  its  eastern 
side  and  pitched  their  camp  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  Badia  a  Spugna,  which  is  situated  on  the 
left  bank  of  the  Elsa  and  quite  close  to  Colle- 

The  news  of  their  advance  reached  Florence 
on  the  night  of  the  gth  June,  and  to  such  good 
purpose  did  the  vicar  of  Charles  of  Anjou  bestir 
himself  that  he  was  able  to  set  out  the  next 
morning  with  800  men-at-arms,  leaving  orders 
for  the  infantry  to  follow  with  all  possible  speed. 
The  road  was  long  and  hilly,  but  he  reached 
Colle  the  same  evening.  The  Sienese  do  not 
appear  to  have  made  any  attempt  to  intercept 
him;  but,  on  the  morning  of  the  nth  they  re- 
solved to  march  round  the  western  end  of  the 
town  and  to  take  up  a  stronger  position  on  the 
level  ground  about  S.  Andrea  delle  Grazie,  some 
half  a  mile  to  the  south  of  Colle-alto;  and  this 
movement    they    commenced    with    the    utmost 

(')  Mentioned  by  Dante  in  Purgatorio  XI. 


possible  confidence,  doubtless  believing  that  the 
enemy  were  as  yet  too  few  to  venture  an  attack. 
Unfortunately  the  Guelfs  were  captained  by  an 
experienced  soldier  who  knew  how  to  seize  his 
opportunities,  and,  while  the  Sienese  were  strag- 
gling through  the  Valle  Buona,  secure  in  their 
superior  numbers,  he  suddenly  sallied  forth  and, 
charging  over  the  bridge  which  spans  the  Elsa 
below  the  Badia  a  Spugna,  fell  upon  their  left 
flank.  The  result  justified  his  generalship  and 
they  were  routed  with  great  slaughter.  Com- 
paratively few  prisoners  were  taken,  for  the 
memory  of  ]\Iontaperto  made  the  victors  pitiless. 
Among  the  dead  was  Provenzano  Salvani.  He 
was,  it  would  seem,  taken  prisoner  and  killed 
in  cold  blood  by  Misser  Cavolino  Tolomei  who 
thus  revenged  an  ancient  grudge.  The  head  of 
the  great  Ghibelline  was  cut  off  and  stuck  upon 
the  shaft  of  a  spear  and  carried  through  the 
streets  of  Colle.  As  usual,  the  Count  Guido 
Xovello  saved  himself  by  flight. 

Exulting  in  the  triumph  of  his  faction,  a 
Lucchese  chronicler  write?,'.  Devicti  simt  Seiieiises, 
et  viaxima  strages  de  eis  est  facta,  et  viulti  sunt 
ibidem  in  bello  mortui,  miUtique  capti,  sed  pi-aecipne 
Senenses  et  Theutonici,  qui  sic  sunt  ex  tunc  iii  Thuscia 
extirpati,  quod  usque  ad  tempora  praesentia  nulla  de 
ipsis  Jit  vientio,   quantum  ad  bella. 

This  was  the  battle  whereon  Sapia  looked, 
praying  for  the  defeat  of  her  fellow  citizens,  and 

—  39  — 
rejoicing  in  their  flight  with  a  joy  so  great  and 
satisfying  that,  while  yet  the  victors  hacked 
among  the  fugitives,  she  cried  aloud  to  the 
Almighty,  "  Omai  piic  non  ti  tenio — Henceforth, 
O  God,  I  fear  thee  not  "  (^). 

For  a  few  months  longer  Siena  continued 
to  resist.  In  October  military  operations  were 
stopped  by  torrential  rains  and  she  obtained 
a  short  breathing  space  which  she  utilized  to 
prepare  for  a  seige,  to  obtain  supplies  and  to 
wall  up  many  of  the  gates  (^).  But  the  death 
of  Provenzano  Salvani  had  deprived  the  People 
and  the  Ghibellines  of  the  only  leader  who  could 
have  steered  the  ship  of  state  through  such  tem- 
pestuous seas.  Ipse  rector,  ipse  gubernator,  he  had 
been  the  heart  and  soul  of  the  Parte  Ghibellina, 
in  the  days  of  vSiena's  greatest  triumphs  (^),  with 

i')  Pitrgatorio  XIII. 

('^)  See  page  4  supra. 

(3)  "  Provenzano  Salvani...  che  fu  1' anima  nella  lotta  del  Popolo 
contro  i  Signori,  e  dei  XXIIII,  per  la  parte  del  Popolo  " — L.  Zdekauer, 
La   Vita  Ptibblica  dei  Senesi  nel  Dugento,  pag.  78. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  that,  in  one  of  the  most 
ancient  of  Italian  political  poems,  attributed  by  Celso  Cittadini  to  the  year 
1262,  and  written  by  a  Sienese,  the  following  words  are  put  into  the  mouth 
of  the  great  Ghibelline.  He  is  speaking  of  Siena.  His  interlocutor,  Rugieri, 
is  alarmed  at  the  departure  of  the  Guelfs  to  Radicofani  (Dec.  1261),  and 
fearful  of  the  enmity  of  the  Pope. 

Rugieri,  or  ti  konforta 

Ed  abi  giuoko  et  riso 

Gieso  Cristo  la  tiene  et  porta, 

Da  lliei  non  e  diviso  ; 

Lo  franko  popolo  accieso 

La  porra  in  altura, 

Siena,  cio  m'  e  viso, 

Citta  di  natura  ! 

—   40   — 

him  "  Toscana  sono  tutta  ",  and  he  left  no  suc- 

In  the  spring  the  Guelfs  again  took  the  field, 
and  advanced  to  il  Monistero,  a  scant  mile  from 
the  Avails.  Thence  they  dictated  terms  of  peace. 
On  the  15th  August  the  Ghibellines  of  Florence 
left  Siena,  even  as  six  short  years  before  the 
Florentine  Guelfs  had  departed  from  Lucca.  The 
Government  was  reformed  by  the  addition  of 
twelve  boni  homines  to  the  Twenty-four,  the  ncAV 
magistracy  being  called  the  Triginta  sex  Gitberna- 
tores  Civitatis  et  Comunis  Sejiensis,  and  for  it  both 
popolari  and  nobili  were  eligible. 

What  folloAved  is  thus  succinctly  recorded 
by  Andrea  Dei  :  "  The  Guelfs  did  not  keep  the 
peace;  and  the  Ghibellines  departed  from  vSiena  ". 
And,  in  fact,  that  is  about  all  that  any  of  the 
chroniclers  tell  us.  The  result  was  war  in  the 
contado  and  disquiet  in  the  city.  In  1270  many 
Ghibelline  palaces  were  destroyed.  The  Potesta 
swore  destruere  et  destrui  facei'e  radicibics  palathun 
et  tiuTim  et  Casamentum  filiorum  Salvani  et  filioriim 
P7'ovenzani.  Charles  of  Anjou  wrote  to  urge 
on  the  work  of  destruction.  In  1273  he  visited 
Siena ;  and,  in  the  same  year,  the  papal  interdict 

Christ  and  the  Free  People.  What  better  champions  could  Siena 
have  ? — See  the  Rime  antiche  senesi  trovate  da  E.  Molteni  e  illusti-ate  da 
V.  de  Bai-tholomoeis  published  b\-  the  "  Societa  Filologica  Romana  "  (Roma, 
presso  la  Societa,  1902)  page  28. 

—   41    — 

was  removed  amid  great  public  rejoicings.  Siena 
had  been  excommunicated  since   1260. 

Thus  did  the  imperial  city  forget  her  ancient^ 
faith  to  follow  after  strange  gods  ;  and  it  has 
been  said  with  some  truth  that  this  change  "  was 
little  less  than  suicide  ;  she  might  lead  the  Ghi- 
bellines,  but  in  the  Gueliic  party  she  could  only 
sit  below  the  salt ". 

It  is  a  fascinating  subject  for  conjecture 
what  the  result  would  have  been  had  vSiena  re- 
mained faithful.  She  might  have  joined  hands 
with  the  great  Ghibelline  Bishop,  Guglielmo 
degli  Ubertini,  and  Campaldino  might  have  had 
another  issue.  She  and  Arezzo  might  have  done 
much  to  save  Pisa  from  ruin,  and  the  hegemony 
of  Florence  might  have  been  delayed.  That  it 
could  have  been  altogether  averted  is  hardly  pos- 
sible. Wealth,  then  as  noAv,  formed  the  sinews 
of  war  and  the  commercial  supremacy  of  Florence 
was  already  well  nigh  assured.  To  say  nothing 
of  the  disabilities  under  which,  through  lack  of 
water,  the  Arte  della  Lana  laboured  in  Siena, 
the  Sienese  were  already  being  rapidly  sur- 
passed in  every  branch  of  mercantile  enterprise. 
In  the  first  half  of  the  century  they  had,  it  is 
true,  held  the  foremost  place,  and  the  Grande 
Tavola,  or  Tabula  de  Sena,  was  still  a  name  to 
conjure  Avith  both  in  Italy  and  beyond  the  Alps ; 
but  a  large  part  of  their  success  had  been  due 
to  the  fact  that   they   had   possessed  an  almost 

—   4-    — 

complete  monopoly  of  the  papal  business,  and 
as  campsores  dominipp.  had  enjoyed  unprecedented 
advantages.  These  they  lost  by  their  loyalty  to 
Manfred  ;  and  thus,  in  a  sense,  the  victory  of 
Montaperto  may  be  said  to  have  ruined  Siena. 
The  Pope  not  only  excommunicated  her,  but 
transferred  much  of  his  business  to  the  Floren- 
tine Guelfs  ;  and  before  many  years  were  over 
Siena  was  doomed  to  see  herself  outstripped  by 
her  ancient  rival.  Under  these  circumstances, 
alliance  with  Florence  and  reconciliation  with 
the  Pope  doubtless  recommended  itself  strongly 
to  the  Sienese  merchants;  and  that  alliance  and 
reconciliation  could  only  be  obtained  by  a  change 
of  political  faith. 

This  change,  as  I  have  shown,  took  place 
in  1270,  and  it  was  followed,  in  1277,  by  a  great 
popular  revolution  which  definitely  started  the 
Commune  upon  its  dismal  journey  towards  the 
depths  of  democracy. 

Although  the  nobles  had  been  compelled  to 
acquiesce  in  a  diminished  authority,  and  to  see 
the  representatives  of  the  People  associated  with 
them  in  the  supreme  offices  of  the  state,  their 
acceptance  of  the  new  regime  had  never  been 
loyal,  and  they  only  awaited  a  favourable  oppor- 
tunity to  recover  the  ground  which  they  had 
lost.  Such  an  opportunity  appeared  to  be  offered 
them  in  the  events  which  followed  the  battle  of 

—  43  — 
Colle.  The  Twenty-four  had  fallen,  and  the 
popular  cause  had  sustained  a  heavy  blow  in 
the  death  of  Provenzano  Salvani.  Charles  of 
Anjou  was  no  friend  of  the  People,  and  openly 
favoured  the  great  Guelf  houses.  It  was  a  period 
full  of  tumult  and  uncertainty.  Might  not  the  old 
consular  families  turn  the  Guelf  victory  to  their 
own  advantage  and  make  themselves  predom- 
inant in  the  party  ?  At  first  it  seemed  that 
fortune  favoured  their  designs  and,  anticipating 
an  easy  triumph,  they  refused  to  obey  the  laws 
and  conducted  themselves  with  the  utmost  vio- 
lence. Their  palaces  in  the  city  and  their  castles 
in  the  contado  were  filled  with  assassins  and 
bravoes;  they  outraged  and  insulted  the  popolajii ; 
they  set  the  officers  of  justice  at  defiance,  and 
at  last,  in  August  1276,  even  ventured  to  attack 
the  chief  executive  officer  of  the  Commune. 

It  was  evening,  and  the  household  of  the 
Potesta  were  passing  through  the  Strada  di  Ca- 
mellia, whither  they  had  come  to  arrest  certain 
retainers  of  the  Salimbeni.  These  refused  to 
surrender  and,  after  a  short  scuffle,  took  refuge 
in  the  palace  of  their  patron  (now  the  Monte 
de'  Paschi).  Hearing  the  uproar  misser  Notto 
Salimbeni  rushed  out  with  more  of  his  follow- 
ers, and,  in  the  fight  which  ensued,  was  wounded 
in  the  leg.  On  the  following  day,  when  the 
household  of  the  Potesta  again  passed  that  way, 
they  were  assailed  by  the  creatures  of  the  Salim- 

—  44  — 
beni,  and  a  kinsman  of  the  Potesta  was  slain. 
A  great  part  of  the  city  rose  in  arms,  but  mis- 
ser  Notto,  notwithstanding  his  wound,  put  himself 
at  the  head  of  his  retainers  and  went  to  the  palace 
of  the  Ugurgieri,  where  the  Potesta  lodged,  to 
burn  it  Avith  fire  and  him  therein.  The  Forte- 
guerri  and  the  Incontri  interposed  to  keep  the 
peace,  but  the  Salimbeni  were  joined  by  other 
nobles,  and,  although  the  People  rose  in  defence 
of  the  Potesta,  he  was  besieged  for  tv/o  days, 
until  the  Forteguerri  and  "  the  Grandi  and  Popolo 
of  the  Terzo  di  Citta  "  succeded  in  conducting 
him  in  safety  to  the  Palazzo  degli  Alessi,  where 
he  dwelt  for  the  remainder  of  his  term  of  office. 
It  seems,  however,  that  he  was  unable  to  bring 
the  vSalimbeni  to  justice  (^). 

(')  I  apprehend  that  in  these  events  we  ma}-  find  an  example  of  that 
more  or  less  open  antagonism  which,  throughout  the  13th  and  14th  centuries, 
existed  between  the  three  Terzi  of  the  city — an  antagonism  which  the  stu- 
dent of  Sienese  history  can  by  no  means  afford  to  forget,  since  in  it  we 
find  an  explanation  of  many  facts  which  would  otherwise  prove  incomprehen- 

Originally  Siena  seems  to  have  consisted  of  three  separate  fortresses. 
To  the  north  was  that  of  Caniollia  ;  to  the  south-west  was  Castel  Vecchio 
or  (as  it  is  called  in  at  least  one  document  of  the  nth  centurjO  Castel  Senio  ; 
and  to  the  south-east  the  Castello  di  Val  di  Montone.  And  herein,  if  we 
may  credit  the  old  writers,  we  discover  the  reason  why,  in  Latin,  Siena  was 
spoken  of  in  the  plural  number,  Senae,  Senariim. 

According  to  the  legend  of  the  Origin  of  the  City,  the  rivalrj-  between 
these  fortresses  began  at  a  ver}-  early  date  ;  and  it  is  said  that  tne  Arms  of 
the  Commune,  the  part3--coloured  shield  known  as  the  Balzana,  owes  its 
origin  to  a  portent  which  occurred  at  their  first  reconciliation.  Peace  had 
been  made  and  the  magistrates  were  sacrificing  to  Apollo  and  to  Diana  in 
what  is  now  the  Piazza  del  Campo,  when  from  the  one  altar  arose  a  very 
black  smoke,  from  the  other  a  smoke  of  singular  whiteness,  and,  instead  of 
mingling,  the  two  columns  floated  away  side  by  side,  the  white  one  upper- 

—  45  — 

As  a  result  of  these  disorders  it  was  deter- 
mined to  exclude  the  nobles  from  the  Supreme 
Magistracy  for  all  time,  and  in  the  Consiglio 
Generale  della  Campana  of  28  May  1277,  it  was 
resolved  that  the  thirty-six  should  be  elected 
de  bonis  et  legalibus  ^nercatoribus  et  amatoribus  partis 
guelfe,  and  that  among  their  number  should  not 
be  included  aliqitis  de  casatis. 

This  exclusion  of  the  nobles  from  the  gov- 
ernment and  from  the  general  body  of  the 
citizens  had  the  effect  of  converting  them  from 

most.  This  the  citizens  accepted  as  a  message  from  the  gods,  and  accord- 
ingly they  assumed  the  Balzana  as  the  device  of  the  now  united  city. 

The  three  Terzi,  however,  remained  in  many  respects  separate  com- 
munities. Each  had  its  own  organization,  civil,  military  and  economic.  The 
number  of  the  Supreme  Magistracy  of  the  Republic,  from  the  time  of  the 
consuls  onwards,  will  be  found  to  be  nearly  always  a  multiple  of  three — 
24,  36,  15,  9,  18  and  so  forth — and  it  was,  as  a  rule,  composed  of  an  equal 
number  of  citizens  taken  from  each  Terzo ;  while,  in  the  Constihito  del 
Comiine  of  1262,  it  was  provided  that  "  si  contigerit  potestatem  Senensem 
stetisse  vel  habitasse  in  uno  ter^erio  civitatis  per  annum,  non  debeat  eius 
successor  in  eodem  ter9erio  habitare,  nisi  duobus  annis  mediantibus  ",  (I.  211). 
And  all  this  was  necessary  because  the  interests  of  the  three  Terzi  were 
often  opposed,  although,  as  a  rule,  in  all  cases  of  discord,  the  Te^-zi  of  Ca- 
mollia  and  of  San  Martino  were  leagued  together  against  that  of  the  City. 
Even  in  their  games  of  Pugna  and  of  Elmora  this  alliance  was  maintained. 
(See  chap.  Ill  of  my  Our  Lady  of  August  and  the  Palio  of  Siena) . 

And  now,  having  prefaced  thus  much  concerning  the  Terzi,  we  may 
consider  the  tumults  of  1276  in  reference  to  those  facts. 

The  Salimbeni,  as  we  have  seen,  resided  in  the  Terzo  di  Camollia. 
The  palace  of  the  Ugurgieri  was  in  the  Terzo  di  San  Martino,  in  an  angle 
of  the  city  behind  the  church  of  S.  Vigilio.  The  Incontri  and  the  Alessi 
belonged  to  the  Terzo  di  Cittd,  and  those  who  came  to  the  rescue  of  the 
Potesta  were,  as  Andrea  Dei  informs  us  (Cronaca  Sanese  in  Muratori  ad 
anjium)  "  e  Grandi  e'l  Popolo  del  Terzo  di  Citta  ".  Thus  we  see  that  the 
Terzo  di  San  Martino  and  the  Terzo  di  Camollia  were  opposed  to  the 
Terzo  di  Cittd  which  alone  defended  the  Potesta. 

—  4^  — 
thenceforward  into  a  separate  caste,  an  aggrega- 
tion of  casate  united  together  by  the  same  inter- 
ests, traditions,  prejudices  and  offences.  Thus 
was  born  the  first  of  those  political  and  social 
divisions  which,  in  Siena,  were  afterwards  called 
Monti;  the  old  consular  families  who  were  now 
excluded  from  office  forming,  together  with 
their  descendants,  the  Ordine  <?r  vionte  dei  Gen- 
tiluoinini  (^). 

And  here  it  is  important  to  note  (what  I  shall 
have  occasion  to  refer  to  at  greater  length  here- 
after) that  the  People — la  meza  gente,  the  middle 
class — which  had  thus  made  itself  master  of  the 
state,  was  b}^  no  means  synonymous  with  the 
proletariat,  "  the  mutable  rank-scented  many  " 
of  Shakespeare's  Coriolanus.  It  did  not  even 
include  the  smaller  tradesmen.  The  ruling  oli- 
garchy up  to  the  middle  of  the  14th  century 
was,  in  fact,  as  exclusive  of  the  masses  as  it  was 
of  the  nobles.  Under  its  regime  the  Arte  dei 
Mercanti  properly    so    called,  that    is   to  say  the 

(')  The  casate  excluded  from  the  Government  bj-  the  resolution  of 
1277   were  the  following:  — 

Terzo  di  Citta — Baroncelli,  Bostoli,  Incontrati,  Forteguerri  and  An- 
tolini,  Mazenghi,  Mainetti,  Marescotti,  Incontri,  GoUi,  Alessi,  Martinelli, 
Codennacci,  Montecchiesi,  Scotti,  Gregori,  Saracini. 

Terzo  di  S.  Martixo — Mignanelli,  Trombetti,  Sansedoni  and  Anco- 
nitani,  Gherardini  and  Gottoli,  Ugurgeri,  Maconi  and  Abrami,  Renaldini, 
Piccolomini,  Ragnoni,  Guastelloni,  Ulivieri,  Arzocchi,  Pagliaresi,  Cauli. 

Terzo  di  Camollia — Tolomei,  Gallerani,  Barbotti,  Accarigi,  Albizi, 
Provcnzani  and  Salvani,  Buonsignori,  Ressi,  Salimbeni,  Viviani  and  Sara- 
cini, Ponzi,  Montanini,  Bulgarini,  Malavolti,  Rustichetti,  Paganucci,  Selvo- 
lesi,  Gazzanctti,  Paparoni  Bandinelli  and  Cerretani,  Senali  and  Ubertini. 

—   47    —     ^ 

bankers  and  the  great  importers  and  exporters, 
together  with  the  Ai'te  della  Lana,  retained  all 
or  almost  all  the  power  in  their  own  hands. 
In  a  word,  it  was  an  aristocracy  of  wealth,  a 
government  of  merchant  princes — boni  et  legales 
mercatores  (^). 

In  the  year  1280  there  were  fresh  tumults. 
The  law  excluding  the  nobles  from  the  supreme 
magistracy  was  confirmed,  and  its  numbers  were 
reduced  from  36  to  15,  with  the  title  of  the 
Quindici  Governatori  e  Difensori  della  Repubblica  di 

The  first  care  of  the  new  magistracy  was 
to  conclude  peace  with  the  rebels,  in  which  they 
were  assisted  by  the  Cardinal  Legate,  and  on 
the  29th  September  many  of  the  nobles  gave 
their  adherence  to  the  new  regime.  Moreover, 
it  was  decreed  that  the  names  Guelf  and  Ghibel- 

(')  In  view  of  the  inaccurate  statements  recently  made  by  two  lady 
writers  with  regard  to  the  character  of  this  magistracy,  I  am  tempted  to 
emphasize  the  above  remarks  by  the  following  quotation  from  Mr.  J.  A. 
Sj-monds' ^^^  of  the  Despots  (edition  of  1880,  pages  50-51).  He  says  : 
"  Interpreting  the  past  by  the  present,  and  importing  the  connotation  gained 
by  the  word  people  in  the  revolutions  of  the  last  two  centuries,  students  are 
apt  to  assume  that  the  Popolo  of  the  Italian  burghs  included  the  whole 
population.  In  reality  it  was  at  first  a  close  aristocracy  of  influential  families, 
to  whom  the  authority  of  the  superseded  Counts  was  transferred  in  commis- 
sion, and  who  held  it  by  hereditary  right  (Compare  the  pura  cittadinanza 
of  Cacciaguida — Paradiso  XVI);  and  the  technical  terms  primo  popolo,  se- 
condo  popolo,  popolo  grasso,  popolo  minuto,  frequently  recurring  in  the 
records  of  the  Republics,  indicate  several  stages  in  the  progress  from  oligarchy 
to  democracy.     The  Commune  included  the  Popolo  but  was  distinct  from  it  ". 

-   48   - 

line  should  be  no  more  used  in  the  Sienese 
dominion,  and  that  every  book,  writing  and  or- 
dinance which  treated  of  those  parties  and  of 
their  conservation  should  be  burned.  The  office 
of  the  Captain  of  the  Party  Guelf  was  abolished, 
and  it  was  forbidden,  under  heavy  penalties,  even 
to  speak  of  Guelfs  or  Ghibellines  or  their  equiv- 

An  effort  was  also  made  to  put  an  end  to 
private  feuds.  The  Tolomei  were  compelled  to 
make  peace  with  the  Salvani,  with  the  Arzocchi 
and  with  the  Ponzi  ;  the  Incontri,  the  Piccolo- 
mini  and  the  Forteguerri  were  in  like  manner 
reconciled  with  one  another,  Avhile  marriages 
were  arranged  between  the  families  which  had 
been  at  enmity. 

In  the  last  week  in  October  the  Ghibellines 
returned  to  the  city.  Some  of  the  fifteen  went 
forth  to  meet  them  as  far  as  Buonconvento,  and 
the  others,  with  all  the  Orders  of  the  City,  await- 
ed them  outside  the  gates,  embracing  them  and 
welcoming  them  with  so  much  evident  joy  "  that 
the  entire  people,  and  they  likewise  who  returned, 
wept  tenderly  for  great  contentment  of  heart  ". 

Thus  did  the  ruling  oligarchy  endeavour  to 
establish  itself  more  firmly  by  the  pacification 
of  intestine  discords.  But  it  was  too  much  to 
hope  that  hatreds  which  had  been  handed  down 
from  father  to  son  for  three  generations  could 
be  extinguished  by  a  simple    kiss  of   peace,  or 

—  49  — 
that  men  who  had  been  taught  the  sacred  duty 
of  revenge  even  at  their  mothers  knees,  should 
be  able  to  live  in  constant  contact  with  former 
enemies  without  remembering  the  old  wrongs 
which  cried  aloud  for  vengeance.  With  what 
heart  could  a  Salvani  have  joined  hands  with 
a  Tolomei  when  he  recalled  the  cruel  w^ork  of 
1269,  and  beheld  the  spot  w^here  once  the  lordly 
palaces  of  his  house  had  stood,  still  covered  with 
debris  or  lying  vacant  ?  Moreover,  small  as  w^as 
in  any  case  the  prospect  of  a  permanent  paci- 
fication, the  efforts  of  the  new  magistracy  were 
rendered  wholly  nugatory  by  the  unfortunate 
choice  of  Misser  ^latteo  Rosso  degli  Orsini  as 
Potesta.  A  bitter  and  bigoted  Guelf,  he  as- 
sumed office  in  January  1281,  and  the  evident 
disfavour  which  he  showed  to  the  Ghibellines 
soon  fanned  the  smouldering  embers  of  discon- 
tent into  a  blaze.  So  great  was  the  fear  of 
tumult  that  it  was  resolved  to  banish  certain 
of  the  more  unquiet  spirits.  Among  the  exiles 
w^as  Misser  Niccolo  Buonsignori  who,  only  three 
years  earlier,  had,  together  w4th  his  brothers, 
received  from  the  Magistrates  of  the  Commune 
the  honour  of  knighthood,  at  the  festival  of  Our 
Lady  of  Mid-August.  A  member  of  the  great 
banking  house  which  bore  the  name  of  his  fam- 
ily (i),  and  which  was  then  at  the  height  of  its 

(*)  The  Compagnia  dei  Buonsignori,  also  known  as  la  grand  table, 
magna  tabula,  or  simply  tabula  de  Sena. —See  C.  Paoli,  Siefia  alle  Fiere 
di  Sciampagna,  pages  23-24.  4 

—  50  — 
influence  and  renown,  he  was  ill  disposed  to 
endure  such  an  injury  Avith  patience.  Filled 
with  indignation  he  departed  for  Roccastrada, 
and  there  plotted  against  the  government,  hop- 
ing, with  the  aid  of  the  popolo  vibmto  and  of  such 
of  the  Ghibellines  as  had  remained  in  Siena,  to 
re-establish  the  nobles  in  office  and  to  overthrow 
the  Guelfs. 

Xiccolo  took  into  his  counsel  the  Count  of 
Santa  Flora  and  many  of  the  barons  of  the  ]\Ia- 
remma,  and  having  gathered  a  force  of  i6o 
cavalr}^  and  a  considerable  body  of  foot  soldiers, 
moved  from  Roccastrada,  and  reached  Siena  on 
the  night  of  13th  July.  They  found  the  Porta 
air  Arco  barred,  but  succeeded  in  forcing  a  way 
through  that  of  the  Castellaccia,  and  afterwards 
through  the  other  gate  of  the  Terzo  di  Citta, 
whence  they  marched  down  the  Casato  and  oc- 
cupied the  Campo,  fortifying  themselves  in  the 
palaces  of  the  Belmonti  towards  San  Martino. 
Then  they  raised  the  cry  of  "  Death  to  the 
Guelfs !  "  and  awaited  an  insurrection  of  the 
populace  in  their  favour.  They  were,  however, 
disappointed,  since,  besides  the  old  Ghibelline 
families,  only  about  200  of  the  citizens  joined 
them.  Meanwhile  the  Potesta  and  the  Signori 
Quindici  had  rung  the  great  bell  of  the  Com- 
mune, and  the  military  companies  of  all  the  three 
Terzi  were  hastening  to  their  aid.  Alany  of  the 
rebels  were  slain,  many  taken    prisoners,   while 

—  51  — 
the  remainder  were  compelled  to  flee  for  their 
lives.  The  slaughter  was  particularly  great  at 
the  mouth  of  ]\Ialborghetto  (now  Via  Giovanni 
Dupre) ;  Misser  Niccolo  with  a  handful  of  his 
followers  escaped  to  Roccastrada,  and  some  few 
of  those  who  had  occupied  the  Palazzo  de'Bel- 
monti  held  out  till  daybreak,  when  it  was  stormed 
by  the  household  of  the  Potesta.  The  usual  con- 
fiscations and  destruction  of  palaces  and  towers 
followed.  "  And  there  departed  from  Siena 
Misser  RufFredi  Incontri  and  all  his  house,  and 
part  of  the  Forteguerri  and  of  the  Ugurgieri  and 
Salvani,  and  Pagliaresi,  and  Ragnoni  and  many 
other  folk". 

Foiled  in  their  attempt  upon  the  city,  the 
Ghibellines  carried  the  war  into  the  contado. 
Campagnatico  was  surprised  and  the  garrison 
of  Sant'  Angelo  in  Colle  cut  to  pieces.  Then, 
pushing  northward  along  the  banks  of  the  Asso 
and  through  range  after  range  of  tumbling  hills, 
the  rebels  occupied  Rigomagno  on  the  Aretine 
border.  The  position  was  serious  in  the  extreme. 
From  Campagnatico  they  dominated  all  the  Ma- 
remma,  and  cut  off  communications  with  Gros- 
seto,  while  at  Rigomagno  they  were  in  touch 
with  Guglielmo  degli  Ubertini,  the  Ghibelline 
Bishop  of  Arezzo,  lord  of  many  castles  in  the 
Val  d'  Ambra,  and  a  tried  and  valiant  warrior. 
The  Quindici,  however,  were  equal  to  the  occa- 
sion, the    militia   of   the    Terzo    di  San  Martino 

—  5-^   — 
were  called  out,  Rigomagno  was  stormed  with 
great   slaughter,   and   Misser   Ranieri  Belmonti, 
the  captain  of  the  garrison,  w^as  taken  prisoner 
and  beheaded  as  a  traitor  (^). 

In  February  1282,  Florence,  Lucca,  Prato, 
Volterra  and  Siena  entered  into  an  alliance  for 
the  common  defence,  and,  though  no  doubt  the 
hopes  of  the  Ghibellines  were  raised  by  the  news 
of  the  Sicilian  Vespers,  they  were  afraid  to 
move  ;  while  ere  long  all  eyes  were  turned  to- 
ward Pisa,  whose  fleet  had  been  destroyed  in 
the  bloody  battle  of  ]\Ieloria  (1284),  but  who  was 
still  fig'hting  desperately  against  overwhelming 

Towards  the  end  of  October  1285,  the  Sien- 
ese  fiioritsciti,  with  the  aid  of  the  Bishop  of 
Arezzo,  made  themselves  masters  of  Poggio 
Santa  Cecilia,  a  strongly  fortified  castle  a  few 
miles  to  the  north-west  of  Rigomagno.  "  And 
(says  an  old  chronicler)  they  held  the  place 
against  the  Sienese  and  the  Florentines  and  all 
Tuscany  for  fourteen  months  and  eighteen  days, 
until  they  were  compelled  to  eat  rats  and  to 
gnaw  the  leather  of  their  shields ;  and  they  col- 

(')  As  in  the  Pistoiese,  the  contado  was  divided  into  three  districts 
which  corresponded  to  the  division  of  the  city  into  Terzi.  The  contado  thus 
represented  a  circle  divided  into  three  vast  sectors,  each  of  which  contained 
at  its  apex  the  Terzo  to  which  it  belonged.  Rigomagno  was  in  that  part  of 
the  contado  which  corresponded  to  the  Terzo  di  San  Martino ;  aod  this,  I 
presume  was  the  reason  why  the  militia  of  San  Martino  were  called  out  to 
attack  it. 

—  53  — 
lected  the  dew  for  the  thirst  which  they  had... 
Finally,  on  the  night  of  Good  Friday,  being  able 
to  endure  no  longer,  they  abandoned  the  castle 
and  issued  forth  and  fled  during  a  great  rain  ; 
and  so  they  saved  themselves  alive  ".  Never- 
theless, according  to  Andrea  Dei,  "  many  of 
them  were  taken  as  they  went  forth  and  were 
led  to  Siena.  And  while  they  were  in  the  Palace 
of  the  Potesta,  whither  they  had  been  taken  to 
be  put  to  death,  the  people  rose  in  tumult, 
crying  '  Peace !  Peace !  '  and  they  began  to  attack 
the  Palace.  AVherefore  the  Nine  who  then  gov- 
erned the  State  (sic)  were  afraid,  and  they  gave 
them  the  gonfalon  and  surrendered  unto  them 
the  prisoners.  Then  the  people  took  the  pris- 
oners to  the  Palace  of  the  Bishop  who  had  come 
to  their  aid  when  the  tumult  commenced.  And 
they  were  by  themselves,  and  the  Guelfs  with 
their  followers  set  upon  them  in  the  Campo ;  and 
they  brake  them  and  discomfited  them,  the 
Monday  after  Easter;  and  they  gat  them  to  the 
Palace  of  the  Bishop,  and  drew  forth  the  pris- 
oners and  led  them  into  the  Campo  ;  and  there 
they  cut  off  the  heads  of  five  of  the  chief  among 
them,  and  the  rest  they  hanged  between  the 
Arbia  and  the  Bozzone ;  and  the  number  of  them 
was  sixty  ".  Poggio  Santa  Cicilia  was  razed  to 
the  ground. 

Two  years  later  the  Sienese  troops  fell  into 
an    ambush    at    the    Pieve    al    Toppo,  and    lost 

—    54   — 

"  between  dead  and  wounded  more  than  three 
hundred  of  the  best  citizens  of  Siena  (^);  "  but, 
in  the  following  year,  the  Battle  of  Campaldino 
finally  destroyed  the  last  hopes  of  the  Ghibel- 
lines,  and  Tuscany,  with  the  exception  of  the 
half-ruined  Pisa,  became  wholly  Guelf.  Even 
the  descent  of  the  Emperor  Henry  VII  into  Italy 
could  not  rekindle  burnt  out  fires ;  and  w^hen  he 
died  at  Buonconvento  in  13 13,  the  old  Ghibel- 
line  families  of  Siena,  who  had  peaceably  left 
the  city  sixteen  months  earlier  at  the  desire  of 
the  government,  returned  as  peaceably.  The 
precaution  of  their  temporary  banishment  had 
hardly  been  necessary. 

The  merchant  Olig'archy  Avas  by  this  time 
firmly  established  in  power.  The  solemn  recon- 
ciliation of  the  Guelfs  and  Ghibellines  in  1280, 
futile  and  short-lived  as  it  had  proved,  was  at 
any  rate  a  sign  of  the  complete  subjection  of 
the  nobles.  From  thenceforth  the  People  w^as 
master  of  the  Commune.  It  took,  however,  nearly 
sixteen  years  to  consolidate  its  authority  and  to 
finally  settle  its  form  of  government  (i 277-1 292). 
At  first,  as  we  have  seen,  the  number  of  its 
wSupreme  ^Magistracy  w^as  thirty-six  and  then 
FIFTEEN.  In  1287  these  w^ere  reduced  to  XIXE. 
Later    on,    for    a    little    while  (i    Feb.,    1290,  to 

{*)  The  ''  giostre  del  Toppo  "  of  Dante.     Inferno  XIII.   121. 

—  00  — 
31  July,  1 291)  they  were  increased  to  eighteen; 
the  year  following  they  fell  to  six  ;  and  it  was 
only  in  1292  that  the  number  of  the  Governors 
and  Defenders  was  definitely  fixed  at  NINE. 
These  changes,  however,  are  simply  indications 
of  a  search  for  the  most  workable  number,  and 
not  of  any  dissentions  among  the  boni  et  legales 
mercatores  who  constituted  the  ruling  class.  The 
THIRTY-SIX,  the  FIFTEEN,  the  EIGHTEEN  and  the 
SIX  were,  in  fact,  only  embryonic  forms  of  the 
Nine  ;  and  the  Nine — "  Li  signori  NO  VE  Gover- 
natori  e  Difendiiori  del  Coimine  e  del Popolo  di  Sieiia^'' 
— they  remained  until  the  fall  of  the  Popolo  di 
mezzo,  sixty-three  years  later. 

In  May,  1309,  the  Consiglio  Generale  del  la  Cam- 
pana  ordered  that  the  statute  of  the  Commune 
should  be  translated  into  the  vulgar  tongue  "  to 
the  end  that  poor  folk  and  other  persons  who 
know  not  latin  (gramatica)  may  be  able  to  see 
and  copy  the  same  at  their  will  ".  The  trans- 
lation was  to  be  written  "  in  fair  large  letters, 
legible  and  well  formed,  on  good  parchment  ", 
and  was  to  be  kept  in  Biccherna.  The  work 
was  completed  in  13 10,  and  the  sixth  Disiinctioii 
which  treats  del  officio  de  li  Signori  Nov e  (')  enables 

(')  This  Distinction  has  been  recently  edited  by  Monsieur  J.  Lu- 
CHAiRE.  The  text  of  the  statute  is,  of  course,  printed  in  the  original  Italian, 
but  the  introduction  (of  which  I  have  made  considerable  use  in  the  follow- 
ing paragraphs)  and  the  notes  are  in  French,  a  fact  which  will  make  that 
portion  of  the  work  accessible  to  most  readers. 

I  am  informed  that  in  the  spring  the  entire  Statute  will  be  published, 
together  with  an  Introduction  bj'  Cav.   A.   LisiN'i. 

-   56  - 

us  to  form  a  very  clear  idea  of  the  way  in  which 
those  merchant  oligarchs  ruled  Siena. 

At  the  head  of  the  Commune  were  the  so 
called  Orders  of  the  city  (Ordini  della  Citta), 
consisting  of  ist.  the  SIGXORI  XovE  ;  2nd.  the 
Consuls  of  the  chevaliers  (consoles  viUitum, 

consoli  de'  Cavalier i)  ;  3rd.  the  CONSULS  OF  THE 
MERCHANTS  (consoli  de'  mercanti ;  consoli  della  mer- 
canzia) ;  and  4th.  the  FoUR  Proveditors  OF 
THE  Co:vIMUNE  (Qnattro  Provveditori). 

In  the  hands  of  these  Orders  rested  the 
election  of  the  legislative  body,  the  Consiglio 
Generale  della  Campana:  so  that  they  were,  in  fact, 
the  source  of  all  authority.  But  their  share  of 
power  was  not  equal.  The  Provveditori,  who, 
with  their  Camarlingo,  were  the  administrators, 
financiers  and  treasurers  of  the  Commune,  were 
an  ancient  and  responsible  magistracy  (^),  but 
they  were  dependent  upon  the  Nove  and  the  Con- 
soli della  viercanzia  who  appointed  them.  The 
Consoli  de'  Cavalieri  represented  the  nobility  (^)  ; 
but  it  is  absurd  to  suppose  that  the  Xobles, 
defeated  and  discriminated  against  as  they  were, 
exercised  any  real  influence  in  the  vState.  More- 
over the  Consoli  de'  Cavalieri  were  not  elected  b}'' 
the  Nobles,  but  by  the  other  Orders  of  the  City, 
so  that  the  title  was  little  more  than  a  derisory 

1')  As  to  the  Quatlro  Provveditori  and  the  magistracj-  of  Biccherna, 
to  which  they  belonged,  see  my  Pictorial  Chronicle  of  Siena  pages,  16-28. 
(-)  See  page  28,  note  i,  supra. 

~  57   — 

The  Move,  on  the  other  hand,  were  always 
mentioned  first  among  the  Orders,  and  were  the 
real  Governors,  uniting-  in  themselves  almost  all 
authority.  They  were  further  practically  self- 
elected,  since  it  was  the  Nove  who  appointed 
their  successors,  selecting  them  exclusively  from 
their  own  class,  according  to  the  rubric  of  their 

statute  which  provides  "  che  li  signori  Nove 

sieno  et  essere  debiano  de  mercatanti  de  la  citta 
di  Siena,  overo  de  la  meza  gente  ".  Besides 
the  N'ove  no  one  was  permitted  to  take  part  in 
this  election  except  the  Consuls  of  the  Merchants. 

Thus  all  power,  all  authority,  all  the  func- 
tions of  the  State  were  concentrated  in  the  hands 
of  a  merchant  aristocracy.  On  this  point  the 
Statute  of  the  Nine  is  convincing.  It  would  be 
impossible  to  imagine  any  more  perfect  type  of 
a  government  of  capitalists. 

The  statute  provides  that  the  Signori  Nove 
"  shall  have  full  power  over  all  the  affairs  of  the 
Commune,  and  that  all  which  they  shall  do, 
resolve  or  order  for  the  good  of  the  People  of 
Siena  shall  have  the  force  of  laAV  ".  From  the 
very  earliest  times,  the  outgoing  officials  of  the 
Commune  had  been  held  strictly  accountable  for 
their  actions  while  in  ofhce(');  but  the  Nove,  in 
spite  of  the  enormous  extension  of  their  powers, 
were  not  subject  to  the  sindacamento.      In  other 

(')  See  A  Pictorial  Chronicle  of  Siena,  page  26. 

—   50   — 

words,  they  incurred  no  responsibility  for  their 
official  acts.  Moreover,  great  precautions  were 
taken  to  render  this  inviolable  government  the 
uncontaminated  organ  of  the  class  from  which  it 
emanated,  and  to  prevent  any  possible  collusion 
between  it  and  other  social  or  political  divisions 
of  the  body  politic.  Not  only  were  the  Nobles 
di  casato,  the  old  consular  families,  excluded  from 
the  ^Magistracy  of  the  Nove,  but  also  knights 
(Cavalieri),  judges,  notaries  and  physicians  ;  while 
per  contra  any  citizen  who  had  formed  part  of 
the  Nove  w^as  ipso  facto  disqualified  from  becom- 
ing either  Console  de'  Cavalieri  or  Capitano  delta 
Parte  Guelfa.  It  was  determined  to  set  up  an 
impregnable  barrier  between  the  two  rival  classes. 
Ghibellines,  naturally  enough,  were  excluded 
from  the  Magistracy.  They  w^ere  excluded  also 
from  "any  other  office  in  the  Commune  of  Siena"; 
and  by  Ghibelline,  in  this  connection,  we  must 
understand  any  person  suspected  of  leanings 
towards  that  faction. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Nove  were  guarded 
against  themselves  with  almost  equal  care,  and 
especially  against  the  temptation  to  seek  to 
perpetuate  their  powder,  either  in  their  own  hands 
or  in  those  of  their  families.  The  bourgeoisie, 
at  the  same  time  that  they  established  their  own 
class  in  authority,  took  care  to  maintain  the  most 
scrupulous  equality  among  its  members.  The 
Alagistracy  of  the  Nove  held  office  for  two  months 

—  59  — 
only,  and  no  member  of  an  outgoing  Magistracy 
could  be  re-elected  to  serve  as  his  own  successor. 
Two  near  kinsmen  could  not  be  members  of  the 
Nove  at  the  same  time,  nor  could  they  succeed 
one  another  in  office.  It  was  further  provided 
that  the  Consuls  of  the  Merchants  and  certain 
other  important  officials  could  not  be  called  to 
the  Supreme  Magistracy  until  six  months  after 
they  had  completed  their  terms.  Nor  can  we 
doubt  that  these  precautions  were  effectual,  since 
during  all  the  time  that  the  merchant  oligarchy 
ruled  the  State,  we  have  no  instance  of  any  of 
their  number  attempting  to  raise  himself  above 
his  peers.  "  The  Government  of  the  Nove  was, 
at  one  and  the  same  time,  the  strongest  and  the 
least  personal  it  is  possible  to  conceive  of  ". 

For  the  rest,  at  this  period,  both  the  Potesta 
and  the  Captain  of  the  People  lost  much  of  their 
power,  while  the  General  Council  became  a  mere 
mouthpiece  of  the  Nove  by  whose  suffrages  it 
had  been  called  into  being  and  whose  creature 
it  was. 

Clothed  with  such  vast  and  unfettered  au- 
thority, it  is  a  startling  tribute  to  the  wisdom, 
righteousness  and  patriotism  of  those  old  mer- 
chants that  they  did  not  abuse  their  position  more 
than  they  did.  They  were  a  class  of  exceptional 
men,  strong  to  labour  and  to  endure,  shrewd, 
far-sighted  and  iron-willed,  with  family  traditions 

—  6o  — 

behind  them  which  kept  them  brave  and  honest 
■ — an  aristocracy  of  Avealth,  but  also  an  aristoc- 
racy of  Avorth,  optimates  in  the  best  sense. 

These  were  the  men  w^hose  sires  had  trav- 
elled land  and  sea;  had  built  palaces  in  London 
and  purchased  cloth  in  Flanders;  had  fought 
the  Florentines  at  Montaperto,  and  stormed  the 
almost  impregnable  heights  of  Campiglia  d'Orcia; 
had  visited  half  the  capitals  of  Europe,  and 
grown  very  wise  and  wily  in  dealing  Avith  kings 
and  princes.  Their  honour,  perhaps,  was  the 
honour  of  the  ledger  and  of  the  counter,  their 
courage  rather  that  of  the  burgher  than  of  the 
knight ;  but  that  courage,  such  as  it  was,  suf- 
ficed to  guard  the  rights  of  the  Commune,  and 
that  honour  to  keep  their  hands  clean  in  the 
administration  of  public  affairs  (^). 

Under  their  rule  Siena  enjoyed  a  long  period 
of  peace  and  of  prosperity  ;  the  borders  of  the 
state  were  enlarged  until  the  dominion  embraced 
almost  all  the  modern  provinces  of  Siena  and 
of  Grosseto  ;  a  friendly  alliance  was  maintained 
with  Florence  ;  trade  flourished  ;  the  city  was 
embellished  with  splendid  edifices  ;  the  Palazzo 

(1)  For  the  benefit  of  those  who  do  not  read  Italian  I  ma}-  mention 
that  a  certain  amount  of  information  concerning  the  Sienese  merchants  maj- 
be  obtained  from  Mr.  Lewis  Einstein's  Italian  Renaissance  in  England 
(New  York,  The  MacmlUan  Co.  1902).  He  devotes  an  entire  chapter  to 
"  The  Italian  Merchant  in  England  ".—See  also  my  "  Ensatnples  "  of  Fra 
Filippo,  a  sUidy  of  mediaeval  Siena,  pages  43-47,  and  the  whole  of  the 
first  section  of  chapter  IV,  pages  137-161. 

—  6i   — 

Pubblico  was  built,  and  the  walls  of  its  lordly 
chambers  were  clothed  with  the  masterpieces  of 
Ambrogio  Lorenzetti  and  Simone  Martini  ;  the 
Torre  del  Mangia  (which  now  that  Venice  has 
lost  her  campanile  is  incomparably  the  noblest 
tower  in  Italy)  sprang,  like  a  flight,  into  middle 
air  (^) ;  and  the  enlargement  of  the  cathedral  was 
commenced  on  such  a  scale  as  would  have  made 
it  one  of  the  grandest,  if  not  the  grandest, 
temple  in  the  world.  Nor  was  learning  neglect- 
ed ;  the  ancient  University  was  embued  with 
new  life  by  the  migration  thither  of  Bolognese 
scholars  ;  while,  finally,  those  charitable  institu- 
tions which  are  the  pride  of  modern  Siena  in- 
creased and  prospered. 

Unfortunately,  however,  as  years  rolled  by, 
the  ruling  oligarchy  deteriorated,  and  became 
ever  less  and  less  mindful  of  the  fact  that  they 
were  the  Governors  and  Defenders  of  the  whole 
Commune  and  the  whole  People.  Unlimited  and 
irresponsible  power  sapped  their  energy  and 
their  virtue  ;  they  grew  more  and  more  careless 
of  the  public  weal,  and  more  and  more  careful 
of  the  privileges  and  advantages  of  their  OAvn 
class.      Then  the  great    pestilence    swept    over 

(')  "  I  stood  in  the  piazza  and  saw  the  Tower  of  the  Mangia  leap 
like  a  rocket  into  the  starlit  air.  After  all,  that  does  not  say  it ;  j-ou  must 
suppose  a  perfect  silence,  through  which  this  exquisite  shaft  for  ever  soars. 
When  once  you  have  seen  the  Mangia,  all  other  towers,  obelisks  and 
columns  are  tame  and  vulgar  and  earth-rooted ;  that  seems  to  quit  the 
ground,  to  be  not  a  monument  but  a  flight" — W.  D.  HowELLS,  Tuscan 

—    62     — 

Italy  (134S),  and  for  a  time  obliterated  many  of 
the  social  landmarks.  There  was  a  plethora  of 
money  ;  men  were  unwilling  to  labour  at  their 
accustomed  trades,  and,  as  Agnolo  di  Tura  tells 
us,  "  All  those  \vho  remained  alive  lived  as  if 
they  were  brethren  ;  and  every  man  was  familiar 
and  jested  w4th  his  neighbour,  as  though  they 
were  kinsmen ;  and  ever  they  feasted  and  made 
merry;  for  to  every  each  of  them  it  seemed  that 
he  had  regained  the  world  ".  Yet,  rejoice  as 
might  the  survivors  of  that  horrible  calamity, 
they  were  but  a  pitiful  remnant  of  the  hundred 
thousand  souls  who  had  thronged  the  streets 
of  the  city  but  a  year  earlier  (^).  Siena  had 
received  a  blow  from  which  she  never  wholly 
recovered  ;  and  the  rule  of  the  Xove  which  had 
been  unwillingly  borne  even  when  the  Commune 
was  great  and  prosperous,  was  now  felt  to  be 
unendurable.  Again  and  again,  nobles,  judges, 
notaries  and  populace  had  risen  in  furious  revolt 
against  that  intolerant  oligarchy,  and  now,  at 
last,  their  day  of  vengeance  was  at  hand. 

In   1354,  Charles    of  Luxemburg  descended 

(')  As  I  am  full}-  aware  the  statement  of  the  old  writers  that  in  1348 
the  population  of  Siena  was  100,000,  is  generally  supposed  to  be  an  exag- 
geration (See  The  ^'  Ensamples  ^'  of  Fra  Filippo,  Sec,  op.  cit.  pages  43 
n.,  94)  ;  but  before  the  reader  definitely  makes  up  his  mind  on  this  point, 
I  would  suggest  that  the  considerations  presented  by  Signor  G.  Salvemini 
in  Cap.  II.,  §  5,  of  his  Magnati  e  Popolani  in  Firenze  (Firenze,  Tip.  Carne- 
secchi,   1899),  are  worthy  of  some  attention. 

-   63   - 

into  Italy  to  receive  the  imperial  crown;  and, 
at  the  same  time,  he  took  care  to  distribute 
privileges  and  to  collect  subsidies.  On  the  i8th 
January,  1355,  he  reached  Pisa,  and  halted  there 
to  receive  the  homage  of  the  ambassadors  of 
the  various  Tuscan  communes.  It  was  a  century 
of  merchants.  The  heroic  struggle  between 
Emperor  and  Communes  was  a  thing  of  other 
times,  unknown  and  incomprehensible  to  this 
age  of  sleek  burghers,  intent  only  on  the  counter 
and  the  till.  The  Communes  w^ere  satisfied  to 
secure  their  proper  sovereignty  by  the  purchase 
of  imperial  confirmations,  and  to  obtain  for  their 
supreme  magistrates  the  title  and  authority  of 
vicars  of  the  Empire  ;  the  Emperor  thought  only 
of  filling  his  treasury  ;  so  many  privileges,  so 
many  thousands  of  florins ;  a  simple  question  of 
accounts,  and  the  contract  was  made  (^). 

In  this  matter  Florentines  and  Sienese  were 
in  full  accord,  but  it  seems  that  the  latter,  or  at 
any  rate  the  Nove  on  their  behalf,  overstepped 
the  mark.  Alarmed  at  the  ever  increasing 
discontent  of  the  citizens,  and  wishing  to  make 
sure  of  imperial  protection  at  any  cost,  they  had 
instructed  their  orators  to  swear  fealty  to  Charles, 
to  offer  him  the  obedience  of  the  city,  and  to 
submit  themselves  fully  to  him,  "  without  reserv- 

(')  In  the  following  pages  I  have  made  considerable  use  of  the  late 
Professor  Paoli's  '  Monti  '  o  fazioni  nella  Reptibblica  di  Siena. 

-   64  - 

ing  any  franchise  of  the  ancient  liberty  of  the 
Commune  ".  This  abject  surrender  of  every 
right  greatly  displeased  the  Florentines,  who  saw 
in  it  a  grievous  peril  to  Tuscan  liberty,  and  in 
a  moment  alienated  their  sympathies  from  that 
government  with  which  they  had  lived  in  perfect 
harmony  for  so  many  years.  Xor  w^as  the  action 
of  the  Nove  any  better  received  in  Siena,  where 
it  was  felt  that  they  had  shamefully  abused  their 
powers.  Misser  Guccio  de'  Tolomei,  the  head 
of  the  Sienese  embassy,  after  listening  to  the 
representations  of  the  Florentines,  was  afraid  to 
make  so  ample  a  submission  \vithout  a  more 
explicit  mandate.  The  delay  aroused  Charles' 
suspicions,  and  the  N'ove  found  that,  in  their 
attempt  to  obtain  the  imperial  favour,  they  had 
overreached  themselves.  The  Nobles  and  the 
lower  classes  alike  vied  with  each  other  in  de- 
monstrations of  devotion  to  the  Emperor,  and 
while,  at  first,  they  had  shown  themselves  anxious 
to  defend  the  liberty  of  the  Commune  against 
the  pusillanimous  concessions  of  the  Nove,  they 
were  now  equally  zealous  in  exciting*  the  distrust 
of  the  Emperor  against  that  magistracy  whose 
overthrow  they  so  ardently  desired. 

For  the  moment,  Charles  granted  the  re- 
quests of  the  Nove,  conceding  privileges,  the  title 
of  Vicars  of  the  Empire,  and  sending  forward 
his  marshal  with  150  men-at-arms  to  their  de- 
fence.      He    w^as    resolved    as    yet    to    keep    up 

—    u^    — 

appearances,  although  he  now  not  only  doubted 
their  good  faith,  but  also  suspected  their  weak- 

In  this  unpropitious  humour  he  came  to 
Siena,  on  the  23rd  March  1355,  to  be  reverently 
welcomed  by  the  Magistrates  and  hailed  with  the 
utmost  enthusiasm  by  the  Nobles  and  the  mas- 
ses. With  shouts  of  Viva  V  Impe^-atore  /  mingled 
ere  long  the  sinister  cry  oi  Muoia  li  Nove  /  On 
the  night  of  the  24th,  many  of  the  chains  of 
the  city  were  cut  by  the  Nobles — those  chains 
which,  nearly  half  a  century  earlier,  the  merchant 
oligarchy  had  caused  to  be  placed  in  all  the 
principal  streets,  to  the  end  that  they  might  be 
barricaded  at  a  moment's  notice  against  the 
charge  of  an  iron-clad  cavalry.  A  perpetual  token 
of  their  subjection  to  the  Popolo  di  mezzo,  it  was 
fitting  that  the  Nobles  should  cut  them  now, 
when  the  government  of  the  Popolo  di  mezzo  was 
tottering  to  its  fall  (^).  Before  morning  the  gates 
of  the  City  had  been  burned,  the  houses  of  some 
of  the  merchants  had  been  attacked,  and  the 
Emperor  had  not  interfered  to  protect  the  Mag- 
istrates or  to  maintain  order. 

(')  These  chains  were  bolted  to  the  walls  at  a  height  from  the  ground 
of  a  little  more  than  a  yard.  Several  of  the  old  bolts  are  still  to  be  seen 
in  Siena,  e.  g.  in  the  Via  Cavour  almost  opposite  the  Via  di  Vallerozzi  ; 
in  the  Via  de'  Rossi,  in  the  Via  di  Citta,  and  in  the  Casato.  According  to 
Andrea  Dei,  "  si  cominciorono  a  porre  le  catene  per  le  vie  di  Siena  nel 
mese  di  Giugno  1312  ";  and,  in  1339,  as  we  learn  from  the  researches  of 
Sig.  Cav.  A.  Lisixi,  there  were  nearly  300  of  such  chains.  (See  the  Miscel- 
lanea storica  senese,  vol.  IV  (1896)  pag.   198-201). 

—  66  — 

By  daybreak,  all  the  city  was  under  arms. 
Headed  by  the  Xobles,  the  populace  rose  in 
furious  revolt.  The  Nove  were  thrust  forth  from 
their  palace,  and  they  and  their  adherents  were 
hunted  through  the  city  like  wild  beasts.  "  And 
so  were  they  wounded  and  slain  throughout  the 
city  in  this  place  and  in  that;  and  no  man  spoke 
on  their  behalf  ;  but  they  that  looked  thereon 
shrugged  their  shoulders.  "Wherefore  all  the 
Nove,  and  their  brethren  and  sons  and  kinsfolk, 
fled  to  hide  themselves ;  and  they  were  all  robbed, 
and  there  was  no  man  who  would  receive, 
or  regard,  or    hearken    unto    them,  neither    the 

religious  orders  nor  other  folk And  many 

infamous  things  were  spoken  against  the  Nove; 
they  w^ere  called  thieves  and  traitors,...  and  he 
that  could  say  any  worse  thing  of  them  hesitated 
not  to  say  it  ".  The  Emperor  openly  aided  the 
insurgents,  and,  after  formally  ratifying  the  de- 
position of  the  Magistrates  and  revoking  every 
privilege  w^hich  he  had  granted  them,  appointed 
a  commission  of  twenty  citizens  to  reform  the 
State.  Then,  on  the  28th  March,  he  departed 
for  Rome,  where,  on  Easter  day  the  5th  April, 
he  received  the  imperial  crown  at  the  hands  of 
the  papal  legate. 

Thus  suddenly  and  ingloriously  fell  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  Nove,  and  that  intelligent  and 
industrious  class  (which,  from  the  number  of  its 
chief  magistracy,  was  called   the  Monte  dei  Nove 

-  67   - 

or  de'  Noveschi)  was,  like  the  Mo?ite  de'  Gentil- 
icomini,  set  aside.  Ancient  hatreds  and  new- 
born ambitions  had  overthrown  it,  but  from  the 
day  of  its  fall  the  Republic  never  again  enjoyed 
the  same  prosperity.  New  Monti  sprang  into 
being  without,  destroying  the  old  ones ;  the 
conflict  between  the  various  classes,  whether 
political  or  social,  became  ever  more  fierce  and 
more  implacable ;  and  nevermore,  until  she  closed 
in  her  death-grapple  with  Spain  and  with  the 
Medici,  was  there  unity  in  Siena.  Indeed  it 
seemed  as  if  she  were  seeking  to  deserve  the 
bitter  judgment  which  Philippe  de  Comines 
passed  upon  her  some  century  and  a  half  later, 
when  he  declared  that  "  la  ville  est  de  tout  temps 
en  partialite  ct  se  goiiverne  plus  foUenicnt  que  ville 
d'  Italie  ". 

The  commission  nominated  by  Charles  IV 
created  a  magistracy  of  Twelve  popolari,  with 
a  consultative  college  of  twelve  (others  say  six) 
Gentiluomini.  The  number  of  the  new  magistracy 
gave  its  name  to  a  new  faction,  consisting  of 
citizens  of  a  lower  class  than  those  who  had 
constituted  the  Noveschi.  Thus  when  we  speak 
of  the  Dodici  we  refer  not  so  much  to  the  number 
of  those  who  composed  the  supreme  magistracy 
of  the  Republic  as  to  the  class  or  consoi'teria 
from  which  the  members  of  that  magistracy  were 
exclusively    drawn.      From    Avhatever    point    of 

—   68  — 

view  we  regard  them,  the  Dodici  were  vulgar, 
incapable  and  turbulent,  Consisting  of  retail 
tradesmen,  ("  Negotiatores  abiecti  "  Pius  II  calls 
them  in  his  Commentaries)  their  souls  did  not 
soar  above  their  pockets,  and  they  lived  and 
governed  in  an  atmosphere  of  continual  strife. 
Almost  the  earliest  use  they  made  of  their 
new  authority  was  to  rob  the  State.  Xero  di 
Donati  (himself  one  of  the  Monte  de'  Dodici  and 
whose  father  sat  in  the  Supreme  magistracy  of 
the  Signori  Dodici  in  March  and  April,  1363) 
records,  under  the  year  1355,  that  "  in  June  they 
practised  many  and  great  barratries  (JY  molte  e 
graiidi  barattarie)  in  their  Office.  Wherefore  the 
Potesta  of  Siena  made  inquest  and  process 
against  them ;  and  he  took  ]\Iisser  Giovanni  del- 
r  Acqua,  who  had  been  of  the  said  magistracy, 
and  his  guilt  being  proved,  caused  him  to  be 
beheaded  as  a  forger  with  the  mitre  upon  his 
head  ;  and  Guccio  Pieri  and  Ser  lacomo,  the  son 
of  Domenico  Ricci,  who  were  likewise  members 
of  the  magistracy,  he  proclaimed  as  outlaws. 
They  could  not  be  arrested,  therefore  were  they 
outlawed  ".  —  And  these  are  the  men  whom 
Mrs.   Oliphant    confounds    with    the    Nobles  ('). 

(1)  Blackwood's  Magazine,  July  1898,  page  31— A  perusal  of  the 
paragraph  in  question  well  exemplifies  the  methods  of  research  adopted  by 
the  authoress  of  The  Makers  of  Florence.  After  slurring  over  all  the 
earlier  history  of  Siena  (presumably  as  too  complex  to  be  mastered  without 
some  study),  she  finds  that  in  the  year  1383  (sic)  there  was  a  Magistracy  com- 

-  69  - 

Truly  English  writers  have  given  us  some  curi- 
ous specimens  of  Sienese  history! 

The  Dodici  soon  quarrelled  Avith  the  con- 
sultative College,  and,  in  June  of  the  same  year 
(1355),  the  Gentiluomini  were  compelled  to  with- 
draw from  the  government.  The  principal  char- 
acteristic of  the  new  faction  was,  however,  its 
intense  hatred  for  the  Nove — the  petty  envy  and 
dislike  of  the  small  shop-keeper  for  the  wholesale 
merchant.  With  almost  feminine  spite,  the  very 
name  of  the  Nove  was  erased  from  the  public 
statutes  ;  but  persecute  theil-  predecessors  as 
they  might,  the  Dodici  were  quite  incapable 
of  emulating  their  industry  and  wisdom,  or  of 
maintaining  the  Republic  in  the  same  prosperity 
and  greatness  as  it  had  heretofore  enjoyed. 

It  is  true  that  the  times  were  perilous,  and 
that  the  difficulties  which  confronted  the  Dodici 
might  well  have  puzzled  wiser  heads  than  theirs ; 
but,  when  all  allowances  have  been  made,  it 
is  indisputable  that  they  showed  themselves 
supremely  incompetent.  Numerous  dependent 
towns  revolted ;  the  Sienese  territory  was  overrun 
by  Companies  of  Adventure  who  had  to  be  bought 
off  with  great  sums  of  money;   and  there  Avere 

posed  of  four  Noveschi,  four  Dodicini  and  two  Popolaii.  What  the  first 
and  last  are  she  knows,  and  of  course,  in  a  Commune  as  essentially  feudal 
as  was  Siena,  there  must  be  an  aristocracy  as  well.  The  inference,  to  her 
mind,  is  too  obvious  to  require  a  second  thought,  and  she  naivelj'  informs 
us  that  the  Dodici  were  the  nobles! 

long  and  bitter  quarrels  with  Perugia  and  with 
Grosseto.  Indeed,  during  the  thirteen  years 
that  those  miserable  tradesmen  misruled  the 
State,  Siena  had  little  to  congratulate  herself 
upon.  Her  one  great  success,  the  rout  of  the 
Compania  del  Cappello  near  Torrita  in  the  Val 
di  Chiana  (1363),  was  due  to  ^lisser  Ceccolo 
degli  Orsini  of  Rome,  w^ho  was  in  command  of 
the  Sienese  levies  and  who  attacked  against  the 
orders  of  the  ^Magistrates  ;  and  "  he  was  not 
confirmed  in  his  office,  because  he  had  been 
commanded  not  to  join  battle  by  reason  of  the 
peril  which  might  befal  therefrom ;  and  for  this 
he  was  not  re-elected  ".  Nevertheless,  the  Si- 
gnoria  were  not  ashamed  to  make  pomp  of  the 
victory  they  had  tried  their  best  not  to  win  ; 
and  they  "  caused  the  said  discomfiture  to  be 
depicted  in  their  Palace  in  the  Hall  of  the  Ar- 
balists  "  (i). 

In  the  city  matters  were  even  worse  than 
in  the  contado.  The  ancient  feuds  between  the 
great  houses,  so  far  from  being  assuaged,  became 
daily  more  violent,  since  the  magistrates  did  not 

(1)  "La  detta  sconfitta  li  Signori  Dodici  la  fero  depegnare  in  Palazzo 
nella  Sala  delle  Balestre  " — Cronica  Sanese  in  Muratori  ad  atinum.  The 
Sala  delle  Balestre  is,  of  course,  the  same  as  the  Sala  del  Mappamondo. 
In  the  MiLAXESi  Documents,  I.  28,  it  is  recorded  that  in  1373  Maestro 
Luca  di  Tomme  was  paid  for  a  picture  which  he  had  painted  b)-  the  order 
of  the  Consiglio  Generale  "  to  the  honour  and  reverence  of  St.  Paul  the 
Apostle,  at  the  time  that  the  Commune  of  Siena  conquered  the  Conpagnia 
del  Cappelluccio  ".     The  Sienese  fought  to  the  battle-cry  of  "  Saint  Paul  '\ 

scruple  to  foment  them  with  a  view  to  weaken- 
ing the  nobles  ;  and  soon  the  faction  of  the 
Dodici  itself  split  into  two  parties.  One  of  these, 
the  most  respectable,  was  called  dei  Cmieschi,  and 
attached  itself  to  the  Tolomei  ;  the  other,  dei 
Grasselli,  which  was  headed  by  the  Salimbeni, 
was  turbulent  and  lawless,  and  soon  absorbed 
the  dregs  both  of  the  Gentiluoviini  and  of  the 
Popolmii,  On  this  latter  alone  were  the  Govern- 
ment able  to  depend,  and  they  early  realized  by 
how  many  and  great  perils  they  were  threatened. 
The  chronicler  Nero  di  Donati  thus  sums  up  the 
position  in  words  which  constitute  a  veritable 
picture  :  ''  E  Signori  Dodici  di  Siena  entraro  in 
grande  paura  dell'  aria,  e  fero  molti  Baj'igelli  per  la 
Citta  in  ogni  Terzo,  e  con  molti  fanti,  e  diero  loro 
grandissima  balia,  che  di  fatto  artiannajassero  chiiin- 
que  tossisse  contra  lo7'0,  e  fero  molti  ordi?ii  e  forti 
chi  ricordasse  hnperadoi^e ,  e  fero  murare  le  pot^ti  "  ('). 

The  Government  of  the  Dodici  came  to  an 
end  in  the    latter   part  of  the    year    1368  ;    and, 

(1)  "  The  Signori  Dodici  entered  into  great  fear  of  the  air,  and  made 
many  Sheriffs  (Bargelli)  through  the  City  in  every  Terzo,  with  many  soldiers 
(under  them)  ;  and  gave  them  passing  great  authority  to  behead  whosoever 
should  cough  against  them,  and  they  issued  many  and  strict  orders  against 
whosoever  should  bring  to  remembrance  the  Emperor,  and  they  caused  the 
gates  to  be  walled  up  ". — The  phrase  chi  ricordasse  Imperadore  is  by  no 
means  easy  to  translate  ;  but,  if  it  bears  the  meaning  which  I  have  given 
it,  it  depicts  in  a  forcible  manner  the  uneasiness  of  the  Dodici,  when  even 
the  friendly  Emperor  was  a  source  of  alarm. 

in  the  complicated  vicissitudes  of  those  days, 
Nobles,  People  and  Emperor  were  alike  con- 
cerned. That  summer  so  violent  were  the  dissen- 
tions  between  the  two  parties  that  the  magistrates 
themselves,  in  the  very  Palace  of  the  Commune, 
drew  their  knives  upon  one  another — ed  erano 
pe7'  accoltellarsi.  At  the  end  of  Aug-ust  matters 
came  to  a  head,  for  (says  the  old  chronicler) 
"  the  party  of  the  Dodici  which  was  called  G7'as- 
selli  spake  unto  the  Salimbeni  which  held  with 
them  and  said,  Ann  you,  and  make  you  i^eady  to 
battle,  because  the  Caneschi  are  gathered  together  and 
conspire  against  us.  And,  in  like  manner,  the 
Caneschi  spake  unto  the  Tolomei  which  held  with 
them,  saying.  Be  ye  valiant,  and  make  ready, 
because  we  hear  that  the  Grasselli  have  conspired 
together  against  us  and  are  gathei'ing  to  battle.  For 
this  cause  the  Gentiluomini  assembled  in  Siena, 
they  and  the  Nove,  eight  thousand  fighting  men. 
And  the  nobles  of  Siena,  beholding  the  iniquity 
of  these  Dodici,  and  that  they  sought  to  cause 
the  nobles  of  Siena  to  cut  one  another  to  pieces, 
made  peace  and  amity  among  themselves,  and 
promised  and  swore  fealty  together,  generally 
the  one  w^ith  the  other,  all  the  nobles  of  Siena ; 
and  they  promised  the  Popolo  miniito  and  the  Nove 
to  reform  the  government  according  to  their  will. 
Thereafter,  on  the  2nd  day  of  September,  they 
sent  to  tell  the  Signori  Dodici  that  they  willed 
that  the  Palace    should    be    given    up    to    them. 

Lombardi  photo. 

Palazzo  Tolomei 

and  were  minded  to  reform  the  City ;  and  incon- 
tinently, without  stroke  of  sword,  the  Dodici  gave 
up  the  Palace  and  the  wSignory  to  the  nobles. 
Wherefore  the  nobles  entered  into  the  Palace 
and  had  the  rod  of  office  (bacchetta) ,  and  the 
seals,  and  the  bells,  and  all  the  fortresses  of 
Siena,  and  reformed  the  City  ". 

The  new  Signoria,  consisting  of  thirteen 
magistrates  (lo  Gentihiomini,  and  3  Noveschi), 
adopted  the  style  and  title  of  Consuls,  in  memory 
of  the  heroic  age  of  the  Commune.  Their  gov- 
ernment, however,  endured  but  a  few  days. 
The  vSalimbeni  (although  they  were  represented 
among  the  Consuls)  at  once  sold  themselves 
to  the  Dodici,  while  the  Popolo  beheld  with 
uneasiness  an  aristocratic  reaction  contra  stahun 
popiilarem.  Nor  was  the  Emperor  any  better 
pleased.  From  the  Dodici  he  had  received  sub- 
mission ;  and,  with  their  aid  and  that  of  the 
Salimbeni,  he  hoped  to  acquire  a  more  direct 
dominion  in  Siena. 

On  the  5th  September  he  arrived  in  Lucca, 
and  hardly  had  the  news  of  the  revolution  reached 
him,  than  he  sent  forward  Malatesta  da  Rimini, 
the  Imperial  Vicar,  with  800  men  at  arms.  On 
the  23rd  September,  Malatesta  encamped  at 
Fontebecci,  and  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor 
demanded  possession  of  the  City.  The  people, 
ever  imperialist,  together  Avith  the  Salimbeni  and 
the  Dodici,  took  up  arms,  and  hewed  down  the  gate 

—    /4    -  - 

of  San  Prospero.  With  the  cry  of  Vh'af  domimis 
Imperator  et  Populus!  they  rushed  to  the  attack. 
The  fray  began  at  Sant'  Andrea,  "  and  thither 
came  Gentlemen  of  all  the  noble  houses  (d'  ogni 
Casata);  and  the  Consuls  which  were  in  the  Pa- 
lazzo came ;  and  there  was  a  great  and  grievous 
battle  ". 

Finally  the  imperial  troops  were  victorious. 
Demiim  popuhts  ad  Campiim  veniens  expiignavit 
palatiiim  ubi  e7'ant  Consides,  qui  prostratis  januis, 
intraverunt,  et  sic  expidsi  fiieriint  Consules.  Such 
is  the  terse  official  account  of  the  notary  of  the 
Palace,  Jacopo  Alanni.  He  adds  :  Ego  Jacobus 
Manui  notarius  vidi  hec,  quare  semper  fui  in  palatio, 
cancella7'ius  a  prima  die  septembris  predicti  (^). 

A  Council  of  124  Riformatori  created  a  new 
magistracy  de  duodecim  popularibus  which  took 
office  on  the  24th.  HoAvever,  the  faction  of  the 
Dodici  had  no  longer  exclusive  control,  for  the 
duodecim  populares  consisted  of  4  Dodicini,  3  A'o- 
veschi  and  5  of  the  Popolo  7ninuto.  Thus  the 
lowest  class  of  citizens  were  at  last  admitted  to 
the  government ;  and  possibly  not  to  its  disad- 
vantage. Things  had  come  to  such  a  pass  that 
no    change    could   be   for   the    worse  ;    and    the 

(1)  It  maj'  be  of  interest  to  note  that,  in  this  revolution,  the  painter 
Andrea  di  Vanni  took  a  prominent  part.  During  the  rule  of  the  Riforma- 
tori he  occupied  many  of  the  most  important  offices  of  the  Republic — See 
MiLANESi  Documenti,  I.  304,  305,  and  compare  the  Arch.  stor.  it.,  IV.  41 

/  0 

artisan  is  generally  a  more  honest  and  virile 
specimen  of  humanity  than  the  counter-jumper. 

The  nobles  paid  dearly  for  their  twenty-two 
days  of  authority,  for,  after  their  overthrow,  they 
were  excluded  not  only  from  the  Signoria  as 
heretofore,  but  also  from  the  Councils  and  minor 
offices  of  the  Commune.  The  Salimbeni,  on  the 
other  hand,  were  permitted  to  inscribe  them- 
selves among  the  Popolo,  and  were  further  re- 
warded for  their  treason  to  their  class  by  the 
gift  of  no  fewer  than  six  castles,  and  were 
provided  with  a  guard  of  200  soldiers  at  the 
public  expense. 

In  October,  Charles  IV,  passing  through 
Siena  on  the  way  to  Rome,  gave  the  sanction 
of  his  presence  to  the  new  government.  "  And 
he  dismounted  in  Casa  Salimbeni  ;  and  he  had 
with  him  11 00  horsemen,  among  whom  were 
500  men-at-arms ;  and  they  were  all  lodged  and 
quartered  in  the  houses  of  the  nobles  who  had 
fled;  and  all  their  pleasant  chambers  were  used 
as  stables  ". 

The  Emperor  only  remained  in  Siena  two 
days,  from  Thursday  Oct.  12th  to  Saturday 
Oct.  14th;  and  hardly  had  he  left  the  City,  than 
the  Dodici,  ill  content  to  share  with  others  an 
authority  which  they  had  enjoyed  alone  for 
thirteen  years,  began  to  conspire  against  the 
Noveschi,  whose  three  representatives  they  hoped 
to  exclude  from  the  Signoria.      In  this,  however. 

-   76   - 

they  found  that  they  had  reckoned  without  their 
host.  They  could  stir  up  tumults  and  revolts, 
but  they  could  not  direct  them.  By  this  time 
the  proletariat  had  realized  its  strength ;  and  on 
the  I  ith  day  of  December,  insiirgente  ad  rtimoj-em 
in  civitate  Senaimm  popolo  minuto  (so  writes  the 
Notary  Simone  di  Conte),  et facto  tumultu  et  clamorc 
maximo  apicd  palatium  in  quo  ei'ant  dd.  Duodecim, 
et  denmm  apposito  igne  ad  uniwi  ex  hostiis  ex- 
terioribns  dicti  pcilatii,  patuit  ingressiis  in  palatinm 
populo  siipradicto,  qui  cum  furore  maximo  deposuit 
officium  dictorum  dd.  Dicodecim,  et  expulit  exti-a  pala- 
tium septem  ex  dictis  Dominis,  videlicet  tres  de  mimero 
seu  gente  Novem  et  qiLcittuor  de  dicta  gente  Duodecim, 
remanentibus  in  dicto  palatio  quinque  ex  dictis  dd. 
Duodecim  de  gente  populi  mimtti. 

Thus  the  government  remained  in  the  hands 
of  the  lowest  class,  who,  with  the  approval  of 
Malatesta  (who  was  still  in  Siena),  constituted  a 
Council  of  150  Riformatori,  all  of  the  Popolo  mi- 
nuto, and  a  Signoria  of  fifteen,  also  of  the  Popolo 
minuto,  to  serve  up  to  the  ist  January.  Among 
the  fifteen  were  included  the  five  already  in  office. 
The  new  magistracy,  which  was  called  the  Do- 
mi7ii  Defensoi'es  Populi  et  Comunis  Senarum,  did 
not,  however,  complete  even  the  short  term  as- 
signed to  it;  for,  on  the  i6th  December,  the 
Riformatori,  fearing  the  result  of  the  representa- 
tions which  the  Dodici  Avere  making  to  the  Em- 
peror  at  Rome,    summoned   to   the    Palace    the 

three  Noveschi  and  the  four  Dodicini  who  had 
been  expelled,  and  readmitted  them  to  the  Si- 
gnoria,  retaining  therein  eight  of  the  Popolo 
nmmto,  and  providing  that  from  these  eight 
should  be  selected  the  Captain  of  the  People  ; 
while,  as  a  further  precaution,  it  was  ordered 
that  the  Gonfalonieri  Maestri,  or  standard  bearers 
of  the  three  Terzi,  should  also  be  members  of 
the  Popolo  mimcto. 

And  now,  let  us  pause  for  a  moment  to  take 
breath,  and  to  make  sure  that  we  have  not  lost 
our  way  in  this  labyrinth  of  numbers  and  of 
names,  this  dizzying  mutation  of  governments 
and  of  factions. 

To  recapitulate.  In  the  last  four  months 
of  1368  the  government  of  Siena  was  changed 
four  times.  The  exclusive  rule  of  the  Dodici 
having  come  to  an  end  w4th  the  revolution  of 
2nd  September,  the  following  magistracies  came 
into  being  and  disappeared  in  rapid  succession : 
first,  on  the  6th  September,  a  magistracy  of 
THIRTEEN  CONSULS,  consisting  of  10  Gentiluomini 
and  3  Noveschi ;  second,  on  the  24th  September, 
a  magistracy  of  TWELVE,  consisting  of  4  Dodi- 
cini, 3  Noveschi  and  5  Popolani  viiniiii;  third,  on 
the  iith  December,  a  magistracy  of  fifteen, 
composed  exclusively  of  members  of  the  Popolo 
mimtto;  and  fourth,  on  the  i6th  December,  another 
magistracy  of  fifteen,  consisting  of  8  Popola7ii 
minuti  4  Dodicini  and  3  Noveschi. 

Thus  a  fourth  Monte,  that  of  the  Rifonnatoii , 
came  into  existence,  its  name  being  taken  from 
the  Consiglio  dei  Rifoi'viatoi'i  which  had  instituted 
the  new  order  of  things.  This  Council,  which 
was  subsequently  enlarged  more  than  once, 
elected  the  most  able  of  its  members  to  the 
Signoria,  and  remained  at  the  head  of  the  State 
as  a  permanent  assembly,  superior  to  the  magis- 
tracy of  the  Oidndici  and  the  other  ordinary 
councils.  ^Moreover,  that  magistracy  itself  (in 
spite  of  the  participation  therein  which  was 
granted  to  the  4  Dodicini  and  3  Noveschij  was 
known  as  the  magistracy  of  the  Rifoyinatori  from 
the  preponderant  portion  of  its  members. 

There  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  the  Ri- 
forviatori  sincerely  and  earnestly  desired  to  be 
Reformers  in  the  best  sense  of  the  word;  and 
their  first  efforts  were  devoted  to  the  healing 
of  old  discords. 

The  gentibiomini,  they  felt,  must  still  be  ex- 
cluded from  oihce.  That  was  the  general  sen- 
timent of  the  age  in  all  the  Italian  communes;  and 
indeed,  as  Gregorovius  remarks,  "  the  struggle 
of  the  People  against  the  nobles  was  merely  a 
continuation  of  the  struggle  against  feudalism  ". 
Nor  had  the  conduct  of  the  Casate,  during  the 
brief  period  of  their  renewed  authority,  been 
such  as  to  inspire  the  confidence  of  the  lower 
classes  ;  for,  says  Xero  di  Donati,  "  in  the  said 

time,  to  wit  in  the  twenty-two  days  that  they 
ruled,  the  Geniiluomini  cruelly  killed  many  citizens, 
causing  them  to  be  beheaded  and  slain  ;  and 
great  was  the  number  of  them  "  ;  w^hile,  after 
their  government  had  been  overthrown  and  they 
themselves  expelled  from  the  City,  they  had 
never  ceased  to  burn  and  pillage  the  country- 
side up  to  the  very  gates  of  Siena,  "  on  such 
wise  that  the  City  was  besieged  ". 

With  regard  to  the  Nove  and  the  Dodici 
(although  neither  the  narrow  and  intolerant  oli- 
garchal  rule  of  the  one,  nor  the  pusillanimity 
and  self-seeking  of  the  other  were  forgotten)  the 
Rifor77iatori  proved  themselves  generous.  As  we 
have  seen,  they  admitted  members  of  each  of 
those  Monti  to  the  supreme  magistracy,  only  re- 
taining for  themselves  a  bare  majority.  Indeed, 
it  w^as  their  great  object  to  bring  about  a  union 
of  the  whole  People ;  and  to  this  end  they  com- 
manded that  the  party  names  of  Nove  and  Dodici 
should  be  abolished  and  that,  according  to  the 
number  of  the  families  of  the  two  orders,  the 
first  should  henceforth  be  called  Popolo  del  minor 
numero ;  the  second  Popolo  del  numero  mediocre; 
while  they  themselves  assumed  the  title  of  Popolo 
del  maggior  numei'O. 

Unfortunately,  however,  their  honest  efforts 
for  a  reconciliation  met  with  no  response;  and, 
hardly  had  the  new  government  been  constituted, 
than  the  Dodici  and  the  Salimbeni  rose  against 

—   8o  — 

it.  Aided  by  Charles  IV,  who  returned  from 
Rome  on  the  22nd  December,  and  by  the  men- 
at-arms  under  Malatesta,  with  the  secret  agree- 
ment that  "  misser  Malatesta  dovea  avere  pe7'  questo 
Siena  a  tirannia  de  Lompe7'ado7'e  per  20  mila  fio7'ini 
d'  oro  r  anno.  E  li  Salimbeni,  e  li  Dodici  dne  di 
sangue,  e  li  forestieri  ti'e  di  sacco  "  {^),  they  attacked 
the  Palazzo  Pubblico  (18  January,  1369)  and  ex- 
pelled the  three  Noveschi  on  the  pretext  that  that 
Order  was  plotting  to  recall  the  nobles.  But 
the  Signoria  knew  the  character  of  the  men  with 
whom  they  had  to  deal,  and  when  they  saw  the 
troops  of  the  Emperor,  to  the  number  of  3000, 
defiling  into  the  Campo,  "  by  inspiration  of  God 
they  were  aware  of  the  treason,  and  anon  com- 
menced the  battle  with  them,  and  they  fought 
in  divers  places  in  the  Campo  ".  The  bell  of 
the  Commune  rang  furiously  overhead  in  the 
Mangia  Tower,  and  from  every  workshop  and 
forge  and  alley,  artisans  and  mechanics  hurried 
to  the  assistance  of  the  magistrates  ;  "  and  the 
Captain  of  the  People  who  was  in  the  Palace 
(his  name  Avas  Alatteino  di  Ser  Ventura  da  Men- 
zano)  went  forth  against  them  with  the  standard 
and    with  a  small  company  ;    and   fighting  with 

(*)  i.  e.  "  That  for  this,  Misser  Malatesta  should  have  the  lordship 
of  Siena,  pajing  therefor  to  the  Emperor  twenty  thousand  golden  florins 
yearly  ;  that  for  two  days  the  Dodici  and  the  Salimbeni  should  have  full 
liberty  to  massacre  their  enemies  throughout  the  city,  and  the  foreign  mer- 
cenaries three  days  in  which  to  sack  it  ". 

—   8i    — 

them,  he  drave  not  a  few  of  them  forth  from 
the  Campo  and  back  to  the  Croce  di  Travaglio  (^) ; 
and  through  every  street  there  was  a  very  great 
battle;  and  there  was  the  Imperial  Standard  cast 
to  earth  and  the  standard-bearer  slain.  The 
Emperor,  beholding  that,  suddenly  turned  back. 
At  Piazza  Tolomei  all  dismounted  and,  holding 
the  palaces  round  about,  made  a  stand;  and 
there  was  a  great  and  incredible  battle,  and  it 
endured  more  than  seven  hours.  And  there  were 
slain  and  wounded  many  Bohemians  and  gentle- 
men of  the  Emperor...  And  at  the  end  the 
said  Emperor  and  his  folk  were  broken  and 
driven  and  thrust  back  into  Casa  Salimbeni ;  and 
there  were  taken  from  them  1200  horses,  and 
all  their  harness  and  weapons  of  war ;  and  there 
were  slain  of  them  400  men,  captains  of  renown, 
and  gentlemen  of  hig-h  estate,  among  whom 
died  one  nephew  of  the  Emperor,  and  one  was 
wounded;  and  of  counts  and  knights  and  noble 
persons,  so    many    were    wounded   that   all   the 

hospitals  were  full  of  them  without  number 

The  Emperor  abode  alone,  alone,  in  the  greatest 
dread  that  ever  any  coward  had.      The  People 

(1)  The  Croce  di  Travaglio  is  the  name  given  to  that  spot  in  the 
centre  of  the  City,  almost  opposite  the  Casino  de'  Nobili,  where  the  three 
main  thoroughfares  meet.  The  derivation  of  the  name  is,  perhaps,  not 
absolutely  certain,  but,  according  to  the  better  opinion,  the  word  Travaglio 
is  simply  a  corruption  of  the  latin  trimn  valliimi,  it  being  the  place  of 
intersection  of  the  three  Valleys.  Compare,  however,  my  "  Eiisamples  ,, 
of  Fra  Filippo  &c,  op.  cit.  page  36,  note  i. 

kept  him  guarded,  and  he  Avept,  and  excused 
himself,  and  embraced  and  kissed  every  person 
that  came  unto  him,  and  said,  '  I  have  been 
betrayed  by  Misser  ]\Ialatesta  and  b}^  ^lisser 
Joanni,  and  by  the  Salimbeni,  and  by  the  Do- 
dici  '  ;  and  he  spake  and  told  them  after  what 
manner....  " 

Thus  was  Charles  obliged  to  come  to  terms 
with  the  magistrates,  upon  whom  he  conferred 
a  privilegiiun  with  a  gold  seal,  constituting  them 
and  their  successors  Imperial  Vicars  in  Siena 
and  in  the  contado,  for  ever.  Thereafter  he 
departed  from  the  City,  with  little  credit  but 
with  some  thousands  of  gold  florins  which  he 
had  borrowed  from  Biccherna. 

The  three  Noveschi  who  had  been  expelled 
were  reinstated  in  the  Palace  with  great  honour. 

In  spite  of  all  that  had  happened,  the  Rifor- 
matori  were  not  yet  willing  to  abandon  hope  of 
a  loyal  and  permanent  reconciliation  between 
all  the  popular  parties.  On  the  31st  January, 
after  having  frankly  begged  the  Noveschi  and 
the  Dodicini  to  act  in  concert  with  them,  they 
caused  a  resolution  to  be  passed  in  the  Consiglio 
Generale  whereby  it  was  provided  that,  on  such 
day  as  the  Signori  Difensori  and  the  Captain  of 
the  People  should  ordain,  there  should  be  cele- 
brated with  the  utmost  solemnity  "  la  messa  della 
Pace  ",  whereto  were  summoned,  together  with 

-  ^3  - 
the  Popolo,  all  the  Nove  and  the  Dodici,  "  e  loro 
discendenti  e  pertinent!";  that,  after  the  mass, 
all  should  make  peace  with  one  another  and 
swear,  "  suUa  pietra  sagrata  ",  to  be  true  and 
leal  to  the  existing  government.  At  the  same 
time  it  was  forbidden  to  "  zanzalare ",  or  to 
calumniate  any  citizen,  while  the  shouting,  "  al 
tempo  d'  alcuno  rumore,  che  Dio  cessi,  Muoia  el 
Popolo!  Muoia  e'  Nove !  Muoia  e'  Dodici !  was, 
like  the  breaking  of  the  peace  or  attempting  to 
subvert  the  government  "  al  presente  riformato  ", 
rendered  highly  penal.  IMoreover,  the  Riforma- 
tori  were  resolved,  if  possible,  that  even  the 
nobles  should  not  be  excluded  from  the  general 
amnesty.  Mediators  from  Florence  were  called 
in,  and  before  the  end  of  June,  the  exiles  returned 
to  the  City  ;  "  and  they  made  great  festival  in 
Siena  with  trumpets,  and  bonfires,  and  merry- 
making, and  professions  of  g'ood  will  (belle  dicia- 
7'ie).  The  Gentiluomini  were  even  admitted  to  the 
minor  offices  of  the  Commune,  although  the  su- 
preme magistracy,  of  course,  remained  closed 
to  them. 

Nevertheless,  peace  did  not  come.  The  dis- 
sentions  between  the  Nove  and  the  Dodici  con- 
tinued, mainly  by  the  fault  of  the  latter.  Through 
the  contemporary  chronicle  runs  the  bitter  re- 
frain, e  tutto  fii  per  operazione  de' Saliinbeni  e  de' Do- 
dici. The  nobles  too,  were  not  satisfied  with  the 
concessions  they   had    obtained,  and   conducted 

-  84  - 

themselves  with  violence  and  lawlessness  alike 
in  the  City  and  in  the  contado,  until  it  became 
necessary  to  promulgate  the  severest  enactments 
against  them. 

Later  on,  the  popolo  viinuto  itself,  which  had 
given  birth  to  the  government  of  the  Riformato7'i, 
became  discontented.  From  the  nature  of  things 
but  few^  of  its  many  members  could  have  a  seat 
in  the  Signoria,  and,  of  course,  every  man  deemed 
himself  as  fit  to  rule  as  his  neighbour.  The 
appetite  for  personal  powder  had  been  created, 
and  those  who  could  not  share  the  offices  and 
emoluments  of  the  State  felt  angry  and  sore  at 
being  passed  over.  The  ill  humour  of  the  prole- 
tariat was  increased  by  the  high  price  of  grain, 
and  by  the  disputes  which  arose  between  the 
wool-carders  and  the  Maestri  of  the  Ai'te  della 
Lana.  In  1370,  these  wool-carders,  men  of  the 
lowest  class,  dwelling  in  the  precipitous  lanes 
about  the  Porta  Ovile,  formed  an  association 
which  they  called  the  Compagnia  del  Bnico.  There 
were  about  300  of  them,  captained  by  a  ligi'ittiere 
(or  retail  vendor  of  woolen  stufifs);  and  hunger 
and  wretchedness  made  them  desperate.  In 
July,  1 37  I,  they  resolved  to  suffer  no  longer,  and 
marched  tumultuously  through  the  city,  demand- 
ing grain  at  the  houses  of  the  wealthy  and 
menacing  those  who  refused  them.  The  Sena- 
tor, a  criminal  mag'istrate,  thereupon  arrested 
three    of    them,    and,    having    extorted     confes- 

—  ^5  - 
sion  from  them  by  torture,  condemned  them 
to  death.  The  Covipagnia  del  Bruco  immediately 
took  up  arms,  and,  after  compelling*  the  Senator 
to  liberate  the  prisoners,  invaded  the  Public 
Palace,  drove  from  the  Signoria  the  four  Dodi- 
cini  and  the  three  Noveschi,  and  replaced  them 
by  seven  of  their  fellow  tatterdemalions. 

For  more  than  two  weeks  the  city  was  in 
perpetual  tumult ;  and  herein  the  Dodici  and  the 
Salimbeni  thought  that  they  saw  an  opportunity 
of  regaining  the  authority  which  they  had  lost. 
Having  suborned  the  Captain  of  the  People  and 
the  Gonfalonieri  Maestri,  they  laid  their  plans  to 
"  cut  to  pieces  the  Compagnia  del  Britco,  the  To- 
lomei,  the  Nove,  the  Bishop  and  certain  others, 
and  then  to  reform  the  City  "  (^). 

By  a  fortunate  accident,  the  Signoria  dis- 
covered the  plot  on  the  night  of  the  29th  July, 
only  a  few  hours  before  it  should  have  been 
carried  into  execution,  and  were  able  to  take 
steps  for  their  own  safety.  They  could  not, 
however,  stop  the  rising;  and,  before  day  broke, 
the  Salimbeni  and  their  followers  had  commenced 
their  bloody  work.  The  Compagnia  del  Bimco 
was  attacked  and  massacred,  houses  and  work- 
shops  were    broken    into,   and    those    wretched 

(')  Cronaca  Sanese,  ad  ann.,  in  Muratori,  XV.  col.  226. — The 
Bishop  was  Jacomo  de'  Malavolti.  He  had  been  consecrated  in  Avignon, 
and  had  only  returned  to  Siena  on  the  8th  of  the  preceding  month.  He 
died  in  November  of  the  same  year — See  Pecci,  Storia  del  Vescovado. 

—   86   — 

wool-carders  were  put  to  the  sword  without 
regard  for  age  or  sex.  The  old  chronicler  graph- 
ically describes  the  horrid  scene  ;  how  "  one 
fled  here  and  another  there",  how  "  some  sought 
to  hide  themselves  and  some  threw  themselves 
over  the  city  walls  ;  their  women  dishevelled 
with  their  cradles  on  their  heads,  and  their 
children  in  their  arms  or  led  by  the  hand,  fleeing 
with  their  terrified  burdens,  so  that  never  was 
there  sight  so  pitiful  ". 

Then  the  tide  turned.  Those  who  had  at- 
tacked the  Palace  were  beaten  off;  the  People 
were  everywhere  victorious,  and  avenged  those 
misdeeds  w4th  many  summary  executions.  Final- 
ly the  Magistracy  of  the  Quindici  was  reformed 
by  the  expulsion  of  the  four  dodicini,  their  seats 
being  filled  by  four  popolani  del  maggior  munero, 
so  that  the  Signoria  was  now  composed  of  three 
of  the  Nove  and  twelve  of  the  Rifonnatori ;  while 
the  faction  of  the  Dodici  were  declared  incapable 
of  office  and  were  deprived  of  their  arms. 

These  continual  commotions,  this  state  of 
living,  as  it  were,  upon  the  brink  of  a  precipice, 
exacerbated  the  minds  of  the  Riformatori.  Their 
nerves  (if  such  things  were  known  in  those 
strenuous  days)  were  affected,  just  as  men's 
nerves  are  affected  by  continual  seismic  distur- 
bances, and  their  very  nature  seemed  to  change. 
Xo  longer  bent  upon  conciliation  and  forgiveness, 

-  87   - 

they  became  irritable  and  cruel,  and  gave  vent 
to  their  lower  instincts  in  ferocious  and  unjust 
measures  of  repression.  They  tortured  witness- 
es, till,  like  that  poor  Fardello  (^),  men  committed 
suicide  rather  than  face  "  examination  "  at  the 
hands  of  the  magistrates  ;  many  paid  the  death 
penalty  on  mere  suspicion;  and  we  read  of  a 
certain  Ser  Agnolo  d'  Andrea,  of  the  Order  of 
the  Dodici,  who  was  condemned  on  no  better 
grounds  than  that  he  invited  to  a  banquet  cer- 
tain friends  of  his  who  were  believed  to  be 
hostile  to  the  government,  without  including 
among  his  guests  any  of  the  Riformatori.  The 
minds  of  men  were  brutalized  and  that  delight 
in  witnessing  suffering  which  lies  dormant  in 
human  nature,  Avas  aroused  and  whetted  by  the 
constant  sight  of  frightful  barbarities.  Criminals 
were  slowly  torn  to  pieces  with  red  hot  pincers 
(attanagliati),  while  bound  upon  a  cart  which  was 
driven  throug'h  the  streets  of  the  city  at  a  walk- 
ing pace,  so  that  all  the  citizens  might  look 
ther-eon  (^).     Nero  di  Donati's  chronicle  becomes 

\i)   Cronaca  Sanese,    ad   ann.    1372,    in  Muratori  XV.  col.  234. 

("-)  See  the  Cionica  Sanese  in  Muratori,  ad  annum  1377. 

In  an  Inventory  of  the  Camera  del  Comune  of  1460,  we  find  the 
following  entries  :  "  Un  coltellaccio  da  squartare  hnomini  a  la  finestra  di 
Alat-thiella^' ;  "Duo  paia  di  tanaglie  da  tanagliare  huomini  alia  delta 
finestra  "/  and,  to  complete  the  list,  "  due  pezzi  di  catene  da  ardere 
huomini  ". 

In  a  sonetto  contra  Don  Diego  Urtado  da  Mendozza,  written  in 
1552,  it  is  declared  that  for  his  "  tanti  falli  "  he  deserves  no  less  a  punish- 
ment than 

"  La  forcha,  '1  fuoco,  '1  carro  e  la  tanaglia  ". 

—    88   — 

one  long  wail.  He  complains  that  "  all  right 
and  all  justice  was  dead  in  the  City  of  Siena  b}^ 
reason  of  the  works  of  the  Dodici  and  of  the 
Salimbeni  "  ;  that  "  things  came  to  such  a  pass 
that  in  Siena,  and  in  the  contado,  they  slew  and 
robbed  everyone — si  uccideva  e  robava  ogni  per- 
sona ".  He  tells  us  how  a  certain  Giovanni  di 
^leo,  a  hosier  of  the  Popolo  maggiore  was  arrested 
by  the  Potesta,  "  the  which  Giovanni  was  the 
greatest  and  most  enormous  sinner  that  dwelt 
ever  in  vSiena.  He  burnt  and  robbed  in  Siena 
many  of  the  houses  and  shops  of  the  Move,  and 
slew  many  women  in  new  and  unheard  of  Avays(^); 
he  lived  with  his  familiars  (con  commari)  and  Avith 
his  daughters  in  most  dishonest  lechery.  This 
man  wounded  himself  and  declared  that  one  of 
the  Dodici  had  wounded  him,  to  the  end  that  he 
might  calumniate  the  Dodici  and  have  money 
from  the  Commune  ;  and  thereof  he  had  much. 
He  was  worthy  of  a  thousand  deaths,  more  than 
any  man  of  whom  the  world  holds  record  ". 
Yet,  because  the  Potesta  wished  to  punish  him 
after  his  deserts,  "  the  Popolo  de'  Riformatori  were 
wrath  with  the  said  Potesta  ;  and  therefore  he 
was  not  re-elected ".  Finally,  beholding  the 
infinite  miseries  of  those  evil  days,  the  chronicler 
is  driven    to    the    conclusion    that   they  are  due 

i'^   "  c  iiccise  donne  pin  per  niiovi  modi  im'sfii/iadi/i  ^' — Apparently 
a  14th  century  '  Jack  the  Ripper  '. 

-  89  - 

to  some  disastrous  stellar  influence.  "  At  this 
time  ",  he  says,   "  there  reigned  in  the  world  a 

planet  which  had  these  eff"ects Brethren  and 

cousins,  husbands  and  wives,  neighbours  and 
friends,  were  at  enmity  with  one  another;  in  all 
the  world  were  sanguinary  quarrels.  I  speak 
not  more  at  large  for  very  shame,  albeit  I  could 
give  innumerable  instances.  In  Siena  no  man 
understood  or  kept  faith ;  neither  the  gentlemen 
among  themselves  nor  with  others ;  nor  the  Nove 
among  themselves  nor  with  others  ;  nor  the  Do- 
dici  among  themselves  nor  with  others  ;  nor  the 
Popolo,  to  wit  those  that  ruled,  with  one  another 
nor  with  others,  in  any  perfect  wise  ;  and  so  the 
world  is  all  one  darkness  ". 

In  their  foreign  policy  the  Riformatori  were 
no  more  successful  than  in  their  government  of 
the  City.  They  were  obliged  to  fight  the  Salim- 
beni  in  the  Contado,  where,  after  they  had  been 
expelled  from  the  town  for  their  crimes,  they 
became  a  standing  menace  to  the  Commune. 
Grave  injuries  too  were  inflicted  by  the  mercen- 
ary bands,  especially  the  Bretons  and  Gascons. 
The  rival  claims  of  Charles  of  Durazzo  and  Louis 
of  Anjou  to  the  Neapolitan  kingdom  caused  fresh 
disturbances  in  Tuscany ;  and  the  Riformato7'i  en- 
tertained hopes  of  gaining  possession  of  Arezzo, 
which  was  first  occupied  by  Durazzo's  men,  and 
then  by  Enguerran  de  Coucy  for  Louis  of  Anjou. 
But,  while  Siena  was  nourishing  dreams  of  con- 

—   go  — 

quest,  the  French  sold  the  coveted  city  to  the 
Florentines,  whose  negotiations  had  been  con- 
ducted with  marvellous  ability  and  despatch 
(1384).  This  cruel  disappointment  brought  the 
gathering  exasperation  of  the  Sienese  against 
their  rulers  to  a  climax  ;  and,  at  last  in  ]\Iarch 
1385,  the  popolo  rose  in  insurrection,  instigated 
and  led  by  the  Gejitiluomini ,  the  Nove  and  the 
Dodici.  By  a  cruel  irony,  the  government  of  the 
Riformatoi'i,  which  had  sought  so  loyally  and 
laboured  so  earnestly  after  peace,  was  overthrown 
to  the  cry  of  Viva  la  pace  /  And  they  were 
"  broken  and  cast  forth  and  evil  entreated  and 
banished  and  slain  ".  More  than  four  thousand 
"  good  artisans  "  were  exiled  from  the  city  to 
the  great  injury  of  Sienese  industries,  and  the 
Signoria  was  once  more  reconstructed ;  this  time 
with  4  Noveschi,  4  Dodicini  and  2  of  the  Popolo. 
Those,  however,  of  the  last  named  order  were 
excluded  who  had,  at  any  time,  been  members 
of  the  Supreme  magistracy  or  sat  in  the  Council 
of  the  Rifo7^matori.  Thus  a  new  popular  order 
came  into  being,  which  assumed  the  name  of 
the  Monte  del  Popolo,  and  which  was  destined  to 
complete  the  tale  of  Sienese  Monti. 

The  bourgeois  element,  once  more  victor- 
ious, sought,  by  the  admission  of  two  of  the 
lower  classes  to  the  magistracy  of  the  Died  Si- 
gnori  Priori  Governatori  del  Coniitne,  to  create  a 
dualism  in  the  Popolo  del  niaggior  numero,  and,  by 

—  91  -- 
splitting  it  into  two  Orders  (the  Monte  dei  Rifo?-- 
mato7'i  and  the  Monte  del  Popolo),  to  secure  their 
own  preponderance.  True  it  is  that,  in  the 
course  of  time,  the  Ordine  del  Popolo  obtained 
great  power  and  influence,  but  its  first  appear- 
ance on  the  stage  of  Sienese  politics  marked 
the  victory  of  the  factions  hostile  to  the  rule 
of  the  working  classes,  created  a  new  division 
among  the  citizens,  and  interposed  a  new  ob- 
stacle to  that  equality  and  civil  concord  in  which 
consists  the  essence  of  an  ideal  democracy — an 
ideal  the  realization  of  which  will  probably  prove 
for  all  time  as  illusory  as  the  old  search  for  the 
terrestrial  paradise,  and  which  the  lapse  of  five 
centuries  does  not  seem  to  have  brought  ap- 
preciably nearer. 

In  1383  the  Qidndici  Riforniatori  had  revived 
the  old  half-forgotten  register  of  the  memorialis 
offensa7'it7n  in  a  book  called  "  il  Balzano  "  (^). 
Therein  we  find  recorded  the  ravages  of  preda- 
tory bands  in  the  contado,  and  how,  about  Tor- 
rita  in  the  Val  di  Chiana,  "  they  took  passing 
great  booty  of  prisoners,  and  left  neither  flocks 
nor  herds,  whether  work-oxen,  cows,  sheep,  swine 
or  horses,  to  the  value  of  very  many  thousand 
florins,  so  that  in  Torrita  there  remained  scarce 

(1)  See  page  29  supra,  note  i. — The  "  Libro  detto  il  Balzano,  con- 
tenente  le  offese  fatte  al  Comune  di  Siena  dal  1383  al  1388  ",  is  published 
by  L.  Banchi  as  an  appendix  to  the  "  Memoriale  delle  offese  ". 

—   92   — 

three  yoke  of  oxen  ".  A  month  later  another 
entry  recalls  another  raid,  the  slaying  of  certain 
shepherds  and  the  driving  off  of  five  thousand 
sheep,  followed  by  the  capture  of  the  Sienese 
captains  who  "  volendo  vendicai'e  la  detta  offesa  e 
ricoveraj^e  V  onore  del  Conitme  di  Siena  ",  rode  after 
the  marauders,  but  fell  into  an  ambush  and  were 
held  to  ransom. 

These  things  vv^ere  bad  enough ;  but  the 
Dieci  soon  had  more  grievous  matter  to  chronicle. 
In  1388,  there  is  an  entry  which  sets  forth  the 
fact  that  "  Misser  Giovanni  of  Montepulciano 
took  Montepulciano  from  our  Commune  and 
gave  it  to  the  Commune  of  Florence "  ;  and 
then,  in  another  hand,  "  The  Florentines  took 
Cortona  from  us  while  we  were  in  alliance  with 
them.  In  the  Instrument  of  the  said  League 
they  covenanted  to  defend  for  us  Cortona  and 
Montepulciano,  and  they  have  taken  from  us 
both  the  one  and  the  other.  In  a  thousand 
ways  they  mocked  us  and  deceived  us  under 
pretext  of  desiring  to  return  them  to  us,  with 
such  and  so  great  lies  and  falsities  that  it  would 
be  over  long  to  recount  them,  and  all  to  the 
shame  and  infamy  of  our  Commune  ". 

In  fact,  Florence,  ever  greedy  of  dominion, 
and  never  bound  by  any  pact  which  it  was  to 
her  interest  to  break,  had  not  been  long  in 
realizing  how  terribly  Siena  had  been  crippled 
by  the  banishment  of    so  many  of  her  citizens. 

—  93  — 
In  1387  she  cast  longing  eyes  upon  Montepul- 
ciano — the  old  apple  of  discord  between  the 
Communes — and  having  fomented  a  rebellion  in 
the  subject  town,  then  shamelessly  offered  her 
services  as  arbitrator.  For  the  moment  she 
delayed  reaping  the  fruit  of  her  treachery,  and 
on  the  29th  October  gave  judgment  in  favour 
of  Siena.  This  decision,  however,  had  but  little 
effect,  for  Montepulciano  again  revolted  and  of- 
fered itself  to  Florence,  which  now  no  longer 
hesitated  to  accept  its  submission.  War  fol- 
lowed, and  Siena,  unable  to  resist  the  aggres- 
sions of  her  stronger  neighbour,  appealed  to  Gian 
Galeazzo  of  Milan  for  assistance,  only  to  find  that, 
ere  many  years  were  over,  her  new  ally  had 
made  himself  her  master.  It  is  true  that  the 
ducal  suzerainty  only  lasted  till  1403  ;  but  the 
submission  of  the  Commune  to  the  dreaded  one- 
man-rule  (il  governo  d'  U7i  solo),  for  however  short 
a  period,  is  sadly  significant  of  the  weakened 
moral  fibre  of  the  Sienese. 

Thus  ingloriously  ended  the  14th  century 
which  had  beg'un  so  brightly ;  and  that  same 
vSiena  which  had  defied  three  Emperors;  which 
had  not  feared  to  close  her  gates  in  the  face  of 
the  terrible  Barbarossa;  which  had  hardly  felt 
uneasiness  at  the  approach  of  the  seventh  Henry; 
and  had  seen  the  fourth  Charles  humbled  and 
weeping,  and  at  her  mercy,  was  now  the  prey 
of  a  petty  Italian  despot. 


It  was  a  century  of  great  crimes,  steeped 
in  cruelty,  red  with  slaughter,  and  stained  with 
ever  increasing  licentiousness.  Naturally,  there- 
fore, we  should  expect  it  also  to  be  a  century 
of  great  saints,  for  extremes  meet,  and,  even 
as  corruption  and  every  kind  of  wickedness  form 
the  inevitable  reaction  from  excessive  devotional 
tendencies,  so  do  asceticism,  morbid  introspec- 
tion and  mystic  yearnings  follow  close  upon  the 
heels  of  corruption.  Xor  are  our  expectations 
doomed  to  disappointment.  The  Blessed  Ber- 
nardo Tolomei,  who  founded  the  Order  of  the 
Monks  of  Oliveto ;  the  Blessed  Giovanni  Colom- 
bini,  who  founded  that  of  the  Poveri  Gesuati  ; 
vSt  Catherine,  the  worthiest  of  all  women  to  be 
canonised;  San  Bernardino,  the  mighty  preacher; 
were  all  Sienese.  Verily,  Mr.  Symonds  is  right 
when  he  asserts  that  few  cities  have  given  four 
such  saints  to  Modern  Christendom. 

Of  these,  the  most  celebrated  and,  perhaps, 
also  the  noblest  and  the  best,  was  Caterina  Be- 
nincasa.  Of  the  details  of  her  life  it  is  not 
necessary  to  speak.  Countless  books  have  been 
written  about  her,  and  her  greatness  has  made 
her  the  possession  of  all  ages  and  of  all  peoples. 
Indeed,  it  would  hardly  be  too  much  to  say  that, 
for  many  persons,  Siena  is  simply  the  town  of 
St  Catherine ;  and  it  is  unquestionable  that  the 

—  95  — 
ancient  city  has  reaped  more  glory  from  the 
holy  life  of  that  simple  maiden,  than  from  all 
its  wars  and  victories,  all  its  poets  and  all  its 
painters.  "  Taken  as  a  whole,  her  life  is  perhaps 
unique  in  history.  Women  have  risen  up  and 
prophesied  since  the  days  when  Deborah  was 
judge  in  Israel;  they  have  rebuked  evil  in  high 
places ;  even  in  Catherine's  day  other  voices 
beside  hers  were  raised  in  protest.  Women 
have  been  patriots  and  soldiers  like  Joan,  the 
maid  of  Orleans.  But  few  women  have  com- 
bined so  many  offices,  and  fulfilled  all  alike  so 
faithfully  "  (').  Nor  is  this  the  less  true  if  we 
admit  with  Mr.  Trollope  that  her  mystic  trances 
were  cataleptic  fits  (''*),  or  hold  her,  with  Dean 
Milman,  "  the  hysterical  dupe  of  artful  confes- 
sors "  (^).  We  may  even  acknowledge  that,  at 
least  in  the  sense  in  which  Mr.  Ruskin  uses  the 
word  (■*),  she  Avas  "insane";  but  none  of  these 
things  can  change  the  g'randeur  of  her  self-sac- 
rifice, the  breadth  and  depth  of  her  sympathy 
with  all  humanity,  or  the  great  work  which 
she  accomplished  in  an  evil  age.  Possibly,  to 
achieve  all  that  she  did  achieve,  she  was  almost 

(1)  Florenxe  Witts,    77?^  Story  of  Catherine  of  Siena. 

(■^)  Thos,  Adolphus  Trollope,  Article.  St.  Catherine,  in  the  Ency- 
clopaedia Brittanica. 

(•')  Latin  Christianity  (4th  edition)  Book  XII,  chap.  XIII,  pages 
26-30  and  notes. 

(^)  Mornings  in  Florence  (New  York,  John  W.  Lovell  Co.  1889) 
page  36. 

justified  in  torturing  that  poor  lovely  body  of 
hers ;  although,  in  this  saner  twentieth  century, 
it  is  hard  to  think  it.  Nevertheless,  when  all 
is  said  and  done,  it  is  incontestable  that  hers 
was  "  one  of  the  best  and  bravest  and  meekest 
woman's  lives  ever  lived  ".  "  Make  the  at- 
tempt ",  says  ]\Irs.  Butler,  in  her  Catheriiie  of  Siena, 
"  make  the  attempt  to  live  a  life  of  prayer  such 
as  she  lived,  and  then,  and  not  till  then,  will 
you  be  in  a  position  which  will  give  you  any 
shadow  of  a  rig'ht  or  any  power  to  gauge  this 
soul's  dealings  with  God  ".  Catherine  finished 
her  life  as  she  had  begun  it,  careless  of  self  and 
full  of  care  for  others  to  the  very  last;  and  so, 
on  the   29th  April,    1380, 

..  mixed  herself  with  heaven,  and  died; 
And  now  on  the  sheer  city-side 
Smiles  like  a  bride. 

Catherine  was  canonised  by  the  great  vSien- 
ese  Pope,  ^Eneas  Sylvius  Piccolomini,  Pius  11. 
The  Bull  which  raised  her  to  the  Altars  of  the 
Church  was  published  in  June,  1461,  and  Pius 
gratified  his  love  for  his  native  city  by  drawing 
up  her  Office  with  his  own  hand  (^). 

(')  Pius  gave  his  approbation  to  a  service  in  which  the  celebrated 
miracle  of  the  Stigmata  was  prominently  asserted,  while  in  some  latin 
verses  which  he  wrote  ad  laudem  Seraphicae  Sponsae  D.  Nostri  Jesii 
Christi,  Beatae  CathaHtiae  de  Senis,  it  is  declared  that 

Stigmata  passa  fuit,  dictu  mirabilc,  Christi. 

This,  of  course,  greatly  annoyed  the  Franciscans    who,  on  behalf  of 

—  97   — 

On  the  8th  September  of  the  year  in  which 
St  Catherine  died,  was  born  in  Alassa  Marittima 
the  great  Saint  and  preacher  Bernardino  Albiz- 
zeschi.  After  an  exceptionally  pure  and  noble 
boyhood,  we  find  him,  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
labouring  with  a  little  band  of  friends,  in  the 
Spedale  della  Scala,  during  the  pestilence  of  1400. 
Two  years  later  he  joined  the  Franciscan  Order. 

To  his  initiative  we  owe  the  erection  of  the 
Convent  of  the  Osservanza  which  stands  upon 
the  hill  of  Capriola,  about  a  mile  from  Siena. 
The  modern  building  is,  however,  of  later  date. 
Here  he  studied  and  here  he  preached  for  sev- 
eral years;  and  it  was  not  until  141 7  that  he 
began   his   apostolate   in   Milan,       Ere   long  his 

their  founder,  claimed  a  monopoly  in  that  peculiar  brand  of  miracle  ;  and 
when  SixtusIV,  himself  a  Franciscan,  ascended  the  papal  throne,  he  hastened 
to  vindicate  the  rights  of  St  Francis  and  issued  a  decree  by  which  it  was 
forbidden  to  represent  St  Catherine  as  receiving  the  stigmata  under  pain 
of  ecclesiastical  censures.  "  Whether  Sixtus  intended  by  this  decree  to  assert 
that  no  such  miracle  was  performed  on  Catherine,  or  that  it  ought  not  to 
have  been  performed  in  justice  to  St  Francis,  or  that  having  been  unfor- 
tunately performed,  nothing  ought  to  be  sai4  about  it,  is  left  (says  Mr.  Trol- 
lope)  to  the  very  unsatisfactory  conjectures  of  indiscreet  inquirers  ". 

It  was  now  the  turn  of  the  Dominicans  to  be  indignant  ;  and  so  the 
troublesome  controversy  dragged  on  for  about  a  century  and  a  half,  until 
Urban  VIII,' adroitly  reconciled  (as  far  as  possible)  the  equally  authoritative, 
but  quite  contradictory,  rulings  of  Pius  II  and  Sixtus  IV,  by  declaring  that 
the  stigmata  were  "  not  bloody,  but  luminous  ".  It  would  be  curious  to 
learn  which  sort  of  stigmata  the  pundits  of  the  Church  consider  superior. 

For  the  student  of  Sienese  art  this  otherwise  futile  and  childish 
controversy  acquires  a  certain  interest  on  account  of  the  picture  of  the 
Tavoletta  di  Gabella  of  1499,  representing  St  Catherine  receiving  the  Stig- 
mata. To  the  right  is  Pius  II,  holding  in  his  hand  a  scroll  with  the  legend 
STiMATA  PASSA  FViT,  a  patriotic  protest  on  the  part  of  the  artist  against  the 
decree  of  Francesco  da  Savona. 

-  98  - 

eloquence  made  him  famous  throughout  Italy, 
and,  wherever  he  appeared,  crowds  thronged  to 
hear  him.  Between  this  year  and  his  death  in 
1444,  he  preached  in  more  than  eighty  different 
towns  and  cities  (^).  With  especial  enthusiasm 
did  he  inculcate  the  adoration  of  the  Holy  Name 
of  Jesus,  and  wherever  he  went  he  sought  to 
persuade  his  hearers  to  paint  or  carve  the  sacred 
letters  I.  H.  S.,  surrounded  by  a  halo  of  golden 
rays,  on  their  churches,  houses  and  palaces^ — 
tiini  sa7ictorimi  teynplis,  turn  privatis  domibus.  This 
device  is  to  be  seen  above  the  Camollia  Gate, 
in  the  Sala  del  Mappamondo,  and  in  countless 
other  places  in  Siena. 

Some  idea  of  Fra  Bernardino's  influence 
with  his  fellow  citizens  may  be  obtained  from 
the  fact  that,  in  deference  to  his  exhortations, 
the  Consiglio  della  Campana  actually  amended 
the  laws  and  enacted  what  were  known  as  the 
Rifo7'i7iagioni  di  /rate  Bemaj'dhio. 

He  preached  in  Siena  many  times  ;  first  in 
1405,  in  the  Oratorio  of  Sant  Onofrio;  a  second 
time  in  the  Cathedral  in  14 10;  in  May,  1425,  in 
the  Piazza  del  Campo,  in  the  presence  of  the 
Signoria  and  of  a  crowd  which,  according  to  the 
chroniclers,  numbered,  on  more  than  one  occasion, 
40,000  persons;  Avhile  on  the  15th  August,  1427, 

(')  A  list  of  these  will  be  found  on  pages  488,  489  of  the  Stoiia  di 
San  Bernardino  da  Siena  by  F.  Alessio. 

—  99   — 

he  commenced  those  forty-five  sermons  which 
were  published,  a  few  years  ago,  by  Luciano 
Banchi,  under  the  title  of  Le  prediche  volgari  di 
San  Bernar'dino  da  Siejia  dette  nella  Piazza  del  Campo 
V  anno  MCCCCXXVIL  They  consist  of  three 
volumes,  of  about  400  pages  each,  every  word 
of  which  is  well  worth  reading. 

During  the  sojourn  of  the  Emperor  Sigis- 
mund  in  Siena  (1432-3),  he  contracted  a  strong 
affection  and  regard  for  Fra  Bernardino.  "  The 
days  passed  without  seeing  him  ",  he  used  to 
say,  "  are  days  without  light  ". 

The  Sienese  were  most  anxious  that  their 
great  fellow  citizen  should  become  their  Bishop, 
but,  although  the  Pope  nominated  him  to  the 
see,  he  firmly  refused  the  proffered  honour. 

In  the  spring  of  1 444  he  saw  Siena  for  the 
last  time ;  and  the  last  time  that  his  fellow  cit- 
izens listened  to  his  beloved  voice  he  spoke 
with  great  earnestness  of  justice  and  of  the  good 
government  of  the  Republic.  He  preached  in 
the  Piazza  del  Duomo.  A  few  weeks  later  (20th 
May)  he  died  at  Aquila,  at  the  hour  of  vespers, 
while  the  friars  were  singing  the  words:  Pater, 
vianifestavi  nomen  tutini  honiinibus. 

He  was  canonised  six  years  later  by  the 
command  of  Nicolas  V  (^). 

C'  It  ma)'  be  remarked,  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  do  not  un- 
derstand Italian,  that  a  very  readable  Life  of  San  Bernardino  has  been 
written  in  French  by  Paul  Thureau-Dangin.  The  Italian  translation  is, 
however,  more  useful  on  account  of  the  additional  notes. 

lOO    — 

Giovanni  Tolomei  (for  the  name  Bernardo 
was  only  assumed  when  he  entered  the  religious 
life)  was  born  in  1272.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he 
became  doctor  both  of  philosophy  and  of  civil 
and  canon  law,  was  subsequently  knighted,  and, 
according  to  the  legend  of  his  life,  "  ruled  the 
State  " — an  obvious  exaggeration,  since  the  To- 
lomei appear  among  the  casate  excluded  from 
the  government,  by  the  law  of  1277  (^).  When 
he  was  forty  years  of  age  he  was  stricken  with 
sudden  blindness,  and,  having  received  his  sight 
again  in  answer  to  a  prayer  to  the  Virgin,  re- 
nounced the  world.  AVith  two  companions,  he 
betook  himself  to  the  wild  hills  of  Accona. 
The  three  anchorites  were  soon  joined  by  re- 
cruits of  a  like  temper.  Six  years  later,  Gio- 
vanni visited  Pope  John  XXII  at  Avignon !  and, 
at  that  pontiff's  bidding,  the  Bishop  of  Arezzo 
prescribed  the  rule  of  St  Benedict  for  the  new 
brotherhood,  which  took  the  name  of  the  Con- 
gregation of  St  Alary  of  Alount  Olivet.  Its  found- 
er died  about  the  year  1348,  and  was  beatified 
by  the  Church  for  his  great  virtues. 

It  only  remains  to  add  that  one  of  Air.  J.  A. 
Symonds'  New  Italian  Sketches  deals  with  Alonte 
Oliveto  and  the  Blessed  Bernardo  Tolomei. 

Giovanni  Colombini  w^as  born  early  in  the 

(')  See  page  46,  supra,   note  ('). 

—     lOI     - — 

14th  century,  probably  between  1300  and  1304. 
He  married  in  1342.  He  seems  to  have  be- 
longed to  the  Moiite  de'  Nove,  and  is  said  to 
have  been  one  of  the  Supreme  Alag'istracy.  He 
was  converted  about  1355,  and,  having  bestowed 
all  his  worldly  goods  on  the  Convent  of  Santa 
Bonda  (where  he  had  placed  his  thirteen  year 
old  daughter)  and  on  the  hospital  of  S.  Maria 
della  Scala,  with  the  proviso  that  the  income 
arising  from  the  property  thus  conveyed  should 
be  payed  to  his  wife  during  her  lifetime,  he 
"  espoused  Most  High  Voxevty—altissivia  pover- 
ta'\  and  wandered  through  the  city  and  country, 
preaching  a  gospel  of  love  and  reconciliation. 
So  great  was  his  success,  and  so  vast  the  num- 
ber of  the  disciples  who  abandoned  the  world 
at  his  bidding,  that  his  biographer  declares  that, 
for  this  cause,  he  was  banished  by  the  Dodici, 
lest  the  city  should  be  depopulated  by  his  doc- 
trines (1357)- 

Ten  years  later  the  Order  of  the  Poveri 
Gesuati,  which  he  had  founded,  was  approved 
by  Urban  V ;  and,  a  few  weeks  or  days  after- 
wards, Colombini  died  at  the  Monastery  of  San 
Salvatore  in  Monte  Amiata. 

His  letters  are  among  the  most  remarkable 
in  the  category  of  ascetic  works  of  the  14th 
century  ;  while,  besides  his  prose  writings,  he 
composed  rime  spirituali  or  lauds.  It  seems  that 
the  Gesuati  were  accustomed  to  sing  continually 


as  they  wandered  about  the  country,  and  indeed, 
at  almost  all  other  times.  Naturally  enough, 
those  of  them  who  had  the  knack  of  versifying* 
sang  their  own  words.  Of  the  lauds  of  Colom- 
bini  himself  only  one  authentic  example  has  come 
down  to  us;  but  we  possess  quite  a  large  num- 
ber by  a  follower  of  his,  Bianco  da  Siena.  These 
are  w^ritten  "in  the  golden  tongue  of  the  14th 
century — nella  linqita  dell'  aitrea  trecento  ".  They 
form  no  contemptible  contribution  to  Italian 
religious  literature  (^). 

It  would,  of  course,  be  easy  to  mention 
many  other  Sienese  Saints  who  lived  during  the 
period  under  consideration,  but  the  four  of  whom 
I  have  spoken  are  the  most  important,  and  the 
space  at  my  disposal  is  sadly  limited. 

Over  the  events  of  the  greater  part  of  the 
15th  century  we  may  pass  very  lightly.  Im- 
portant for  the  story  of  literature  and  of  art, 
in  its  political  aspect  it  is  certainly  the  least 
interesting  period  of  Sienese  history,  and  is, 
perhaps,  chiefly  remarkable  in  connection  with 
the  names  of  three  great  men  whose  joint  lives 
span  its  entire  length: — San  Bernardino    (1380- 

(')  The  reader  who  is  curious  about  the  matter  will  find  more  than 
one  of  these  rime  spirituali  in  The  "  Ensamples  "  of  Fra  Filippo,  &c. 
op.  cit.     See  the  Index  to  that  work  s.  v.  Laudi  spirituali. 


1444);  ^neas  Sylvius  Piccolomini  (1405-1464); 
and  Pandolfo  Petrucci  (1451-1512). 

Of  the  first  of  these  I  have  already  spoken ; 
the  second  belongs  rather  to  the  story  of  Italy 
and  of  the  Papacy  than  to  that  of  Siena  (^);  so 
that  we  need,  in  fact,  only  concern  ourselves, 
in  this  place,  with  the  last  of  the  three,  Pan- 
dolfo "  the  Magnificent  ". 

During  the  earlier  years  of  the  century,  we 
hear  less  than  heretofore  of  the  discord  between 
the  various  vionti ;  and  it  seems  not  improbable 
that,  for  a  time,  the  intensity  of  their  antag- 
onism was,  in  fact,  diminished  by  the  pressure 
of  external  circumstances.  From  1409,  when, 
in  consequence  of  the  decisions  of  the  Council 
of  Pisa,  Florence  and  Siena  had  declared  against 
Gregory  XII,  until  the  death  of  Ladislas  of 
Naples,  the  Sienese  had  enough  to  do  to  defend 
themselves  against  the  incursions  of  that  mon- 
arch ;  while,  in  1431,  they  were  involved  in  a 
fresh  war  with  Florence.  Indeed  it  was  not  till 
after  the  Peace  of  Ferrara,  that  the  internal 
dissentions  again  acquired  something  of  their 
old  virulence;  and  doubtless,  as  long  as  he  lived, 
the  influence  of  Fra  Bernardino    was  potent  in 

(')  How  important  a  part  Pius  II  played  upon  the  stage  of  Italy  and 
of  Europe  may  be  judged  from  the  fact  that  the  whole  of  the  third  volume 
of  the  late  Bishop  Creighton's  monumental  work  might  be  entitled,  with 
perfect  propriety,  "  The  Life  and  Times  of  Pius  //"—With  regard  to 
the  Pope's  connection  with  Siena,  see  especially,  pages  122-123,  212,  244-246 
and  355  seq. 

—    I04  — 

maintaining  civic  concord.  In  1433  niany  of 
the  Dodici  were  exiled;  and,  in  145 1,  a  large 
number  of  the  Gentiliwmini,  together  with  more 
of  the  Dodici,  shared  the  same  fate.  In  1459, 
at  the  request  of  Pius  II,  the  nobles  were  read- 
mitted to  a  share  in  the  government  ;  but  this 
concession,  grudgingly  made,  only  remained  in 
force  for  a  few  years,  and,  on  the  death  of  the 
Pope  (1464),  was  revoked  altogether,  save  in  the 
case  of  members  of  the  Piccolomini  house,  who 
were  decreed  to  be  popolani  and  were  allowed 
to  retain  all  their  privileges. 

The  failure  of  the  Pazzi  conspiracy  in  1478 
led  to  a  war  in  which  Florence  and  Milan  were 
opposed  to  the  Pope  and  the  King  of  Naples. 
Siena  sided  with  the  latter  and  shared  in  the 
victory  of  Poggio  Imperiale  and  in  the  taking 
of  Colle  di  Val  d'  Elsa.  In  1480,  after  peace 
had  been  declared,  Alfonso  of  Calabria,  who  had 
captained  the  allied  forces,  attempted  to  impose 
his  suzerainty  upon  the  Commune,  and  had 
actually  succeded  in  reorganizing  the  govern- 
ment to  his  own  advantage  and  to  that  of  his 
supporters  among  the  citizens,  when  he  was 
recalled  to  the  south  by  the  news  that  Otranto 
had  been  stormed  by  the  Turks.  In  1483  the 
Noveschi,  who  had  favoured  his  designs,  Avere 
condemned  to  perpetual  banishment  from  the 
government  and  from  the  city,  while  the  Monte 
del  Popolo  possessed  themselves  of  the  lion's  share 

—    I05   — 

of  the  offices  and  emoluments  of  the  state.  But 
in  perpetuo  was  an  empty  form  of  words  in  those 
turbulent  Italian  Republics.  The  Noveschi,  being 
"  fat  burg"hers  ",  with  powerful  connections, 
abilities  and  traditions,  only  gained  increased 
strength  and  influence  in  exile  ;  and  five  years 
later,  on  the  22nd  July  1487,  they  returned 
triumphantly  to  Siena,  dispersed  the  few  ad- 
herents of  the  popolo  Avho  offered  resistance,  mur- 
dered the  Captain  of  the  People,  reorganized  the 
State,  and  then,  their  own  preponderance  being 
assured  by  their  numerical  strength  and  influ- 
ence, they  accorded  equal  shares  of  power  to 
the  other  Monti. 

Among  the  returned  exiles  was  Pandolfo 
Petrucci,  a  man  of  little  learning  but  of  great 
natural  abilities,  subtle  and  prudent,  gifted  with 
a  profound  knowledge  of  the  baser  side  of 
human  nature,  and  entirely  free  from  conscien- 
tious scruples.  The  portrait  which  Baldassare 
Peruzzi  has  left  of  him,  and  which  adorns  the 
first  volume  of  Pecci's  Memorie,  seems  that  of  a 
typical  Renaissance  despot ;  a  broad  and  some- 
what high  forehead ;  clearly  marked,  but  not 
too  heavy  eye-brows  ;  well  formed  nose  ;  calm 
vigilant  eyes,  reading  all,  revealing  nothing;  a 
square  chin  and  large  voluptuous  mouth  with 
firmly  compressed  lips — the  presentment,  in  fact, 
of  a  strong,  determined  personality,  dangerous 
to  thwart,  Avithout  fear  and  without  remorse. 

—   io6  — 

In  a  city  as  corrupt  and  discordant  as  was 
Siena,  it  was  no  very  difficult  matter  for  such 
a  man  to  make  himself  master  of  the  State;  and 
that  power  which  he  had  gained  by  diplomacy 
and  finesse,  Pandolfo  succeeded  in  preserving 
with  a  strong  hand.  Secure  in  the  support 
of  the  French  king,  who  had  stood  his  friend 
when  the  Borgia  sought  his  ruin,  he  fortified 
his  position  by  alliance  with  Florence — the  old 
policy  of  the  Noveschi  which  had  made  Siena  so 
prosperous  during  the  first  half  of  the  fourteenth 
century — and  directed  the  internal  affairs  of  the 
State  by  means  of  the  Collegia  della  Balm  (a  sort 
of  permanent  committee,  first  introduced  in  1455) 
which,  although  occasionally  reorganized  for  the 
purpose  of  conciliating  rival  factions,  remained 
always  subject  to  his  will.  Nevertheless,  as 
Professor  Paoli  points  out,  his  rule  was,  strictly 
speaking,  rather  a  "domination"  than  a"signory", 
inasmuch  as  he  left  the  established  form  of  gov- 
ernment intact,  and  exercised  despotic  authority 
only  in  virtue  of  his  strength  of  character  and 
the  continued  increase  of  his  personal  power. 
He  found  an  able  servant  and  coadjutor  in  his 
secretary,  Antonio  da  Venafro,  whom  Alachiavelli 
calls  "il  cuore  siio  ed  il  caffo  degli  altri  icomini  " , 
and  whose  selection  by  Pandolfo  Avas  alone  suf- 
ficient, in  the  judgment  of  the  Florentine,  to 
prove   the  latter  valentisshno  iiomo. 

Pandolfo    w^as    not    naturally    cruel,    but  he 

—    loy   — 

seems  to  have  been  perfectly  callous  ;  and,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  removal  of  Nicolo  Borghesi, 
his  father  in  law,  there  are  ugly  stories  of  men 
precipitated  down  prison-drops  and  buried  alive 
in  razzaie  or  charnel-houses.  Of  one  of  these 
poor  wretches  it  is  related  that  he  was  thrust 
by  treachery  into  the  ossuary  of  the  hospital, 
where  for  days  his  cries  were  heard  growing 
fainter  and  fainter,  until,  at  last,  death  came  to 
his  release.  However,  such  and  worse  methods 
of  execution  were  common  enough  in  those 

That  Pandolfo  was  avaricious  and  lent  at 
usury  to  the  Commune  cannot  be  denied,  but 
that  was  a  time-honoured  method  of  acquiring 
and  maintaining  influence  in  the  conduct  of 
public  affairs,  as  we  have  seen  in  the  case  of 
the  Arti  as  early  as  the  1 3th  century  (^).  What 
may  be  expected  to  weigh  more  heavily  against 
him,  in  a  woman-ridden  age  like  ours,  when 
private  morality  is  too  often  made  the  touchstone 
of  public  virtue,  is  his  intrigue  with  the  fair 
Caterina  of  wSalicotto,  the  daughter  of  a  black- 
smith and  wife  of  a  pack-saddle  maker,  whom, 
on  account  of  her  buxom  charms,  the  people 
called  Spada  a  due  mani.  Certainly  the  most 
confirmed  optimist  can  find  nothing  idyllic  in 
the  squalid  amours  of  an  old  man  of  nearly 
sixty  with  a  vulgar  and  mercenary  plebeian. 

(')  bee  page  29  supra. 

—    io8   — 

Still,  when  all  is  said  and  done,  Pandolfo 
did  good  work  in  his  day  and  generation.  As 
long  as  he  lived  he  succeeded  in  repressing  the 
anarchy  and  turbulence  which  was  hurrying 
Siena  to  her  doom.  Under  his  rule  she  enjoyed 
peace  abroad,  and  settled  government,  equal 
laws  and  ever  increasing  prosperity  at  home. 
That  the  methods  he  employed  were  often  blame- 
worthy, if  judg'ed  by  the  criterions  of  the  twen- 
tieth century,  is  indisputable  ;  but,  if  ever  the 
end  can  justify  the  means,  this  was  assuredly 
such  an  end.  "  Pandolfo  the  Good  ",  even 
perhaps  "  Pandolfo  the  Great  ",  w^ould  sound 
strangely  ;  but  "  Pandolfo  the  IMagnificient  " 
appears  to  the  dispassionate  historian  a  fitting 
tribute  to  the  man's  true  worth  (^). 

At  the  same  time,  in  arriving  at  such  a  con- 

(')  The  following  is  the  judgment  of  a  contemporarj'  chronicler,  ^Yho, 
although  intenselj'  hostile  to  Pandolfo,  admits  his  ability  :  Tamen  fjiit  sa- 
pientissimus  omniuvi,  ut  connumeraretiir  ctcm  Joanne  Bentivolo,  et  Laii- 
rentio  Medice. 

Of  modem  writers  C.  Falletti-Fossati,  in  his  work  on  the  Princi- 
pali  cause  della  Caduta  della  Rep.  Senese  (page  92),  fully  recognizes  the 
grande  abilitd  politica  of  Pandolfo,  and  points  out  how  extremely  superficial 
is  the  view  of  his  character  taken  by  Burckhardt ;  while  no  less  an  authority 
than  Professor  Zdekauer  speaks  of  him  as  U7i  uomo  non  comune,  and  argues 
that  the  diametrically  opposite  opinions  formed  about  him  b)'  different  histo- 
rians are  alone  sufficient  to  prove  that  he  was  a  remarkable  man — See  Lo 
Studio  di  Siena  nel  Rinasciniento,  page  124. 

I  am  the  more  anxious  to  call  the  attention  of  the  reader  to  these 
facts,  because  I  am  led  to  believe  that  Professor  Laxgton  Douglas,  in  his 
forthcoming  History  of  Sie^ia,  holds  a  brief  for  the  prosecution. 

The  arguments  on  either  side  of  the  question  are  impartially,  if 
succinctly,  stated  in  U.  G.  ^Ioxdolfo's  Pandolfo   PetTucci,  pages  156-162. 

—    lOy    — 

elusion,  it  is  necessary  to  keep  perpetually  in 
mind  the  great  work  which  he  accomplished  and 
the  enormous  difficulties  which  he  overcame. 
Apart  from  that,  he  might  almost  seem,  as  Burck- 
hardt  calls  him,  "  insignificant  and  malicious  ". 
If  he  sinned,  his  end  was  sad  enough  to  e- 
voke  the  pity  of  the  sourest  moralist.  Hated 
and  feared  by  the  vast  majority  of  the  citizens, 
estranged  from  his  wife,  disappointed  in  his 
children  and  old  before  his  time,  he  longed  to 
retire  into  private  life,  but  dared  not  trust  the 
helm  to  untried  hands.  Wracked  and  wasted 
with  asthma,  he  sought  relief  at  the  Bagni  di 
S.  Filippo,  near  Radicofani,  but  found  no  benefit 
from  the  waters,  and  resolved  to  return  to  Siena. 
On  the  2  1  May,  15 12,  he  reached  San  Quirico 
and  withdrew  to  his  chamber  to  rest.  Two 
hours  later  his  servants  found  him  dead. 

"  The  fire  is  out,  and  spent  the  dregs  thereof. 
(This  is  the  end  of  every  song  man  sings.) 
The  golden  wine  is  drunk  ;  the  dregs  remain 
Bitter  as  wormwood,  and  as  salt  as  pain  ; 
And  health  and  hope  have  gone  the  way  of  love 
Into  the  drear  oblivion  of  lost  things  ". 

He  was  buried  in  the  convent  of  the  Osser- 
vanza  where  his  grave  may  still  be  seen.  Upon 
it  was  inscribed  this  legend: — 

Ui  sua  Postei-itas  secu7n  requiesceret,    Urnam 
Hanc  sibi  Pandiilphus  jussit  &  esse  suam. 

Pandolfo  w^as  not  successful  in  founding-  a 
dynasty ;  for  his    sons   and  kinsmen,  while   pos- 

I  lO 

sessed  of  most  of  his  worst  qualities,  displayed 
none  of  his  political  ability  and  strength  of  pur- 
pose. They  succeeded  to  his  authority,  but 
could  not  maintain  it,  and  in  a  few  short  years 
destroyed  themselves  and  one  another. 

The  eldest  brother,  Borg^hese,  an  incapable, 
haughty  and  dissolute  youth,  was  expelled  by 
his  cousin  Raffaello  in  151 5.  The  new  despot 
proved  himself  a  bitter  enemy  to  Pandolfo's 
children.  He  caused  Borghese  and  the  younger 
Fabio  to  be  proclaimed  as  rebels ;  while  the  Car- 
dinal Alfonso  was  strangled  in  Castel  Sant'An- 
gelo  by  a  Moor,  at  the  command  of  Leo  X. 
Raffaello  died  in  1522,  detested  by  the  Sienese. 
When  his  body  was  carried  to  San  Domenico 
for  burial,  the  mob  surrounded  it  with  such 
execrations  and  fury  that  "  it  seemed  as  if  the 
mouth  of  hell  was  opened  ".  At  last  the  Bar- 
gello  arrived,  only  to  be  greeted  with  showers 
of  stones,  while  the  crowd  howled  around  the 
corpse  which  they  attempted  to  carry  to  the 
Vetrice  where  the  carcasses  of  dead  horses  were 
thrown  ;  "  and  all  the  friars  fled,  leaving  the 
bier  alone  in  the  midst  of  the  officers  (bijTi)  who 
were  scarcely  able  to  carry  it  into  the  church. 
And  (says  the  old  chronicler)  no  man  had  seen 
him  die  ;  and  he  received  not  the  sacraments; 
his  death  was  according  to  his  life,  even  as  saith 
the  proverb,  chi  vial  vive,  vial  miiore  " .  In  the 
following  year,    Clement   VII.    insisted    on    the 

—    Ill    -- 

recall  of  Fabio  Petrucci ;  but,  while  that  careless 
youth  dreamed  sweet  dreams  of  love,  inspired 
by  the  blond  beauty  of  the  g'racious  Onorata 
Massaini,  a  conspiracy  was  formed  to  overthrow 
him  in  which  her  brother  joined,  and,  in  1524, 
a  fresh  popular  outbreak  drove  him  from  Siena 
for  ever. 

Thus  ended  the  domination  of  the  Petrucci, 
but  the  N^oveschi  survived  the  shipwreck  of  that 
house,  and  succeeded  in  placing  one  of  their 
number,  Alessandro  Bichi,  at  the  head  of  the 
State.  Their  triumph  was,  however,  short  lived. 
Less  than  three  months  later  the  new  despot 
was  murdered;  many  of  the  Nove  fled  the  city; 
and  wSiena,  rejoicing  to  be  rid  of  her  tyrants, 
put  herself  under  the  protection  of  the  Emperor 
Charles  V.,  and  once  more  gave  herself  over  to 
that  anarchy  and  tumult  which  she  loved  so  well, 
and  which  her  citizens  dignified  by  the  name  of 

In  vain  Charles  tried  to  save  her  from  her- 
self; he  sent  his  ministers  to  pacify  her  discords 
and  to  reform  her  government;  he  despatched 
letters  of  earnest  counsel  and  entreaty,  beseech- 
ing her  to  recall  her  exiles  and  to  live  at  unity. 
"  This  (he  writes  in  1530)  your  conscience  bids 
you  do  ;  this  equity  and  justice  ;  this  your  Re- 
'public  torn  by  your  private  hates  ;  this  Italy, 
tranquillized  in  every  part,  you  alone  excepted; 

this  your  Caesar,  anxious  for  your  well-being  ; 
this  Christy  the  best,  the  greatest,  who  not  only 
taught,  but,  by  His  most  potent  example,  invited 
all  men  to  pardon  their  enemies.  ^lost  earnestly 
do  we  beseech  you  to  hearken.  With  you  it 
lies  to  give  heed  to  so  many  and  such  reason- 
able prayers,  which,  if  they  move  you,  shall 
turn  not  to  your  injury,  but  to  your  abiding 
gain  ". 

To  all  representations,  entreaties,  counsels, 
Siena  turned  a  deaf  ear,  until,  at  last,  the  Em- 
peror was  compelled  to  use  force;  for  not  only 
was  she  a  peril  to  herself  but  a  dangerous 
nuisance  to  all  her  neighbours. 

The  inefficiency  of  the  government  rendered 
the  contado  the  rendezvous  and  refuge  of  all 
the  criminals  of  Tuscany ;  the  merchandise  which 
passed  through  the  dominion  was  carried  off, 
farms  were  invaded,  crops  cut  down,  houses 
burnt ;  while,  in  addition  to  all  this,  private 
wars  and  family  blood  feuds  lacerated  almost 
all  the  subject  towns.  In  Orbetello,  for  example, 
in  1528,  not  a  night  passed  Avithout  the  break- 
ing open  and  sacking  of  granaries,  magazines, 
houses  and  shops.  In  Manciano  no  day  went 
by  but  some  one  appeared  before  the  officials 
of  the  Commune  to  complain  that  he  had  been 
robbed  upon  the  public  highway;  and,  in  these 
ill  enterprises,  a  certain  vScipione  Bidelli  acquired 
a  sinister   notoriety.      He    was    an  Arciprete    of 

—   113   — 

Chiusi,  who  for  some  years,  infested  the  dominion 
with  a  company  of  bandits,  doing-  much  the 
same  in  the  Senese,  as  Nicolo  de'  Pelagatti  did 
in  the  territories  of  Ferrara. 

The  political  and  economic  conditions  of  the 
various  Communes,  the  exiles,  the  outlaws,  and 
the  discharged  soldiers,  created  brigandage  and 
fostered  it ;  and  for  these  lawless  bands  the  ter- 
ritory of  Siena  was,  as  I  have  said,  the  chosen 
asylum  and  meeting  place.  Neither  goods  nor 
persons  were  efficiently  protected  from  their  de- 
predations, and  they  grew  so  bold  and  numerous 
that,  on  more  than  one  occasion,  they  ventured 
to  resist  the  levies  sent  against  them  by  the 
Republic,  and  succeeded  in  putting  them  to  flight. 
In  such  of  the  country  villages  as  were  not 
abandoned,  the  peasants,  for  their  own  safety's 
sake,  were  secretly  leagued  with  the  outlaws, 
kept  them  informed  of  the  movements  of  the 
authorities,  and,  as  far  as  possible,  avoided  tak- 
ing up  arms  against  them  when  summoned  to 
join  the  posse  comitatus. 

As  if  the  banditti  did  not  suffice  to  render 
country  life  uncertain  and  dangerous,  the  con- 
tadini  themselves  not  unfrequently  associated 
together  for  lawless  enterprises,  and,  either  with 
the  viev.^  of  carrying  out  some  local  vendetta 
or,  more  often,  made  reckless  by  misery  and 
famine,  invaded  a  neig'hbouring"  village  or  passed 
the  confines  of  the  State  and  drove  off  the  flocks 

—    114   — 

and  herds  of  the  Florentines,  of  the  Baglioni, 
of  the  Seigniors  of  Piombino  and  of  wSanta  Fiora. 
Such  incursions  gave  rise  to  infinite  law  suits 
and  to  very  lengthy  diplomatic  negotiations. 
Indeed,  Professor  Falletti-Fossati  distinctly  states 
that  the  principal  care  of  Sienese  diplomacy, 
from  the  second  half  of  the  15th  century  almost 
up  to  the  fall  of  the  Republic,  was  to  excuse 
the  depredations  of  its  subjects. 

These  depredations  were,  of  course,  followed 
by  reprisals.  Those  whose  cattle  had  been  driv- 
en off  frequently  took  the  law  into  their  own 
hands,  and  made  counter-incursions  into  the 
Sienese  dominion.  Thereupon  the  contadini  fled 
for  refuge  to  the  nearest  town,  breaking  down 
the  bridges  behind  them.  The  enemy,  having" 
done  what  harm  they  could,  and  gathered  as 
much  booty  as  possible,  retired  to  prevent  being 
surrounded.  Then  the  community  set  about 
repairing  the  damage,  but,  since  their  neigh- 
bours were  always  ready  to  take  the  offensive, 
and  since  the  public  treasury  was  almost  always 
empty,  many  bridges  remained  unrepaired  and 
many  once  populous  districts  were  wholly  de- 

The  Republic  acquired  a  very  evil  reputa- 
tion, and  was  cordially  hated  by  all  its  neigh- 
bours. The  men  of  vSan  Gimignano  and  of  CoUe, 
the  Ricasoli,  the  Florentines,  the  Farnesi,  the 
Baglioni   and  the  Pope  were  continually  protest- 

ing  against  the  depredations  and  quarrelsomeness 
of  the  Sienese.  In  1529,  Salimbeni  wrote  from 
Rome  that  to  the  agents  of  Caesar  it  seemed 
high  time  that  the  Sienese  began  to  live  at  peace 
with  their  neighbours  and  "  non  si  procacciassero 
piu  scabbia  addosso  di  quella  cJie  avevano  " .  Nor 
did  the  exasperation  of  those  who  suffered  from 
their  lawlessness  always  end  in  words.  The 
Count  of  Anguillara  waylaid  three  Sienese  ora- 
tors who  were  returning  from  Rome,  and  shut 
them  up  in  a  sort  of  w^ell,  demanding  a  heavy 

Much  the  same  thing  had  happened  about 
three  centuries  earlier,  when  the  Count  Omberto 
degli  Aldobrandeschi  had  laid  an  ambush  for 
the  biioni  sapienti  et  idonei  homines  whom  the  Com- 
mune had  sent  as  ambassadors  to  his  cousin 
Ildobrandino  of  Santa  Flora  ;  but,  in  those  old 
days,  Siena  was  young  and  of  high  courage,  and 
Omberto  paid  for  his  insolence  in  the  piazza  of 
Campagnatico ; 

come  i  Sanesi  sanno 
E  sallo  in   Campagnatico  ogni  fante  (*). 

Now,  instead,  all  that  the  Balia  could  do 
was  to  protest,    scold,    and   threaten,  and  all  in 

(1)  Purgatorio  XI,  65-66— Compare  The  "  Efisamples  "  of  Fra  Fi- 
lippo  &.C,  op.  cit.  pages  31,  32,  note. — It  maj'  be  worth  mentioning  that,  in 
one  of  the  rooms  in  which  the  Tavolette  di  Biccherna  e  di  Gabella  are 
kept,  there  is  to  be  seen  a  book-cover  of  the  year  1429  upon  which  are 
depicted  two  Sienese  ambassadors  on  horseback  passing  out  of  one  of  the 
city  gates.     They  are  preceded  by  a  Rotellino  di  Palazzo. 

—   ii6  ~ 

vain;  for  the  Count  of  Anguillara  refused  to  let 
the  orators  go,  declaring  that,  however  willing 
he  might  have  been  to  oblige  the  Republic, 
he  could  not  bring  himself  to  do  so  when  he 
thought  of  his  own  servants  "  captivati,  tormentati 
et  per  taglia  liberati  " . 

The  Counts  of  Pitigliano,  long  under  the 
protection  of  Siena,  were  now  always  in  arms 
against  her,  by  reason  of  the  continual  inroads 
which  w^ere  made  upon  their  lands ;  and  the 
same  thing  may  be  said  of  numerous  other  seign- 

Commerce  naturally  declined,  and  at  the 
same  time,  little  by  little,  Siena  not  only  lost  a 
great  part  of  the  large  revenues  w^hich  she  once 
drew^  from  the  pasture  lands  of  the  Maremma, 
but  also  saw  the  Roman  road  abandoned,  a  grave 
injury  to  all  the  towns  and  villages  through 
which  it  passed,  as  well  as  to  the  trade  of  the 
City  itself.  The  Republic  was  practically  bank- 
rupt ;  its  officials  unpaid;  its  roads  unrepaired  ; 
its  fortresses  in  ruin ;  its  army  neglected. 

The  poverty  of  the  masses  was  appalling. 
vSiena  itself  was  thronged  with  mendicants  w^ho, 
deprived  of  food  and  shelter,  naked  and  starving, 
lived,  slept  and  died  in  the  public  streets.  To 
add  to  the  miseries  of  those  unhappy  years,  there 
were  frequent  outbreaks  of  the  pestilence  which 
seemed  to  have  become  endemic  throughout  the 
Peninsula.    In  1527,  according  to  an  old  chronicle. 

—   117   - 

Siena  lost  about  40,000  of  its  inhabitants  from 
this  cause,  and  over  100,000  in  the  contado.  It 
is  a  tremendous  cypher,  and  the  more  so  that, 
if  it  be  true  (as  Tommasi  declares)  that,  in 
1526,  a  wolf  entered  Siena,  the  vSenese  cannot 
have  been  very  thickly  populated.  The  pestil- 
ence raged  for  nine  months  and  then  decreased, 
only  to  break  out  again  with  renewed  violence 
two  years  later.  Grosseto  was  reduced  to 
so  pitiful  a  state  that  men  died  in  the  streets 
and  the  corpses  were  left  unburied ;  Montero- 
tondo  was  almost  deserted  ;  while  the  panic  of 
the  people  was  augmented  by  the  lack  of  doctors, 
of  medicines,  and  of  attendants  for  the  pest- 
smitten.  Pharmacies  were  rare,  physicians  rarer 
yet.  Orbetello  for  example  could  not  obtain 
a  single  doctor  till  there  were  sick  folk  in  every 

Surely  Charles  was  not  all  to  blame  when 
he  intervened  to  destroy  a  government  which 
was  helpless  to  correct  such  disorders,  and  to 
relieve  such  miseries  as  these.  Certainly  the  fall 
of  Siena  evoked  no  sympathy  from  her  neigh- 
bours (^). 

(<)  Thus,  in  a  Barzelletta  della  Citta  di  Siena,    published  in   Siena 
[581,  but  evidently  written  during  the  last  siege,  we  read  : 

Se  mi  volto  al  Pastor  Santo 
Non  ne  vorra  udir  novella, 
Tal  che  fo  dirotto  pianto 

—    ii8  — 

The  year  1530  witnessed  the  death  throes 
of  Florentine  liberty,  and  the  short-sighted  Siena 
joyfully  sent  artillery  to  assist  the  Emperor  in 
humbling  her  ancient  rival ;  nor  did  she  perceive 
till  too  late  that  she  had  thereby  sealed  her  own 
fate.  Yet,  weakened  though  she  was,  she  would 
not  yield  without  a  struggle,  and  the  records 
of  her  last  brave  defence  almost  make  us  forget 
the  centuries  of  folly  which  had  reduced  her. 

The  minister  employed  by  Charles  to  get 
possession  of  Siena  was  Don  Diego  Hurtado  de 
Mendoza,  who  had  learned  the  subtleties  of 
intrigue  in  a  Spanish  convent.  He  was  enthu- 
siastically welcomed  by  the  citizens,  some  of 
whom  recollected  him  as  an  idle  law-student  at 
their  University,  where  he  had  proved  himself 
as  dissolute  and  pleasure-loving  as  any  of  his 
companions.  He  was  now  about  sixty  years  of 
age,  soldier,  novellist,  poet  and  diplomatist;  and 
no  doubt  the  Sienese  felt  that  the  Emperor  had 

And  again 

Giorno  e  notte  meschinella, 
D'  altro  gia  non  si  favella 
Che  di  Siena  in  ogni  luoco, 
Ognun  grida  :  sangue  e  fuoco 
Contra  me  disconsolata. 

Sono  Siena  sfortunata. 

In  Italia  son  raancati 
Gia  per  me  tutti  i  ripari, 
Tutti  quanti  son  contrari 
Di  me  afflitta  e  tribolata. 

Sono  Siena  sfortunata. 

—   119  — 

paid  them  a  very  pretty  compliment  in  sending 
so  accomplished  a  man  to  represent  him,  and 
one  who  was  also  an  old  friend  (^). 

Don  Diego  worked  prudently ;  but  he  could 
not  long  disguise  his  true  intentions.  He  filled 
the  city  with  Spanish  soldiers  who  insulted  and 
robbed  the  townsfolk,  and  when  resistance  was 
offered,  an  order  was  issued  for  a  general  dis- 
armament of  the  people.  Then,  feeling-  strong 
enough  to  act,  he  began  to  build  a  fortress 
upon  the  hill  of  San  Prospero,  where  now  is  the 
Passeggio  della  Lizza.  To  obtain  materials,  he 
destroyed  the  wall  of  the  City  between  San  Do- 
menico  and  the  Madonna  di  Fonte  Giusta,  as 
well  as  many  of  those  lofty  towers  which  formed 
the  pride  and  glory  of  old  Siena.  The  Sienese 
were  slow  to  move,  but  when  they  saw  a  fort 
beginning  to  be  built,  which  would  command 
their  town,  they  sent  ambassadors  to  Charles  to 

(^}  It  may  be  of  interest  to  note  that  it  was  during  the  government 
of  Don  Diego  that  Sir  Thomas  Hoby  visited  Siena.  The  Spaniard  treated 
his  guest  with  great  courtesy  ;  anrt  Hoby  was  charmed  with  the  city  and 
the  people  whose  universal  hospitality  seems  to  have  made  a  deep  impres- 
sion on  him.  He  also  remarked  on  the  learning  of  the  Sienese  women  who 
"wrote  excellently  well  both  in  prose  and  verse".  It  was  in  Siena  that 
Hoby  met  that  William  Barker  who  later  on  became  one  of  the  Secretaries 
of  the  Duke  of  Norfolk,  and  was  implicated  in  his  plot.  He  confessed  his 
share  under  torture,  whereupon  the  Duke,  who  had  denied  everything,  called 
him  contemptuously  an  "  Italianified  Englishman  ". — See  Hoby's>  Diary  in 
the  British  Museum,  Egert,  Mss.  2148,  f.  24b,  and  Mr.  Lewis  Einstein's 
Italian  Renaissance  in  England  (New  York,  Macmillan  Co,  1902),  delight- 
ful book,  which  contains  many  references  to  Siena.  See,  for  example,  pages 
39,  52,   119,  131,  139,   146,  223,  232,  233. 

I20    — 

implore  him  to  respect  their  liberties.  The  only 
answer  they  obtained  was  Sk  volo,  sic  hibeo,  stat 
pro  ratione  voluntas.  In  vain  they  besought  the 
intervention  of  Pope  Julius,  whose  mother  was 
a  Saracini  and  a  Sienese,  and  who  had  been 
heard  to  declare  that  he  regarded  Siena  as  his 
native  city ;  for  he,  either  fearing  to  thwart 
Charles'  plans,  or  realizing  that  Siena  free  was 
too  unquiet  to  be  a  pleasant  neighbour,  refused 
to  interfere,  and  sardonically  told  Don  Diego 
that  "  if  one  castle  Avas  not  enough  to  keep 
those  hair-brained  Sienese  in  order,  his  Impe- 
rial Majesty  had  better  build  two  ".  Thereupon 
the  Sienese  citizens  in  Rome,  headed  by  ^neas 
Piccolomini,  a  kinsman  of  the  second  Pius,  ap- 
proached the  agents  of  the  French  king,  and 
with  their  help  collected  men  and  money  for 
the  liberation  of  their  native  town.  On  the 
26th  July,  1552,  all  was  ready.  Piccolomini,  with 
his  followers,  appeared  at  the  New  Gate,  now 
the  Porta  Romana,  and  Siena  rose  as  one  man. 
After  three  days  hard  fighting,  from  street  to 
street  and  house  to  house,  the  Spaniards  were 
driven  from  the  city,  and  Don  Diego's  fortress 
was  razed  to  the  ground. 

The  grateful  citizens  offered  the  signory  of 
Siena  to  ^T^neas  Piccolomini,  but  he  unhesita- 
tingly refused  the  proffered  honour,  declaring- 
that  the  thought  of  seeing  the  free  Commune 
subjected    to    the    yoke    of    any    individual    was 

12  1     

abhorrent  to  him  ;  that  what  he  had  done  he 
had  done  from  no  thought  of  private  interest, 
but  only  for  the  liberation  of  his  native  city, 
"  e  710)1  voleva  niai  dare  occasione,  che  ne  a  lid  ne 
a  lei  avesse  a  venh'e  minimo  pensiej^o  di  soggiogarla 
e  metterla  in  servitii  ".  This  gallant  gentleman 
died  as  he  had  lived,  the  free  citizen  of  a  free 
State  ;  for  when  Siena  fell,  he  departed  with  the 
other  patriots  to  Montalcino  and  there  breathed 
his  last,  before  the  Peace  of  Cateau  Cambresis 
extinquished  for  ever  the  fond  hopes  of  the  ex- 
iles. His  monument  in  the  Church  of  S.  Ago- 
stino  in  that  city  records  how,  ''  aim  parva  Ci- 
vium  ac  Militum  inamt,  Caes.  praes.  Sena  expulsis, 
Patriam  servili  jngo  oppressam,  acriter  dimicando, 
libej'avit  ". 

On  the  8th  August,  the  CoUegio  di  Balia, 
having  first  declared  a  general  amnesty  for  all 
the  fuorusciti,  decreed  that  the  Imperial  arms  and 
ensigns  should  be  removed  and  erased  both  "  in 
public  and  in  private  ",  and  those  of  France  set 
up  in  their  place. 

The  wrath  of  Charles  knew  no  bounds,  and, 
even  if  he  could  have  forgiven  the  Sienese  for 
their  rebellion,  he  could  not  forgive  them  for 
having  appealed  to  France  for  aid,  and  for  hav- 
ing put  themselves  under  the  protection  of  the 
French  king.  Moreover  Cosimo  de'  Medici,  the 
Grand    Duke    of  Florence,    who    had    conceived 


the  idea  of  annexing  Siena  to  his  own  dominions, 
took  care  that  the  Imperial  irritation  should  be 
kept  alive.  In  1553  the  blood-thirsty  Don  Garzia 
de  Toledo  was  sent  to  punish  the  revolted  Com- 
mune ;  but  the  first  hostilities  in  the  Val  di  Chiana 
did  little  damage;  the  dogged  resistance  of  ]\Ion- 
talcino  caused  an  unexpected  check;  and  finally, 
the  sudden  appearance  of  Turkish  galleys  in 
the  southern  Italian  seas  called  the  Spanish  gen- 
eral to  Xaples ;  and  Siena  escaped  for  the  time. 

The  following  year,  however,  Cosimo  took 
the  field  with  an  army  commanded  by  the  Alar- 
quis  of  Alarignano  {^);  and  on  the  26th  January 
the  forts  of  Porta  CamuUia  were  captured  and 
the  City  was  invested. 

At  first  the  Sienese  took  the  matter  g'aily 
enough,  and  Alontalvo  tells  us  of  a  sally  made 
by  a  company  of  young  nobles,  "  splendidly 
armed,  with  long  plumes  waving,  and  ladies' 
favours  ";  while  all  the  fair  dames  and  damosels 
of  Siena  thronged  the  towers  and  walls,  as  if  to 
see  a  tournament.  But  the  gallant  charge  was 
broken  by  a  well  directed  fusillade  from  the 
musketeers  and  arquebusiers  in  the  enemies  en- 
trenchments, "  thick  as  hail,  so  that  in  a  moment 
all  those  nobles  were  slain — 7'estb  tutta  quella  no- 
bilta  vioria  ".  The  next  day  the  Sienese  sent  to 
beg  permission  to  bury  their  dead;  and,  as  those 

(*)  Of  this  man  some  account  will  be  found   in    "  Como  and  il  Me- 
deghino  "  in  J.  A.  S\-moxds's  Sketches  in  Italy. 

—    123    — 
torn  and  mangled  corpses  .were  carried  through 
the  city  gates,  it  began  to  be  realized  that  war, 
as  Marignano  played  the  game,  was  a  very  grim 
and  serious  thing. 

The  Sienese  general  was  Piero  Strozzi,  a 
Florentine  exile  and  a  Marshal  of  France,  whose 
father,  after  vainly  seeking  to  liberate  his  native 
city,  had  died  by  his  own  hand,  in  a  Medicean 
prison.  Beside  his  corpse  a  slip  of  paper  was 
found,  bearing  the  following  words,  written  in 
blood  :  Exoriai'e  aliquis  nostris  ex  ossibiis  icltoi'. 

In  the  result  Piero's  selection  proved  unfor- 
tunate for  Siena  ;  for  while,  on  the  one  hand, 
his  keenness  for  reveng-e  led  him  to  injudicious 
acts,  on  the  other,  Cosimo,  finding  his  mortal 
foe  ranged  against  him,  strained  every  nerve 
to  raise  a  sufficient  army  to  overwhelm  him. 
Strozzi's  true  policy  would  have  been  to  hold 
Marignano  in  check  until  want  of  supplies  should 
have  forced  him  to  retire ;  but  eager  to  take  sum- 
mary vengeance  on  his  enemies,  and  to  liberate 
Siena  from  a  state  of  siege,  he  led  his  army 
out,  intending  to  join  hands  with  his  brother 
Leone  and  with  fresh  troops  which  were  ex- 
pected to  arrive  by  sea  from  Marseilles  ;  and 
then,  by  an  invasion  of  the  Florentine  dominions, 
to  raise  a  rebellion  against  the  Duke. 

Unfortunately,  Leone  was  killed  at  Scarlino, 
and  Piero,  after  marching  through  the  territories 
of  Volterra,  Pisa  and  Lucca;  after  having  passed 

—     124    — 

and  repassed  the  Arno;  descended  into  the  Val 
di  Chiana  and  occupied  Marciano  and  Fojano, 
there  to  await  the  enemy. 

The  two  armies  faced  one  another  on  the 
heights  between  which  flowed  the  torrent  of 
Scanagallo.  Both  were  suffering  from  lack  of 
food,  and  especially  of  water.  Strozzi's  captains 
besought  him  to  change  his  position  at  night  ; 
but  he,  with  that  love  of  bravado  so  often  seen 
in  men  of  reckless  character,  determined  to  march 
in  full  daylight,  with  all  the  gallant  ostentation 
of  a  tournament.  At  the  last  moment,  Cornelio 
Bentivogli  offered  to  sacrifice  himself  to  secure 
the  retreat,  only  to  receive  the  insulting  answer, 
"  Let  him  who  fears  fly.  I  mean  to  fight  ". 
"  Sir,  I  Avill  fly  ",  cried  that  brave  gentleman, 
and  rode  into  the  foremost  ranks. 

It  was  about  an  hour  before  noon,  on  the 
2nd  August,  and  the  sun  shone  down  with  scorch- 
ing heat.  The  vSpanish  men-at-arms  advanced, 
and,  raising  their  visors  as  they  passed  the  in- 
fantry, smiled  upon  them  with  joyful  faces,  "  to 
show  their  good  will  to  give  them  the  victory, 
knowing  well  (says  the  historian)  that  in  battle 
cavalry  only  decide  the  day  ".  The  earth  trem- 
bled beneath  their  tread  and  they  seemed,  as 
writes  an  eye-witness  of  their  charge,  "  a  moun- 
tain of  iron  with  plumes  waving  to  heaven,  a 
spectacle  as  gallant  as  it  was  beautiful  ".  About 
Strozzi  were  gathered  his  fellow-citizens,  exiles 


of  Florence,  while  above  them  floated  a  green 
banner,  bearing  for  motto  the  line  of  Dante, 
Libej'ta  vo  cercando  ch'  e  si  cara. 

Three  pieces  of  artillery  (sagri)  thundered 
from  the  imperial  ranks;  two  falconets  gave  back 
their  faint  reply  (for  Strozzi's  heavy  guns,  which 
had  been  sent  forward  at  mid-night,  were  already 
well  on  their  way  towards  Fojano) ;  and  then 
the  battle  joined.  Like  two  mighty  waves,  black  * 
below,  foam-topped  above,  the  cavalry  of  either 
host  hurled  together.  There  was  a  thunder  of 
rushing  hoofs,  a  crash  of  steel,  and  lo  !  with  a 
shriek  of  treason  and  of  fear,  the  French  stan- 
dard-bearer turned  and  fled.  In  a  moment  the 
splendid  squadron  divided,  broke,  and  spurred 
hard  out  of  the  fray,  bought  (it  was  said)  with 
Spanish  gold — "  dodici  jiaschi  di  stagno  pieni  di 
scudi  d'  oro  "■ — a  treachery  and  a  flig'ht  which 
lives  even  today  in  the  songs  wherewith  the 
contadini  awake  the  echoes  of  that  solitary 

O  Piero  Strozzi  in  du'  son  i  tuoi  soldati 
Al  Poggio  delle  Donne  in  que'  fossati  ; 
Meglio  de'  vili  cavalli  di  Franza 
Le  nostre  donne  fecero  provanza. 

All  was  lost  ;  but  the  Sienese  were  not 
minded  to  yield.  Like  the  west  country  peas- 
antry at  Sedgemoor,  after  Monmouth's  flight, 
they  battled  on  with  stubborn  courage  to  the 
bitter  end.  And  their  leader  did  not  desert  them. 
High  on  the  Poggio  delle  Donne,  Strozzi,  clad 

—     126    — 

in  black  armour  inlaid  with  gold,  mounted  on 
an  arab  charger  and  with  his  truncheon  in  his 
hand,  played  the  part  alike  of  general  and  sol- 
dier, and  played  them  well.  He  spoke  words 
of  comfort  to  his  infantry,  declaring  that  the 
flight  of  the  French  was  nothing  but  a  ruse ;  he 
bade  the  drummers  and  the  fifers  sound  to  battle ; 
all  the  banners  waved  as  if  for  victory ;  and  the 
Swiss  charged  down  the  hill  shouting  Franciaf 
Francia!  while  from  the  hostile  ranks  arose  the 
answering  cry  of  Spagnal  Imperio!  Swart  Span- 
iards, who  had  kneeled  to  pray  before  they 
fought,  French,  Italians,  Swiss,  Germans,  rushed 
together,  slaughtering  and  slaughtered.  The 
Imperialists  had  begun  to  give  way,  and  might 
have  been  broken  had  not  the  Spanish  men-at- 
arms  returned  from  pursuing  the  French  fug'i- 
tives,  and  charged  the  Sienese  upon  the  flank. 
It  became  a  butchery  pure  and  simple,  and  for 
two  long  miles,  even  to  the  gates  of  Lucignano, 
the  ground  was  strewn  with  the  banners,  arms 
and  corpses  of  Strozzi's  ruined  army;  while  he 
himself,  with  bullet  wounds  in  the  side  and  in 
the  hand,  and  his  head  half  crushed  by  a  blow 
from  a  mace,  scarcely  escaped  to  Montalcino. 

Even  as  Gavinana  decided  the  fate  of  Flor- 
ence, so  the  dark  slopes  of  Scanagallo  were  the 
grave  of  Sienese  liberty.  But  what  a  difference! 
A  few  days  after  Gavinana,  Florence  surrendered; 
after  vScanagallo,    Siena    continued    to  resist   for 

—    127    — 

more  than  eight  months.  Thenceforward  she 
was  strictly  invested  ;  and  the  war  was  carried 
on  with  the  greatest  cruelty.  Marignano  spared 
no  one.  The  peasants  who  attempted  to  bring" 
supplies  into  the  city  were  hanged  without  mercy, 
till  the  trees  seemed  to  bear  dead  men  rather 
than  leaves.  Within  the  walls  the  suffering  was 
almost  greater.  Hospitals  and  churches  were 
full  of  wounded  ;  while  many  lay  dying  in  the 
streets  and  squares.  Hope  was  almost  dead,  yet 
still  the  besieged  held  out.  A  glorious  record 
of  their  heroism  is  to  be  found  in  the  Diary  of 
Sozzini,  the  wSienese  historian,  and  in  the  Com- 
mentaries of  Blaise  de  Monluc,  the  French  gen- 
eral who  conducted  the  defence.  In  vain  the 
City  was  anew^  dedicated  to  the  Madonna  (^) ;  in 
vain  the  "  useless  mouths  " — little  children,  the 
old,  the  sick  and  the  weak — were  thrust  out  of 
the  gates,  to  die  a  lingering  death,  between  the 
walls  and  the  camp  of  the  enemy.  At  last,  after 
superhuman  valour  and  superhuman  suffering, 
Siena  w^as  forced  to  yield,  and  on  the  21st 
April,  1555,  the  Spanish  troops  entered  the  town. 
Many  families  retired  to  Alontalcino  abandoning 
their  native  city  to  the  stranger. 

Thenceforward  Siena  followed  the  destinies 

(')  Siena  was  first  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  in  1260  on  the  eve  of  the 
battle  of  Montaperto  ;  and  this  dedication  was  renewed  in  1483,  in  1526,  in 
1550  and  in  1555.  I  have  treated  the  subject  with  considerable  detail  in 
my  Our  Lady  of  August  and  the  Palio  of  Siena. 

—    128    — 

of  the  Duchy  of  Tuscany,  of  which,  in  1557,  she 
became  a  part.  She,  however,  retained  a  sep- 
arate administration  for  more  than  two  cen- 
turies, until  the  general  reforms  of  the  Grand 
Duke  Pietro  Leopoldo,  the  French  domination, 
and  finally,  the  restoration,  swept  away  all  dif- 
ferences between  the  Sienese  and  Florentine 
systems  of  government. 

In  1859,  Siena  was  the  first  Tuscan  city 
which  declared  for  annexation  to  Piedmont  and 
the  monarchy  of  Victor  Emanuel  II — this  de- 
cision (voted  26  June)  being  the  initial  step 
tow^ards  the  unity  of  Italy. 

Then,  a  new  day  broke  from  under  ground, 
and,  in  the  clear  light  of  that  great  dawn,  the 
old  enmities  were  remembered  no  more.  Genoa 
sent  back  her  chains  to  Pisa  ;  Assisi  forgot  to 
hate  Perugia,  and  Siena  stretched  out  a  scarcely 
reluctant  hand  to  Florence.  For  then,  after 
three  centuries  of  tyranny  and  superstition,  the 
Queen  of  Nations,  the  Mighty  Mother  of  Civili- 
zation and  of  Art,  at  last 

awakened  out  of  sleep, 
And  stood,  full-armed  and  free  ;  and  all  her  sons 
Knew  it  was  glorious  to  have  looked  on  her 
And  felt  it  beautiful  to  die  for  her. 


Ut  sylvae  foliis  pronos  mutantur  in  annos, 
Prima  cadunt  ;  ita  verborum  vetus  interit  aetas. 
Horace  Ars  Poetic  a,  60,  61. 

IF  Siena  possessed  no  Dante,  her  literary  his- 
tory is  none  the  less  rich  in  illustrious  names. 
In  the  13th  century  the  vulgar  tongue  was 
already  in  common  use,  and  we  possess  at  least 
one  poem,  a  canzone  by  a  Sienese  knight  FoL- 
CACCHIERO  FOLCACCHIERI,  which  from  internal 
evidence  seems  to  have  been  written  as  early 
as    1 177  (^).      The    following    is    the    first  verse: 

Tutto  lo  mondo  vive  sanza  guerra  All  the  whole  world  is  living  without 

Ed  eo  pacie  non  posso  havere  neinte;         And    j-et    I    cannot    find    out    any 

O  Deo,  come  faraggio  ?  O  God  !  that  this  should  be  ! 

O  Deo,  come  sotenemi  la  Terra  !  O  God  !  what  does  the  earth  sustain 

me  for  ? 

(^)  Lettera  apologetica  delV  Ab.  Luigi  de  Angelis  Pub.  Prof,  e 
Bibliot.  nelV  I.  e  R.  Univ.  di  Siena  in  favore  di  Folcacchiero  Folcac- 
chieri  cavaliere  Satiese  del  Sec.  XII  il  primo  di  cici  si  trovino  poesie  Ita- 
liane.  Siena  1818,  dai  torchi  di  Onorato  Porri.  See,  however,  D'  Ancona 
e  Bacci  Manuale  della  Lett.  Ital.  (Firenze  1903)  vol.  I.  p.  28. 

—    I30  — 

E  pare  che  eo  viva  inoia  delagiente:         ISIy  life  seems  made  for  other  lives' 

ill-ease  : 
Ogn  huomo  mi  e  selvagio,  All  men  look  strange  to  me  ; 

Xon  paiono  li  fiori  Nor  are  the  wood-flowers  now 

Per  me  comgia  soleano  As  once,  when  up  above 

E  gli  augelli  per  amori,  The     happ}'  birds  in  love 

Dolci  versi  facieano  agli  albori.  Made  such  sweet  verses,  going  from 

bough  to  bough. 

In  the  latter  half  of  the  13th  century  we 
find  two  other  poets,  Cecco  Angiolieri  (1258?- 
13 1 2?)  and  BiXDO  BONICHI  (1260-1337).  Of  these 
the  former  is  probably  best  known  to  the  or- 
dinary reader  in  connection  with  his  love  for 
pretty  Becchina,  the  shoemakers  daughter,  and 
on  account  of  that  extremely  unpleasant  adven- 
ture of  his  at  Buonconvento,  which  Boccaccio 
has  described  for  us  in  the  Decameron  (IX.  4).  An 
article  by  Professor  D'  Ancona,  in  the  Nitova 
Antologia  of  January,  1874,  contains  almost  all 
that  is  known  about  him  (^).  Of  his  poetry  Pro- 
fessor A.  Bartoli  speaks  as  follows:  "Laughing 
and  crying,  joking  and  satire,  are  all  to  be  found 
in  Cecco  Angiolieri  of  Siena,  the  oldest  humorist 
we  know,  a  far  off  precursor  of  Rabelais,  of 
Montaigne,  of  Jean  Paul  Richter,  of  Sydney 
Smith  "  (^).  "  Poetry  of  the  senses  (says  Profes- 
sor d'  Ancona)  excited  by  a  strenuous  imagina- 

(')  Cecco  Angiolieri  da  Siena,  poeta  timoiista  del  secolo  decimoterzo 
Compare  also  A.  F.  Massera,  La  patria  e  la  vita  di  Cecco  Angiolieri  in 
the  Bullettino  Senese  di  st.  patria,  vol.  VIII,   (1901)  pages  435-452 

(2)  See  the  Encyclopcedia  Brittanica,  vol.  XIII  "Italy.  Part  III  ", 
Compare  also  the  same  author's  Storia  delta  Letteratura  italiana  (Firenze. 
Sansoni,  1879)  vol.  II,  pages  269-270. 

-   .3.   -     •  ^^ 

tion,  but  at  the  same  time  voicing  the  pain  and 
misery  of  real  and  pressing  needs,  which,  how- 
ever, are  exaggerated  and  coloured  by  a  bitterly 
sarcastic  humour  ".  The  following  is,  perhaps, 
one  of  his  most  characteristic  sonnets  : 

S'io  fossi  fuoco,  arderei  lo  mondo,         If  I  were    fire,    I'd    burn    the    world 

away  ; 
S'io  fossi  vento,  io '1  tempesterei,  If  J  were   wind,  I'd  turn  my  storms 

thereon  ; 
S'io  fossi  acqua,  io  1'  allagherei.  If    I    were    water,  I'd    soon    let   it 

drown  ; 
S'io  fossi  Iddio,  lo  mandere'  'n  pro-         If  I  were  God,  I'd  sink  it  from  the 
fondo,  day  ; 

S'io  fossi  Papa,  allor  sare'  giocondo      If  I  were  Pope,  I'd  never  feel  quite 

Che  tutti  i  Cristi'an  tribolerei  ;  Until  there   was  no   peace  beneath 

the  sun  ; 
S'io  fossi  Imperador,  sai  che  farei?         If  I  were  Emperor,  what    would  I 

have  done? — 
A  tutti  mozzerei  lo  capo  a  tondo.  I'd  lop  men's  heads  all  round  in  my 

Own  wa}-. 
S'io  fossi  Morte,  io  n'  andre'  da  mio     It  I  were  Death,  I'd  look  my  father 
padre,  up  ; 

S'io  fossi  Vita,  non  stare'  con  lui.  If  I  were  Life,  I'd  run  away  from 

him  ; 
E  similmente  farei  a  mia  madre.  And     treat  my  mother  to  like  calls 

and  runs. 
S'io  fossi  Cecco,  com'  io  sono  e  fui.      If  I  were  Cecco    (and    that's   all    my 

Torrei  per  me  le  giovane  leggiadre,         I  'd  pick  the  nicest  girls  to  suit  my 

Le  brutt'  e  vecchie  lascerei  altrui.  And    other    folk    should    get    the 

ugly  ones. 

BiNDO  BONICHI  was  a  man  of  quite  another 
stamp.  He  is  said  to  have  sat  in  the  Supreme 
Magistracy,  and  was  buried  in  the  Church  of 
San  Domenico.  He  seems,  judging  by  his  poems, 
to  have  been  a  confirmed  pessimist,  and  he  sat- 

—    132   — 

irizes  the  vices  and  follies  of  his  day  with  a 
bitterness  which  almost  amounts  to  ferocity. 
The  following  sonnet  is  an  adequate  example : 

Gli  asin  del  mondo  sono  i  mercatanti, 

E'  cavalier  que'  ch'  han  per  vizio  onori, 

E  li  tiranni  son  gli  uomini  maggiori 

Chi  in  corte  e  duca  son  cani  latranti. 
E  porci  sono  i  cherci  e  mal  usanti, 

E  lupi  sono  i  malvagi  pastori, 

Ipocreti  son  li  consigliatori 


L'  altra  bruttaglia,  ch'  e  peggiore,  o  tale, 

Ciascun  per  ingannare  adesca  1'  amo  ; 

Quegli  e  il  piu  dotto,  che  piu  fa  di  male. 
Succidi,  Iddio  Signor,  1'  albero  e  il  ramo, 

Se  vogli  far  vendetta  universale, 

E  poi  rinnova  il  mondo  d'  altro  Adamo. 

The  Rime  di  Bindo  Bonichi  da  Siena  were 
published  in  1867  in  Bologna  (presso  Gaetano 
Romagnoli)  in  the  Scelta  di  Curiosita  Letterarie 
inedite  e  I'are. 

Two  Sienese  poets  of  whom  less  is  known, 
but  who  wrote  at  about  the  same  period,  are  that 
AIlCO  of  whom  Boccaccio  speaks  as  living  at  the 
time  of  the  Sicilian  Vespers  ("),  and  Bexuccio 
wSalimbexi,  who  has  left  a  few  sonnets  (^).      Of 

(^)  Here  there  is  a  lacuna  in  the  manuscript. 

(2)  Decameron  X.  7.  The  canzonetta  there  given,  is,  I  believe,  the 
only  poem  of  his  which  has  come  down  to  us.  Compare  Ugurgieri  Le 
Pompe  Sanest  I.  546. 

(5)  One  of  these  is  published  by  G.  Gargaxi,  Delia  Lingua  Volgare 
nel  secolo  XIII  in  Siena  (Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri,  1868)  page  84.  Two  will  be 
found  in  connection  with  the  Rime  di  Bindo  Bonichi,  op.  cit.  pp.  159,  164. 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  the  Societa  Filologica  Romana  has  re- 
cently published  four  curious  poems  of  the  13th  century,  under  the  title  of 
Rime  antiche  Senesi.  I  have  quoted  a  few  lines  from  one  of  them  on  page 
39  supra. 

—    133   — 

Giovanni  Colombini  (1300?-! 367)  and  Bianco 
DA  vSiENA  I  have  already  spoken  (^).  The  Landi 
spirituali  of  the  latter  were  published  in  Lucca,  in 
1 85 1.  The  following"  are  the  opening"  lines  of 
the  only  poem  which  can  with  any  certainty  be 
attributed  to  the  former  : 

Diletto  lesu  Cristo,  chi  ben  t'  ama 
avendoti  nel  core  si  ti  brama, 
te  sempre  contemplando  non  si  sfama  : 
can  tare  e  giubilar  vo'  per  tuo  amore 

Sfamar  non  me  ne  posso  del  diletto  ; 
tant'  amor  mi  circunda  nell'  affetto, 
ch'  il  tengo  nelle  braccia  sempre  stretto  : 
cantare  e  giubilar  vo'  per  suo  amore 

I'  vengo  dentr'  al  core  contemplando 
e  vadomene  sempre  inebriando, 
poi  so'  inebriato  vo'  danzando  : 
cantare  e  giubilar  vo'  per  suo  amore. 

Danzando,  el  cor  mi  sento  venir  mono  ; 
quando  di  lesu  Cristo  so'  ben  pieno 
non  posso  ritener  1'  anima  a  freno  ; 
cantare  e  giubilar  vo'  per  suo  amore  ('2). 

While  the  production  of  Italian  poetry  in 
the  13th  century  was  abundant  and  varied,  that 
of  prose  was  scanty.  The  oldest  specimen  dates 
from  1 23 1  and  consists  of  short  notices  of  profits 
and  expenses  by  Mattasala  di  Spinello  dei  Lam- 
bertini  of  Siena  (').     There  is,  however,  nothing 

(')  See  pages  101-102  supra. 

(■2)  Published  by  G.  Pardi  in  the  BiiUettino  Senese  di  Storia  Patvia 
vol.  II  (1895)  page  47. 

(^)  N.  TOMMASEO,  Ricordi  di  una  famiglia  senese  del  secolo  decimo- 
terzo.     "  Arch.  Stor.  It.  "  Tom  V.  (1847)  -^PP-  No.  20. 

—   134  — 

which  can  be  dignified  by  the  name  of  literature 
in  these  dry  and  colourless  items;  although  it 
is  undoubtedly  interesting  and  curious  to  learn 
what  was  spent  "  nele  nianiche  di  fnona  Moscada  " , 
or  for  "  ic'  ccro  per  sail  N'lccold  ".  Far  more  im- 
portant are  the  commercial  letters  of  Arrigo 
Accattapane,  Aldobrandino  Gonzolino,  Andrea 
de'  Tolomei  and  other  Sienese  merchants,  pub- 
lished by  Paoli  and  Piccolomini  in  i87i(^);  and 
the  letters  toGeri  andGuccioMontanini  published 
by  A.  Lisini  in  1889  (");  although  even  these  can 
hardly  be  considered  literature  (^). 

Of  .Sienese  chronicles  anterior  to  the  14th 
century  but  little  need  be  said,  since  "they  are 
so  confused  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  dis- 
entangle truth  from  fiction,  or  even  to  decide 
the  personality  of  the  various  authors  ".  Indeed, 
almost  the  only  reliable  data  which  we  possess 
from  which  to  reconstruct  the  history  of  that 
period,  is  to  be  found  in  the  governmental 
records  of  the  Republic.  Among  these  may  be 
mentioned    the  Libri  di  Biccherna ;    the    five   In- 

(*)  Leltere  volgari  del  secolo  XIII  scriite  da  senesi  pubblicate  da 
C.  Paoli  e  da  E.  Piccolomini.     Bologna,  G.  Romagnoli,  1871. 

(■-)  Lettere  volgari  del  secolo  XIII  a  Geri  e  a  Guccio  Montanini 
pubblicate  per  la  prima  volta.     Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri,  1889. 

We  have  also  a  Testameyito  volgare  senese  del  1288,  published  in 
the  Bullettino  della  Societa  Filologica  Romana,  Num.  Ill  pag.  49.  In 
Roma,  Presso  la  Societa  1902. 

^5)  A.  Bartoli,  Storia  della  Letteratura  &c.,  op.  cit.,  vol.  Ill,  p.  10. 

—  135  — 
striimentarii  (especially  the  Caleffo  Vecchio) ;  the 
Deliberazioni  del  Consiglio  della  Campana;  and  the 
Brevi  of  the  various  magistrates,  most  of  which 
were  incorporated  in  the  Constihdiivi  Covmnis 
Senarum  which  Professor  Zdekauer  has  so  splen- 
didly edited. 

In  the"  14th  century,  however,  the  chronicles 
begin  to  possess  some  historical  value,  as  well 
as  a  certain  degree  of  literary  merit.  Those 
attributed  to  Andrea  Dei,  Agxolo  di  Tura 
called  II  Grasso,  and  Nero  di  Doxati  are  pub- 
lished by  Muratori  in  his  Reriim  Italicarum  Scrip- 
tores,  vol.  XV.,  and  are  written  in  a  style  which, 
if  not  elegant,  displays  a  directness,  picturesque- 
ness  and  vigour  which  renders  them  most  fas- 
cinating reading ,  The  last  of  the  three  has 
almost  entirely  lost  "  that  cold  and  monotonous 
impersonality  Avhich  characterizes  the  mediaeval 
writer  ". 

Then  too,  the  statutes  were  translated  into 
the  vulgar  tongue.  Of  these,  Milanesi  has  printed 
two  (the  Breve  dell'  Arte  de'  Pittori  and  the  Breve 
dell'  Ai'te  degli  Orafi)  in  the  first  volume  of  his 
Documenti ;  while  three  volumes  of  Statuti  Se7iesi 
have  been  published  in  Bologna  per  ao^a  della 
R.  Coynmissione  pe'  testi  di  lingua.  Of  the  Statute 
of  the  Signori  Nove,  I  have  already  spoken  (^). 

In  the   14th  century  also,  translations  were 

(*)  See  page  55  supra. 

-    .36   - 

made  of  many  of  the  classical  authors.  Among* 
these  we  may  mention  that  of  the  Aineid,  by  Mis- 
ser  CiAMPOLO  DEGLI  Ugurgieri  (i34o)(');  and 
the  Fables  of  Aisop,  by  an  unknown  author  {^). 

Turning  to  religious  writings,  the  first  place 
is  of  course  held  by  Caterixa  Bexinxasa. 
"  Hers  ",  says  Professor  Bartoli,  "  was  the  strong- 
est, clearest,  and  most  exalted  religious  utter- 
ance that  made  itself  heard  in  Italy  in  the  14th 
century  ".  By  the  common  consent  of  Italian 
scholars,  her  Avritings  rank  among  the  acknow- 
ledged classics  of  the  language  ;  and  the  Delia 
Cruscans  have  placed  them  on  the  jealously- 
watched  list  of  their  authorities  (^).  iVnother 
ascetic  writer  of  the  same  period  was  Fra  Fi- 
LIPPO  Agazzari  (1339-142 2),  Prior  of  the  Mon- 
astery of  Lecceto,  whose  Assempri  are  written 
in  an  idiom  which  Carpellini  calls  sanessissimo 
spiccato.  A  very  able  study  of  them  has  been 
made  by  Professor  Antonio  Marenduzzo  (■^).     To 

(1)  This  is  the  first  translation  of  the  A^neid  into  the  vulgar  tongue ; 
for  the  celebrated  Fatti  rf'  Enea  of  Guido  da  Pisa  is  hardly  even  a  para- 
phrase, but  rather  the  story  of  ^neas  retold  in  Italian. 

(^)  Le  Tavole  d'  Esopo  volgarizzate  per  uno  da  Sietia,  Parma, 
Pietro  Fiaccadori,  i860.  In  the  Cronica  Sanese,  Muratori  XV.  col.  243, 
there  is  an  extremely  interesting  note  with  regard  to  one  of  these  fables. 

(^)  See,  however,  the  article  on  St  Catherine  in  the  Encyclopaedia 
Brittanica,  cited  supra. 

(*)  Gli  "Assempri''''  di  Fra  Filippo  da  Siena,  Siena,  Tip.  Nava, 
1899— The  text  of  the  Assempri  was  published  by  D.  C.  F.  in 
1864,  and  forms  the  second  volume  of  the  "  Piccola  Biblioteca  Senese  ". 
In  my  "  Ensamples  "  0/  Fra  Filippo  &c.  op.  cit,  I  have  attempted  a  transla- 
tion of  several  of  these  narratives. 

—    137  .— 
the  letters  of  GiOVANNi  COLOMBINI I  have  already 
alluded  (^),  and  we  may  pass  on  to  Fra  Bernar- 
dino Albizzeschi,  whose  sermons  in  the  vulgar 
tongue  are  "  models  of  style  and  diction  "  (^). 

In  the  first  half  of  the  15th  century  we 
encounter  the  earliest  of  the  Sienese  Novellicri, 
Gentile  Sermini,  who  probably  composed  his 
ioxty  Novelle  about  the  year  1425.  He  also  wrote 
verses  which  are  not  devoid  of  grace  and  charm. 
To  this  period  belongs  ^NEAS  Sylvius  Picco- 
LOMINI,  humanist,  historian  and  political  writer. 
His  Storia  di  due  amanti  gives  a  striking  picture 
of  Sienese  social  life  ;  but  it  was  not  a  book 
which  as  Pope  he  could  read  without  shame, 
and  Pius  II  apologised  for  having  written  it. 
It  contained,  he  said,  two  things — an  indelicate 
story  and  an  edifying  moral ;  all  read  the  first, 
but  few  heeded  the  last  (^).  Of  him  the  late 
Bishop  Creighton  has  said  that  "  he  is  one  of 
the  earliest  representatives  of  the  man  of  letters 
pure  and  simple  ;  he  is  perhaps  the  only  man 
of  letters  who  has  been  equally  eminent  in  lit- 
erature and  in  statesmanship  ". 

It  was  a  century  of  versifiers  ;  everybody 
could  write  sonnets,  madrigals  and  canzoni;  and 
it  gave  birth  to  the  Canto  Carnascialesco.  If  Siena 
produced  no  great  poet,  many  of  her  sons  could 

(M  Page  loi  supra,  See  also  G.  Pardi  op.  cit. 

(')  See  p.age  99  supra. 

(3)  See  Creighton's  History  of  the  Papacy,  vol.  Ill  page  343. 

rhyme  musically.  For  some  account  of  their 
verses  the  reader  is  referred  to  A.  Ricci's  excel- 
lent lecture  on  the  Canzoiiieri  senesl  della  scconda 
meta  del  quatt7'ocento  (^). 

Of  the  authorship  of  the  chronicle  generally 
attributed  to  NiCCOLO  DI  VENTURA  (d.  1464),  and 
published  by  Giuseppe  Porri  in  his  Miscellanea 
Storica  Sanese,  I  believe  that  Professor  Langton 
Douglas  will  have  something  to  tell  us  in  his 
forthcoming  book  on  Siena  (^).  AVhoever  wrote 
it,  it  is  a  most  picturesque  piece  of  work  and  gives 
a  stirring  account  of  the  battle  of  Montaperto. 
It  should  be  read  by  every  visitor  to  Siena. 
As  a  battle-piece,  painted  in  glorious  words,  it 
stands  without  a  rival.  There  you  may  read  of 
gallant  deeds,  of  armed  knights  crashing  to- 
gether, of  splintering-  shields,  of  hard  mail  hewn, 
of  shattered  helms.  There  shall  you  find  blood, 
blood  in  torrents,  blood  everywhere — the  blood 
of  "  those  dogs  of  Florentines  ",  whom  the  val- 
orous people  of  Siena  slew  like  swine  in  a 
slaughter  house.  They  seemed,  cries  the  chron- 
icler, porci  feriti.  And  to  all  this  you  will  pass 
from  a  scene  of  prayer  and  reconciliation  in  the 
Holy  Sienese  church,  where  the  Bishop  and  his 

(1)  In  the  Bullettino  Senese  di  Stotia  Paltia  vol.  VI  (1899)  pages 

(-)  Langton  Douglas,  A  History  of  Siena,  page  85,  note  ('). 

Professor  Douglas'  learned  work  has  reached  me  while  correcting 
ray  final  proofs.     I  have  read  it  with  equal  pleasure  and  profit. 

—  139  — 
clergy  sing  "  the  old  Latin  hymns  of  peace  and 
love  ",  and  where  the  injured  is  seeking  out  the 
injurer  to  kiss  him  on  the  mouth  and  to  pardon 
him  ;  while  over  all,  battle-field  and  Cathedral 
alike,  broods  the  sacred  form  of  God's  Most 
Holy  Mother,  Siena's  Protector  and  Advocate. 

A  little  later  we  have  the  chronicle  of  Alle- 
gretto Allegretti,  in  Muratori  (vol.  XXIII); 
and  during  the  same  period  flourished  SiGiS- 
MONDO  TiziO  (i 448-1 528),  who  wrote,  with  his 
own  hand,  a  history  of  Siena  from  its  orig-in  up 
to  the  second  decade  of  the  i6th  century,  in  ten 
enormous  volumes,  in  moderate  latin.  This 
monumental  work,  although  discursive  and  dis- 
connected, is  always  valuable  to  consult.  The 
original  is  preserved  in  the  Biblioteca  Chigiana 
in  Rome,  but  the  Biblioteca  Comunale  of  Siena 
possesses  a  copy,  made  in  the  last  century  by 
the  Ab.  Galgano  Bichi,  to  which  is  prefixed  a 
biographical  notice. 

The  bestSienese  historians  belong  to  the  i6th 
century.  They  are  Orlando  Malavolti  (1515- 
1596),  a  man  of  noble  birth,  "the  most  trust- 
worthy of  all  "  (^) ;  Antonio  Bellarmati  ; 
Alessandro  SozziNi  Di  GiROLAMO,  the  author 
of  the  Diario  delle  cose  avveyiute  in  Siena  dai  20  lu- 
glio  i^so  al  28  giugno  i^SS  (published  in  the 
"  Archivio  storico  italiano  "  together  with  other 

(')  C.  Paoli  in  the  Article  Siena  in  the  EncyclopcEdia  Brittanica. 

—   I40  — 

narratives  and  documents  relative  to  the  fall  of 
the  Republic)  ;  and  GlUGURTA  TOMMASI,  of 
whose  history  only  the  first  ten  books  have  been 
printed,  owing  to  the  death  of  his  wife  Livia 
Cinuzzi  in  1628,  before  she  had  completed  the 
task  of  editing  her  husband's  work. 

In  the  same  category  with  these  historians 
Professor  Paoli  mentions  the  learned  scholars 
Celso  Cittadixi  (d.  1627);  Uberto  Bexvo- 
GLIENTI  (d.  1733),  one  of  IMuratori's  correspon- 
dents (the  notes  to  the  Cronica  Sanese  are  from 
his  pen);  and  GiO.  AxTONiO  Pecci,  the  author 
of  the  Memorie  storico-critiche  della  citta  di  Siena, 
which,  beginning  with  the  Life  of  Pandolfo  Pe- 
trucci,  carries  the  history  of  Siena  up  to  the  year 
1559.  He  also  wrote  a  history  of  the  Bishopric 
of  Siena. 

In  the  1 6th  century,  Alessaxdro  Piccolo- 
MIXI,  Bishop  of  Patras,  produced  that  curious 
work  known  as  La  Raffaella  ovvcro  della  bella 
O'eanza  delle  Donne.  It  is  a  dialog'ue  between 
a  procuress  and  a  youthful  wife,  whom  she  is 
endeavouring  to  corrupt ;  and,  if  not  particularly 
edifying",  throws  considerable  lig^ht  upon  the 
toilet  arrang-ements  of  the  Sienese  ladies.  To 
this  same  period  belong  the  Novelle  of  SciPlOXE 
BarCtAGLI,  of  M.  Giustixiano  Nelli  and  of 
PiETRO  Fortixi,  as  also  the  Raccolta  di  Biirle, 
Facetie,  Motti  e  Bnffonei'ie  di  tre  H^iomini  Sanest  of 
Alessaxdro  Sozzixi  (  i  5  i  8-  i  608).     None  of  these 

—    141    — 

works  are  remarkable  for  their  delicacy,  though 
the  first  mentioned  author  is  a  writer  of  some 
merit.  The  Raccolta  of  Sozzini  is  amusing,  and, 
at  the  worst,  only  vulgar;  but  the  Novelli  of  Xelli 
and  of  Fortini  are  both  trivial  and  indecent.  With 
regard  to  the  latter  especially,  it  is  not  a  ques- 
tion of  the  mythical  innocence  of  the  "  young 
person  ",  or  even  of  that  exaggerated  prudery 
which  has  earned  for  us  Englishmen  a  not 
altogether  unmerited  reputation  for  hypocrisy 
among  our  continental  neighbours.  Here  there 
can  be  no  mistake.  Fortini  is  openly  and  fla- 
grantly obscene. 

In  the  17th  century  we  find  LuDOViCO  Ser- 
GARDI  (Quinto  Settano),  a  Latinist  and  satirical 
writer  of  much  talent  and  culture  ;  but  "  the 
most  original  and  brillant  figure  in  Sienese  lit- 
erature is  that  of  GiROLAMO  GiGLi  (i 660-1 772), 
author  of  the  Gazzettino,  La  Soi'ellina  di  Don  Pi- 
lone,  II  Vocabolario  Caterinia7io,  and  the  Diario  Ec- 
clesiastico.  As  humorist,  scholar,  and  philologist 
Gigli  would  take  a  high  place  in  the  literature 
of  any  land.  His  resolute  opposition  to  all  hy- 
pocrisy— whether  religious  or  literary — exposed 
him  to  merciless  persecution  from  the  Jesuits 
and  the  Delia  Cruscan  Academy  "  (^). 

Of  the  scientific  writers  of  Siena  I  very 
frankly  confess  that  I  have  read  and  know  ab- 

(*)  C,  Paoli,  Article  cited. 

—     142     — 

solutely  nothing.  I  therefore  quote  the  follow- 
ing paragraph  from  the  pen  of  the  late  Profes- 
sor Paoli  : 

"  In  theology  and  philosophy  the  most  dis- 
tinguished names  are — Berxardixo  Ochixo  and 
Lelio  and  Fausto  SOCCIXI  (i6th  century);  in 
jurisprudence,  three  Soccixi — Mariaxo  senior, 
Bartolommeo,  and  Mariaxo  junior  (15th  and 
1 6th  centuries);  and  in  political  economy,  Sal- 
LUSTIO  Baxdixi  (1677-1760),  author  of  the  Di- 
scorso  siilla  Maremma.  In  physical  science  the 
names  most  worthy  of  mention  are  those  of  the 
botanist  Pier  Axtoxio  Mattioli  (i  501-1572), 
of  Pirro  Maria  Gabrielli  (1643-1705),  founder 
of  the  Academy  of  the  Physiocritics,  and  of  the 
anatomist  Paolo  Mascagxi  (d.    1825)". 

Among  the  modern  Sienese  writers  who  are 
worthy  to  be  placed  in  the  same  category  with 
Celso  Cittadini,  Uberto  Benvog'lienti  and  Gio. 
Antonio  Pecci,  may  be  mentioned  SciPiOXE  BoR- 
GHESI  (d.  1878)  who  has  left  us  a  precious  store 
of  historical,  bibliographical  and  biographical 
documents  ;  and  the  librarian  C.  F.  Carpellixi 
(d.  1872),  the  author  of  several  monographs  on 
the  origin  of  Siena  and  the  constitution  of  the 
Republic.  He  was  one  of  that  splendid  band 
of  scholars  who  with  F.  L.  POLIDORI  (d.  1865), 
the  director  of  the  then  nascent  Ajxhivio  di  Siato, 
founded,  in  1859,  "l^he  Societa  Senese  di  Storia  Pa- 
tria  Municipale,  the  precursor  of  the  present  Coin- 

—  143  — 
missione  Senese  di  Storia  Patria,  which  is  doing" 
so  much  good  work  "  in  collecting  materials  for 
a  complete  history  of  Siena  and  of  its  ancient 
State  ".  Among  its  members,  past  and  present, 
are  to  be  found  such  names  as  Luciano  Ban- 
CHI  (d.  1887),  Gaetano  Milanesi  (d.  1895),  Ce- 
SARE  Paoli  (d.  1902),  Alessandro  LiSINI,  Lo- 
Dovico  Zdekauer,  and  Narciso  Mengozzi,  to 
mention  only  a  few  among  the  many  learned 
men  to  whose  labours  Siena  and  those  who  love 
her  owe  so  great  a  debt  of  gratitude  (^). 

(')  See  the  Relazione  e  hidici,  pubblicati  dalla  Commissione  Senese 
di  Storia  Patria  nella  R.  Accad.  dei  Rozzi,  per  il  Congresso  hiternazio- 
nale  di  Scienze  Storiche  da  tenersi  in  Rotna.     Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri  1902. 


Chi  vedesse  azzuflFar  costoro  in  piazza 
Con  tanta  pertinacia  per  la  parte, 
Avendo  mille  carte 
Non  crederia  che  non  fusser  niinici 
E  r  altro  di  son  fratelli  ed  amici. 

Gextile  Sermini.  //  giuoco  delle  pugna. 

IX  a  work  of  this  character,  a  mere  Guide  Book, 
it  is,  of  course  inevitable  that  very  much 
which  is  interesting  and  important  should  be 
omitted.  Especially  do  I  regret  that  I  have  been 
unable  to  deal  with  that  most  fascinating  of 
subjects,  the  social  life  of  the  old  Sienese.  That 
is,  however,  too  large  a  question  to  be  even 
touched  upon  in  the  two  or  three  pages  still  at 
my  disposal,  and  I  must  be  content  to  refer  the 
reader  to  a  previous  w^ork,  l^he  "  Ensamples  " 
of  Fi'aFilippo,  a  study  of  Mediaeval  Siena.  There, 
taking  as  my  text  certain  "tales  with  a  purpose" 
told  by  an  Augustinian  friar  of  the  Monastery 
of  Lecceto,  I  have  discussed  the  social  state  and 
beliefs  of  Italy,  and  especially  of  Siena,  during 
the  later  Middle  Ages  and  early  Renaissance. 
I   have   sought   to    discover   how    men    lived   in 

—  145  -- 
those  far  off  days  ;  what  passions  swayed  them 
and  what  hopes  consoled  ;  how  they  ate,  slept, 
dressed,  gambled,  laboured,  loved  and  died;  and, 
as  I  have  cited  my  authorities  at  every  step, 
I  venture  to  hope  that,  whatever  may  be  the 
shortcomings  of  the  book  itself,  it  will  at  least 
serve  to  indicate  the  principle  sources  of  in- 
formation on  the  questions  treated. 

Unquestionably,  however,  the  best  book  to 
consult  on  the  whole  Sienese  story  is  Professor 
Langton  Douglas'  new  w^ork,  which,  as  I  have 
already  remarked,  reached  me  while  correcting 
my  final  proofs  (^). 

In  this  place,  I  merely  propose  to  say  a  few 
words  concerning  the  Palio  delle  conb-ade,  an  in- 
stitution which  is  peculiar  to  Siena,  and  which 
is  certainly  one  of  the  most  curious  and  interest- 
ing of  mediaeval   survivals. 

(1)  Langton  Douglas,  A  History  of  Siena,  London,  John  Murray, 

The  following  list  of  the  titles  of  the  various  chapters  will  give  some 
idea  of  the  scope  of  the  work. 

I.  Sena  Vetus.  II.  The  Birth  of  the  Commune.  III.  A  Nation  of 
Shopkeepers.  IV,  The  Struggle  with  the  Feudal  Nobles.  V.  The  Struggle 
with  Florence.  VI.  Ghibelline  Siena.  VII.  Montaperti.  VIII.  Life  in  Old 
Siena.  IX.  The  Rise  and  Fall  of  the  Nine.  X.  The  Twelve  and  the  Re- 
formers. XI.  St  Catherine  of  Siena.  XII.  The  Age  of  San  Bernardino  and 
^neas  Sylvius  Piccolomini.  XIII.  Pandolfo  Petrucci.  XIV,  The  Battle  of 
CamoUia,  XV.  The  Siege  of  Siena.  XVI.  The  Architecture  of  Siena. 
XVII.  The  Sculpture  of  Siena.  XVIII.  Sienese  Painting.  XIX.  The  Minor 
Arts  in  Siena.     XX.  Literature  and  Science  in  Siena. 

—    140   — 

Siena  is,  as  I  have  said,  divided  into  seven- 
teen conti'ade  or  wards.  Between  these  civic 
divisions  a  strong  feeling  of  rivalry  exists,  which 
finds  its  vent  in  the  races  which  are  run  twice 
yearly,  on  the  2nd  July  and  the  i6th  Aug'ust, 
in  the  historic  Piazza  del  Campo  (now  Piazza 
Vittorio  Emanuele).  In  these  races  each  horse 
and  jockey  (fantino)  represents  a  contrada.  The 
prize  is  a  palio  or  banner.  In  each  race  ten 
contrade  compete,  seven  because  it  is  their  turn 
to  do  so  (d'  obbligo),  and  three  because  their 
names  have  been  draw^n  to  take  part  in  the  race 
(a  sorte).  The  horses,  which  are  distributed  by 
lot,  are  ridden  bare-backed,  and  each  fantino 
wields  the  classic  nerbo,  which  he  uses  rather  as 
a  weapon  of  offence  than  as  a  whip.  The  course 
is  three  times  round  the  Piazza ,  the  paved 
roadway,  which  forms  its  circumference,  being 
covered  with  sand  for  the  occasion,  while  wooden 
seats  are  erected  in  front  of  the  shops  which 
occupy  the  basements  of  the  surrounding  pal- 

Before  the  race,  each  horse  is  blessed  and 
sprinkled  with  holy  water  in  the  chapel  of  its 

Companies  representing  the  several  wards, 
clad  in  their  respective  liveries  fcomparsej  march 
round  the  Piazza  to  the  sound  of  music,  and 
with  waving  banners.  It  is,  in  fact,  a  splendid 
pageant,    bearing    a  distinctly    mediaeval  stamp, 

—    147    — 
and  in  full   harmony  with    the  architecture  and 
history  of  the  town. 

-  Moreover,  the  Palio  has  a  very  real  religious 
significance.  It  was  instituted  in  honour  of  the 
Virgin  ]\lary,  the  patron  saint  of  the  city  ;  and 
her  figure  is  painted  upon  the  banner  which 
gives  its  name  to  the  race. 

The  history  of  the  festival  is  long  and  inter- 
esting, and,  whether  we  regard  it  as  a  religious 
ceremony  or  as  a  development  of  the  old  games 
of  Pugna  and  Elmora,  can  be  traced  back  to  the 
13th  century.  (wSee  my  Our  Lady  of  August  and 
the  Palio  of  Siena). 

The  Palio  "  is  still  a  vital  part  of  Sienese 
social  life  " ;  and  certainly  he  who  has  not  seen 
it  does  not  know  Siena. 







In  writing  my  half  of  this  Guide,  I  have 
judged  it  best  to  preface  the  actual  description 
of  the  city  by  a  short  introductory  chapter  on 
Sienese  Architecture,  Sculpture,  and  Painting. 
Owing  to  the  limited  space  at  my  command 
these  notices  are  of  the  briefest,  and  include  a 
mention  only  of  the  more  important  artists  ; 
they  do  not  pretend  to  form  a  critical  essay,  the 
writing  of  which  was  impossible  within  the 
limits  of  this  Guide.  Nevertheless,  what  little 
I  have  written  will,  I  hope,  suffice  to  arouse  a 
greater  interest  in  the  somewhat  neglected  art 
of  Siena,  and  also  to  counteract,  in  a  measure, 
the  undue  attention  which  has  hitherto  been 
given — at  least  by  the  majority  of  visitors — to 
the  Lombard  Sodoma,  at  the  expense  of  the  far 
greater  native  Sienese  painters.  Those  visitors 
who  are  desirous  of  enlarging  their  acquaintance 
with  this  delightful  school  of  painting  should 
consult  Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle's  account  of  the 
same,  and  more  particularly  Mr.  Bernhard  Be- 
renson's  essay  on  the  Central  Italian  Painters  of 
the  Renaissance,  which  contains  the  most  com- 

—     152    — 

prehensive  and  conclusive  criticism  yet  written 
on  the  Sienese  school.  It  is  perhaps  hardly 
necessary  to  advise  the  reader  carefully  to  peruse 
]\Ir.  Heywood's  historical  sketch  before  study- 
ing the  monuments  of  the  city,  as  a  far  more 
satisfactory  idea  of  a  people's  art  can  be  arrived 
at  with  some  previous  knowledge  of  its  history. 
I  have  to  thank  the  Director  of  the  Sienese 
Archives,  Cav.  Lisini,  Sig.  Casanova,  and  ^Ir. 
William  Heywood,  for  various  historical  data. 
For  man}^  valuable  suggestions  upon  architec- 
tural matters  I  am  indebted  to  ^Ir.  Bernard  H. 
AVebb.  In  regard  to  attributions  and  artistic 
matters  in  general,  however,  my  best  thanks 
are  due  to  'Mr.  Bernhard  Berenson  and  to  Air. 
F.  Mason  Perkins,  both  of  whom  have  placed 
at  my  service  the  results  of  much  of  their  wide 
knowledge  and  continued  study  of  Sienese  art. 

Siena,    1902. 

Lucy  Olcott. 



ALTHOUGH  her  many  fortress-towers  have  long 
since  been  reduced  to  their  present  incon- 
spicuous height,  Siena  still  preserves,  as  does  no 
other  city  in  Italy,  her  mediaeval  aspect.  Per- 
haps because  her  chequered  political  career  and 
the  consequent  lack  of  wealth  and  enterprise  had 
already  partly  stayed  her  hand,  perhaps  because 
the  classic  feeling  of  the  Renaissance  was  slow 
to  appeal  to  the  more  romantic  nature  of  the 
Sienese,  the  city  possesses  comparatively  few 
buildings  of  that  period,  the  greater  part  of  her 
architecture  remaining  to-day  as  it  was  produced 
during  the  13th  and  14th  centuries — an  archi- 
tecture which,  as  was  the  case  with  few  excep- 
tions throughout  all  Italy,  adopted  Gothic  ideas 
more  as  decorative  features  than  as  those  of  pure 

Several    important    Renaissance    buildings 

—  154  — 
were  erected  in  Siena,  it  is  true,  before  1500  (^) 
— more  than  one  of  them  on  Florentine  rather 
than  on  Sienese  designs, — but  these  represent 
isolated  examples,  rather  than  the  general  ac- 
ceptance of  a  style  which  did  not  meet  with 
anything  resembling  a  truly  popular  approval 
in  that  city  until  the  i6th  century  Avas  well 
under  way.  In  more  respects  than  one,  the  con- 
servative nature  of  the  vSienese  people,  and  their 
greatly  reduced  circumstances,  were  directly 
beneficial  to  the  preservation  of  an  architectural 
unity  during  those  later  centuries  of  corrupt 
and  misguided  taste,  w^hich  resulted  in  such 
fatal  and  deplorable  "  restorations "  and  "  re- 
buildings  ",  w^hite-washings  and  enlargements,  in 
the  more  prosperous  cities  of  Italy.  Such  rare 
examples  of  the  Later  Renaissance  and  Baroque 
styles  as  are  to  be  found  within  her  walls,  still 
retain,  to  an  extraordinary  degree,  much  of  the 
refinement  and  good  taste  which  was,  throughout 
Siena's  history,  so  distinguishing  a  feature  of  her 
artistic  creations. 

Up  to  a  very  recent  date,  Siena  has  also 
escaped,  to  a  remarkable  extent,  the  still  more 
dangerous  effects  of  20th  century  "  improve- 
ments ".  Unfortunately,  that  craze  for  unneces- 
sary and  ill-advised  municipal  adornment  which 

(')  Such  as  the  Loggia  del  Papa,  the  Palazzo  Xerucci,  the  Palazzo 
del  Governo,  the  Palazzo  dei  Diavoli,  the  Palazzo  Spannocchi  and  the  Pa- 
lazzo di  San  Galgano. 

—     ^00    — 

has  already  proved  so  ruinous  to  the  artistic 
appearance  of  many  another  Italian  town,  has 
lately  given  signs  of  a  much-to-be-regretted  ac- 
ceptance even  here  (i).  It  can  but  be  sincerely 
hoped  that  this  contagious  infection  may  be 
checked,  before  it  be  too  late,  by  those  of  Sie- 
na's citizens  who  still  have  at  heart  her  glorious 
record  of  a  long-departed  time. 

Of  the  early  architectures  of  Central  Italy, 
there  are  scant  traces  in  Siena.  Some  few  and 
unimportant  Etruscan  tombs,  unearthed  some 
years  ago  outside  the  Porta  Camollia,  are  all 
that  can  be  said  to  date  from  the  time  of  the 
city's  early  origin.  Of  Roman  work  (^)  there 
remain  some  vestiges  of  brick  construction  in 
different  places — on  the  Via  Cavour  near  the 
Palazzo  Tantucci,  and  in  the  west  wall  of  the 
Palazzo  del  Magnifico.  At  one  of  these  points 
there  exists  a  fragment  of  a  Roman  inscription; 
and  still  another,  preserved  to  us  entire,  is  now 
embedded  in  the  Porta  Romana.     The  tablet  on 

(')  The  recent  disfigurements  of  the  once  charming  Viale  Curtatone, 
and  a  few  of  the  recently  erected  edifices  outside  the  Porta  Camollia,  may 
be  taken  as  excellent  and  painful  examples  of  this  modern  tendency. 

In  their  inexplicable  hatred  of  trees,  also,  many  of  the  Sienese  are 
already  rivalling  their  like-minded  compatriots  in  other  parts  of  Italy.  The 
Passeggio  della  Lizza  and  the  above-mentioned  Viale  Curtatone,  not  to 
speak  of  other  examples,  have  been  deprived  of  much  additional  beauty  by 
the  needless  cutting  down  of  trees  and  shrubs. 

{^)  For  a  detailed  study  of  Roman  Siena,  see  P.  Rossi,  Le  Oiigini 
di  Siena. 

-   156  - 

the  Via  Cavour,  bearing-  the  somewhat  enig- 
matical Avords  VERO  ET  VALE,  is  to  be  seen 
inserted  in  the  wall  to  the  right  of  the  shoe- 
maker's shop,  opposite  the  Palazzo  Tantucci. 
The  brick  work  above  it,  and  that  now  forming 
the  central  portion  of  the  tower  opposite,  was 
probably  a  part  of  the  Northern  Gate  of  Roman 
Siena  (^).  The  tablet  on  the  Porta  Romana  is 
inscribed  : 

MEMOR.    VI.    VI R 
A  U  G  U  S  T  A  L 
YO  .  SOL. 

It  was  put  up  in  honour  of  the  rustic  deity 
Silvanus,  by  a  certain  Vitricius,  who  evidently 
belonged  to  the  cult  of  the  deified  Augustus. 

The  Lombard-Romanesque  work  of  the  12th 
and  preceding  centuries  is  represented  by  the 
brick  facades  of  two  little-known  churches  C^). 
That  of    Sta.  Maria    di    Betlem  (^),    outside    the 

(1)  The  southern  entrance  to  the  citj-  was  probablj-  through  the  Porta 
Aurea — a  gateway  situated  near  the  present  Arco  di  Santr*  Agostino.  The 
east  gate  was  somewhere  near  the  church  of  S.  Martino,  aud  the  west  gate 
at  the  top  of  the  slope  which  leads  from  the  Via  di  Citta  to  Porta  Fonte- 

(^)  Remains  of  Romanesque  work  are  also  visible  in  the  old  church 
of  Sant'  Ansano  in  Castel-Vecchio,  possibly  at  one  time  the  principal  church 
of  early  mediaeval  Siena.  The  remnants  of  the  ancient  portal  of  the  neigh- 
bouring church  of  S.  Quirico  are  also  essentially  Romanesque  in  character. 

(^)  This  church,  with  its  annexed  hospital,  was  once  a  dependance 
of  the  Bishopric  of  Bethlehem,  which  was  instituted  after  the  First  Crusade 
in  1099,  and  which,  at  the  beginning  of  the  13th  century,  was  transferred 
from  Bethlehem  to  the  diocese  of  Auxerre  in  France.  The  above-mentioned 
church,  together  with  others  of  the  Sienese  diocese,  was  conferred  upon  the 

Porta  Romana,  is  particularly  remarkable  for  its 
simplicity  and  beauty  of  proportion.  That  of 
Sta.  Chiara,  a  suppressed  convent-church  on  the 
Via  Pispini,  now  used  as  a  military  magazine, 
is  scarcely  less  interesting,  although,  to  the  best 
of  our  knowledge,  it  has  hitherto  escaped  the 
notice  of  architectural  writers  on  Siena.  The 
interiors  of  both  these  churches  have  been  al- 
tered at  various  times,  and  their  original  plans 
entirely  changed.  Although  no  secular  build- 
ing remains  to  us  in  its  Romanesque  entirety, 
there  are  vestiges  of  this  period  still  to  be  re- 
cognized in  occasional  weather-beaten  lions'  heads 
and  other  fragmentary  bits  of  sculptural  orna- 
ment, and  in  various  entrance-ways,  Avindows, 
and  remains  of  stone  foundation  walls  scattered 
through  different  parts  of  the  city. 

As  the  Gothic  S3^stem  of  architecture  was 
definitely  introduced  into  Siena  by  the  advent 
of  the  Cistercian  monks  who  founded  the  near- 
lying  Abbey  of  San  Galgano  (^),  it  would  be 
advisable  that  visitors  to  the  city  make  an  early 

Bishop  of  Bethlehem  by  a  bull  of  Clement  IV,  dated  Maj'  nth,  1266.  The 
church  is  said  to  have  been  founded  in  1133.  The  earliest  documentary 
mention  is  one  of  1189.  In  the  course  of  time,  the  patrimony  passed  into 
the  hands  of  the  Piccolomini  family,  to  whom  it  was  assigned  as  a  benefice- 
See  Cavallucci,  Storia  deW  Arte,  vol.  II,  p.  195. 

(')  The  first  Gothic  buildings  in  Ital}-,  with  the  exception  of  S.  Fran- 
cesco at  Assisi  (begun  in  1228  by  a  French  master),  were  erected  by  the 
Cistercians,  the  earliest  being  :  Fossanuova  1187-1208,  Valvisciola  1203-1217, 
and  Casamari  1203-12 17.  San  Galgano,  aij  outgrowth  of  the  church  at 
Casamari,  was  eommenced  in  12 18,  and  finished  in   1306, 

pilgrimage  to  the  beautiful  ruins  of  that  church. 
A  comparison  can  thus  be  made  between  the 
purity  of  this  early  French  Gothic  and  the  work 
done  on  the  Cathedral  and  throughout  the  city, 
and  they  will  the  better  be  enabled  to  realize 
the  differences  between  Italian  and  Northern 
(or  French)  Gothic — although  S.  Galgano  itself 
shows  not  only  the  restless  ideals  of  the  Gothic 
workman,  but  also  -much  of  the  solidity  and 
broadness  of  the  then  departing  Romanesque. 
The  Italian  mason  never  grasped  the  northern 
idea  of  mysterious  and  endless  height,  of  walls 
which  are  not  walls  but  pillars  of  strength  to 
receive  the  weight  of  the  roof  and  to  support 
the  real  walls  of  glass  or  light  masonry.  His 
ideals  were  rather  those  of  solidity,  simplicity, 
and  space.  His  classical  inheritance,  always 
alive  in  Byzantine  and  Romanesque  work,  kept 
his  interiors  of  a  moderate  height,  and  more 
spacious  than  those  of  his  northern  brethren ;  it 
caused  him  to  string  his  facades  with  horizontal 
lines,  and  to  leave  broad  wall  surfaces,  the  bare- 
ness of  which  he  relieved  with  bright  frescoes 
or  with  alternate  rows  of  coloured  marble.  Nev- 
ertheless, despite  these  differences,  the  Sienese 
temperament  was  in  many  ways  more  closely 
allied  to  that  of  the  North  than  was  that  of  other 
Italian  cities — Dante  himself  once  irefully  likened 
them  to  the  French — and  Italianized  Gothic, 
once  having  obtained  a  foot-hold,  seems  to  have 

—  159  — 
spread  with  incredible  rapidity,  developing  there 
a  character  peculiarly  Sienese.  So  popular  did 
this  pointed  style  become,  and  so  anxious  was 
each  family  of  note  to  possess  at  least  one 
prominent  palace  of  its  own,  that,  even  at  the 
present  day,  there  is  no  other  city  which  con- 
tains so  large  a  number  of  Gothic  buildings  as 
does  Siena.  Most  important  among  all  the 
edifices  of  this  greatest  period  of  her  architec- 
tural activity  are  the  world-famous  Duomo,  and 
the  scarcely  less  interesting  Palazzo  Pubblico. 

Although  in  plan  obviously  influenced  by 
the  Abbey  of  S.  Galgano,  the  Cathedral  of  Siena 
is  far  less  Gothic  in  feeling  than  is  that  of  Or- 
vieto,  and  retains  many  Romanesque  elements 
in  its  construction  and  method  of  decoration, 
not  to  speak  of  its  purely  Romanesque  campa- 
nile. A  detailed  description  of  this  church,  com- 
menced during  the  second  quarter  of  the  13th 
century,  and  of  the  various  vicissitudes  con- 
nected with  its  erection,  is  reserved  for  a  sub- 
sequent part  of  this  Guide. 

The  Palazzo  Pubblico  is,  in  a  way,  typical 
of  many  of  the  Sienese  Gothic  palaces  (^).  Its 
lower  storey  is  of  travertine  and  the  upper  walls 

(*)  At  the  end  of  the  13th  century,  while  that  palace  was  in  process 
of  construction,  a  law  was  enacted  by  the  State  which  required  that  all 
houses  facing  on  the  Piazza  del  Campo  should  have  windows  similar  to  those 
of  the  Palazzo  della  Signoria,  as  it  was  then  called.  It  naturally  followed 
that  other  palaces  were  built  after  the  approved  pattern. 

—   i6o  — 

of  brick,  with  many  clusters  of  small  pointed 
openings  divided  by  white  marble  shafts.  This 
brick  construction,  which  is  so  characteristic  a 
feature  of  Sienese  palaces,  probably  came  into 
general  use  early  in  the  14th  century,  as  the 
"Palazzo  della  vSignoria"  slowly  reached  comple- 
tion ;  and  finally,  almost  supplanting  the  earlier 
work  in  travertine,  it  gave  the  architect  far 
greater  opportunity  to  decorate  his  facade.  How- 
ever, it  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  earliest 
of  the  Gothic  palaces  were  probably  built  almost 
entirely  of  travertine,  with  undivided  openings. 
Remnants  of  such  fortress-like  palaces  may  still 
be  seen  on  the  Via  Stalloreggi,  Xos.  4,  12,  and 
II,  and  on  Via  S.  ^lartino,  Xo.  g.  The  Palazzo 
Tolomei,  also  of  travertine,  and  frequently  cited 
as  the  earliest  of  Sienese  palaces,  its  assigned 
year  being  1205,  cannot  possibly,  as  it  now 
stands,  date  entirely  from  that  period  (^).  Of  the 
buildings  in  brick  and  stone,  probably  modelled 
after  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  the  most  interesting 
are  the  Palazzo  vSansedoni,  the  Palazzo  Grotta- 
nelli,  and  the  imposing  Salimbeni  and  Saracini 
palaces.     The  Palazzo  Buonsignori  is  a  splendid 

(')  There  is  ever}-  reason  to  suppose  that  the  earlier  palace  was 
partly,  or  even  wholly,  destro5-ed  in  1265  after  an  insurrection  of  the  Guelphs; 
but  more  convincing  arguments  as  to  its  real  age  are  the  elaborate  window 
traceries  of  the  upper  storeys.  The  ground  floor  may  possibly  date  from  the 
first  half  of  the  13th  centurj-,  but  the  remainder  of  the  palace  undoubtedh- 
belongs  to  a  far  later  period. 

—   i6i   — 

example  of  the  highly  decorative  effect  obtained 
by  the  use  of  brick  alone  (^).  It  would  be  easy 
to  dwell  in  detail  upon  a  score  of  other  palaces 
scarcely  less  interesting  than  those  already  men- 
tioned, but  lack  of  space  forbids. 

Several  Sienese  architects  of  the  13th  cen- 
tury, sometimes  difficult  to  differentiate  from  the 
sculptors  of  the  period,  are  mentioned  by  name 
in  the  public  books  of  Siena;  but  it  is  useless 
to  speak  of  them  here,  as  their  work  can  seldom 
be  exactly  identified,  consisting,  as  it  frequently 
did,  in  the  erection  of  various  fortifications, 
gates,  bottini,  fountains,  etc.  During  the  follow- 
ing century  a  few  names  stand  out  with  some 
prominence.  That  of  Loreyizo  Maitani  will  ever 
be  associated  with  the  splendid  facade  of  Or- 
vieto  Cathedral  (begun  in  13 10),  a  w^ork  which  can 
scarcely  be  sufficiently  praised.  Camaino  di  Cre- 
scentino,  during  the  second  decade  of  the  century, 
held  the  post  of  head  architect  of  the  Duomo 
of  Siena — that  is,  when  the  present  Baptistery 
and  the  superimposed  choir  of  the  cathedral 
were  first  building.  He  is  also  known  to  have 
been  concerned,  in  1298,  with  the  construction 
of  the  Fonte  Nuova.  His  son,  Tino  di  Camaino, 
held  the  same  position  on  the  works  of  the 
Duomo  for  a  few  months  only;  his  work,  both 

(1)  There  is  hardly  a  palace  in  Siena  which  has  not  suffered  restora- 
tion or  rebuilding  at  different  periods  ;  it  is  therefore  impossible  to  assign 
the  majority  of  buildings  to  any  precise  date. 

—     l62    — 

as  an  architect  and  as  a  sculptor,  is  of  more 
importance  in  Pisa  and  in  Naples.  Angela  di 
Ventura,  while  head  architect  of  the  Commune, 
designed  the  Porta  Tufi,  which  was  finished  in 
1325,  and  shortly  afterwards  commenced  to  re- 
build the  Porta  Romana — then  Porta  8.  Martino. 
Still  another  Sienese  architect  who  laboured 
much  in  Naples  was  Lando  di  Pietro.  When,  in 
1339,  the  citizens  of  his  native  city  decided  to 
erect  a  new  and  vaster  cathedral,  incorporating 
the  older  edifice,  they  called  upon  him,  as  their 
most  famous  son,  to  act  as  head  architect  of  the 
projected  building. 

As  has  already  been  remarked,  the  Archi- 
tecture of  the  Renaissance  found  but  a  tardy 
welcome  in  Siena.  Passing  over  such  tentative 
and  transitional  work  as  that  of  Sana  di  Matte 0, 
we  find  in  Antonio  Fedei'ighi  (active  1444- 1490) 
tbe  first  real  exponent  of  Renaissance  architec- 
ture in  this  city.  Delicacy  and  refinement  were 
the  chief  qualities  of  his  work  ;  and  it  is  to  him 
that  the  beautiful  church  of  Sta.  Maria  delle  Nevi 
— one  of  the  most  charming  of  Renaissance  build- 
ings in  vSiena^ — -is  probably  due.  A  more  cer- 
tain of  his  creations  is  the  almost  equally  charm- 
ing church  of  the  Palazzo  dei  Diavoli.  With 
Pope  Pius  II  and  the  advent  of  the  Florentine 
architects  Bernado  Rosellino  and  Giuliano  di 
Maiano,  the   tide  of  Sienese  thought  turned  to- 

-   i63  - 

ward  a  more  complete  realization  of  Renais- 
sance ideals.  To  Francesco  di  Giorgio  (143 9- 1502), 
one  of  Siena's  most  renowned  citizens,  we  can 
ascribe  no  authenticated  building  in  this  city. 
Painter  and  sculptor,  architect,  and  commentator 
of  Vitruvius,  military  and  hydraulic  engineer, 
his  fame  and  popularity  was  second  only  to  that 
of  Leonardo  da  Vinci.  He  is  better  known, 
however,  as  an  engineer,  as  the  inventor  of  mines 
and  various  contrivances  for  war,  than  as  an 
architect.  Nevertheless,  what  little  authentic- 
ated architectural  work  he  has  left,  at  Jesi  and 
Ancona  as  well  as  at  Cortona  (^),  shows  great 
refinement  and  harmony  of  proportions,  although, 
as  frequently  happens  in  Sienese  work,  it  lacks 
something  of  the  vig'our  of  the  Florentine  school 
of  architecture.  We  may  here  add  that  Sienese 
architecture  of  the  Renaissance  in  general,  al- 
thoug'h  distinguished  from  that  of  the  Floren- 
tines by  a  greater  delicacy  of  detail  and  execu- 
tion, falls  considerably  behind  it  in  initiative 
ability  and  breadth  of  conception.  The  achieve- 
ments of  Francesco  di  Giorgio's  pupil  Giacomo 
Cozzarelli  (1453-15 15)  may  be  gauged  by  the 
present  convent  of  the  Osservanza,  and  the  some- 
what  formless    Palazzo    del   Magnilico.       What 

(1)  The  church  of  Sta.  Maria  del  Calcinaio,  near  that  city,  France- 
sco's masterpiece  in  building,  surely  entitles  him  to  rank  among  the  greatest 
architects  of  the  Quattrocento. 

-    i64   - 

the  eag-er  and  determined  spirit  of  the  Re- 
naissance could  achieve,  Avhen  embodied  in 
an  architect  possessing*  a  nicely  balanced  and 
discerning-  mind,  is  demonstrated  in  the  work  of 
Baldassarre  Peruzzi  (1481-1537).  His  classicism 
is  more  Greek  in  quality  than  is  that  of  any  of 
his  contemporaries,  and  is  seldom  either  exag- 
gerated or  misapplied.  One  must,  however,  go 
to  Rome  to  know  him  well,  for,  apart  from  the 
Palazzo  Celsi  (now  known  as  the  Palazzo  Pol- 
lini),  but  little  in  Siena  can  be  assigned  to  Peruzzi 
himself.  Nevertheless,  a  considerable  quantity 
of  work  shows  his  direct  influence — such  as  the 
courtyard  of  the  house  of  St.  Catherine,  the  house 
front,  Xo.  24,  on  the  Via  Baldassarre  Peruzzi, 
and  again,  in  a  later  development,  the  Villa 
Sta.  Colomba,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  city. 
With  the  Sienese  pupils  of  Peruzzi,  many 
of  them  nameless,  the  architects  of  Siena  ceased, 
from  an  artistic  standpoint,  to  be  of  any  great 
importance.  It  is,  nevertheless,  interesting  to 
note  that  their  services  were  sometimes  called 
upon  by  foreign  princes,  as  when  Henri  II 
employed  Girolamo  Bellarmati  to  superintend 
the  building  up  of  Havre-de-Grace.  And,  at  a 
later  period,  they  extended  the  sphere  of  their 
activity  not  only  throughout  the  countries  of 
Europe,   but    as   far    as    England    itself  (^).       Of 

(•)  Giuliano  Pcricciuoli  lived  some  time  in  England,  during  the  17th 

-   i65  - 

later  Renaissance  architecture  in  Siena,  the  Pa- 
lazzo Tantucci  (now  part  of  the  Monte  dei  Pa- 
schi)  (^)  and  the  fagade  of  S.  Martino  are  excel- 
lent examples  of  two  different  periods,  while 
the  church  of  Sta.  Maria  Provenzano  is  an 
extraordinarily  temperate  specimen  of  the  Ba- 
roque style. 

The  surprising  architectural  wealth  of  Siena, 
even  as  she  stands  to-day,  has  never  met  with 
sufficient  recognition  on  the  part  of  architectural 
or  other  writers,  and  the  majority  of  visitors, 
in  their  hasty  passage  through  this  beautiful 
city,  seldom  stay  to  consider  it  from  other  than 
a  purely  picturesque  point  of  view.  For  those, 
however,  who  are  actuated  by  a  more  purely 
artistic  interest  in  brick  and  stone,  Siena  has 
endless  half-hidden  treasure  to  offer. 

(')  The  officials  of  the  Monte  de'  Paschi  not  only  occupy  the  Palazzo 
Tantucci,  the  building  to  the  north  of  the  square,  but  also  the  Palazzo  Sa- 
limbeni,  on  its  eastern  side  (see  page  43  supra).  It  is  the  latter  palace 
which  gives  its  name  to  the  piazza. 


As  early  as  1212  we  have  record  in  Siena 
of  a  corporation  of  Maestri  di  Pietra,  which 
term  was  used  to  designate  those  who  were  not 
only  sculptors,  but  often  architects  or  builders 
as  well.  It  was  not,  however,  until  the  advent 
of  Xiccolo  and  Giovanni  Pisano,  and  the  con- 
sequent introduction  of  a  greater  technical  fa- 
cility and  a  more  careful  study  of  both  natural 
and  classic  models,  that  a  really  distinctive 
school  of  Sienese  sculpture  rose  into  being. 
From  this  new-born  school  craftsmen  went  out, 
during  the  subsequent  half  century,  to  all  parts 
of  Italy  (^),  and  it  is  in  strange  cities,  far  rather 
than  in  their  native  home,  that  we  are  best 
enabled  to  study  their  productions.  vSuch  sculp- 
tors as  remained  in  vSiena  herself  appear  to  have 
been  more  occupied  with  various  architectural 
duties  connected  with  the  construction  of  the 
Cathedral,  and  of  other  buildings,  than  in  the 
exercise  of  their  chosen  profession — although 
sculptural  work  for  the  decoration  of  the  original 

(1;  Even  Florence  possessed  no  true  school  of  her  own  until  the 
coming  of  Andrea  Pisano,  and  freely  drew  on  Siena  for  much  of  the  work 
she  ordered. 

-   i67   - 

facade  of  that  great  church  was  doubtless  begun 
at  an  early  period.  Of  a  certain  Ramo  di  Paga- 
nello,  who  was  famous  in  his  day,  we  know  only 
that  he  worked  on  this  same  fagade.  Go7'o  di 
Gi-egorio  has  left  us  more  certain  proof  of  his 
talent  in  the  sculptured  tomb  of  San  Cerbone 
at  Massa  Marittima,  near  Siena.  In  1330,  Ago- 
stino  di  Giovanni  and  Angela  di  Vejificra,  both  of 
whom  have  been  immortalized  by  Vasari,  carved 
for  the  city  of  Arezzo  one  of  its  finest  monu- 
ments— the  tomb  of  the  Avarrior-bishop  Guido 
Tarlati,  the  original  plan  of  which  was  long 
falsely  attributed  to  Giotto.  None  of  their  work 
in  Siena  can  be  identified,  but  Maestro  Agosti- 
no's  son,  Giovanni  d'  Agostiiio,  has  left  us  a  small 
tabernacle,  still  to  be  seen  in  the  Oratorio  di 
S.  Bernardino.  A  contemporary  of  the  above- 
named  masters,  Tino  di  Camaino — that  interesting 
but  somewhat  heavy  follower  of  the  Pisani — 
evidently  enjoyed  a  wide-spread  reputation,  if 
we  may  judge  from  the  number  of  sculptured 
tombs  which  he  was  called  upon  to  furnish  for 
various  famous  personages  of  his  time.  In  Pisa 
is  his  tomb  of  the  Emperor  Henry  VII;  in  the 
Cathedral  and  in  Sta.  Maria  Novella  at  Florence, 
are  those  of  the  two  bishops,  Orso  and  Aliotti. 
In  Naples,  where  he  spent  the  last  fifteen  years 
of  his  life,  he  erected  several  similar  and  equally 
important  monuments.  Cellino  di  Nese,  who 
passed  much  of  his  life  in  Pistoia,  carved,  in  1337, 

—    i68   — 

the  tomb  of  ]\Iesser  Cino,  the  famous  jurist-poet 
and  friend  of  Dante.  This  was  probably  the 
first  of  a  series  of  secular  monuments  to  scholars 
and  professors  which  later  became  so  popular 
in  Bologna  and  in  other  cities  of  Italy,  and  of 
which  there  is  an  interesting  example  in  the 
University  at  Siena.  Indeed,  the  greater  part 
of  the  Sienese  work  of  this  century,  with  the 
exception  of  that  on  the  cathedrals  of  Siena  and 
Orvieto,  is  limited  to  the  carving  of  sepulchral 
monuments,  both  of  a  religious  and  secular  type. 
It  is  still  to  be  proved  whether  the  beautiful 
sculptures  in  low^  relief  which  adorn  the  facade 
of  Orvieto,  are  of  Florentine  or  Sienese  execution. 
It  is  more  probable  that  they  are  the  work  of 
the  latter  school,  embodying  as  they  do  the 
greatest  achievement  of  Italian-Gothic  sculpture. 
Lorenzo  Maitani,  already  mentioned  as  the  archi- 
tect of  the  facade,  has  of  late  been  accredited 
with  their  authorship  (^),  but  it  seems  preferable 
to  attribute  them  to  the  school  as  a  whole,  as 
they  distinctly  show  the  work  of  different  hands. 
But  to  whomsoever  they  may  ultimately  be 
given,  there  can  be  no  doubt  as  to  their  having 
been  produced  under  the  predominating  influence 
of  the  Pisani. 

Towards   the  end   of  the   14th  century,  the 
Sienese  school  of  sculpture  passed  into  a  period 

{')   See  Burckhardt's  Cicerone,  8th  edition.     A'ol.  Ill,  p.  396. 

of  decadence  unrelieved  by  any  important  Avork. 
The  apparition  oi  Jacopo  del/a  Ouercia  (i 374-1 428) 
is  therefore  the  more  startling  and  unexpected. 
Arising-,  as  he  did,  at  a  time  when  the  grand 
traditions  of  the  earlier  Trecento  were  already 
on  the  wane,  he  re-incarnated  much  that  was 
characteristic  of  them  in  his  work,  adding  at 
the  same  time  something  of  the  more  profoundly 
naturalistic  ideals  and  the  higher  technical  per- 
fection of  the  awakening  Renaissance.  The 
breadth  and  energy  of  his  style — curiously  di- 
vided as  it  is  between  Gothic  and  Renaissance 
— justify  the  appellation  which  has  been  be- 
stowed on  him  of  the  "  Precursor  of  Michelan- 
gelo ",  to  whom  he  stands  in  closer  relation 
than  to  any  other  sculptor  of  his  own  or  of  the 
following  centuries  (^).  With  none  of  the  minute 
and  oft-times  exaggerated  attention  to  detail 
bestowed  on  their  work  by  so  many  of  his 
Florentine  contemporaries — such  as  Ghiberti  and 
Donatello — he  succeeded  in  imbuing  liis  figures 
with  a  life  and  movement  combined  with  a  grace 
and  beauty  peculiarly  his  ov.m.  One  of  the 
earliest  of  his  works  was  the  tomb  of  Ilaria  del 
Carretto  at  Lucca,  without  doubt  one  of  the 
most  splendid  existing  monuments  of  the  Earlier 
Renaissance.     In  Siena,  his  work  is  represented 

(1)   A  study  of  the     fine    sculptures  on  the    facade  of  S.  Pctronio  at 
Bologna  is  sufficient  to  prove  the  truth  of  this  assertion. 

—    lyo   — 

by  the  sadly  mutilated,  but  still  beautiful,  ruins 
of  the  Fonte  Gaia,  now  preserved  in  the  Opera 
del  Duomo,  and  by  the  relief  of  the  Expulsion 
of  Zacharias,  and  other  single  figures,  on  the 
Baptismal  Font  of  S.  Giovanni — a  work  which 
owes  its  original  design,  as  a  whole,  to  his  owm 

When  the  competition  for  the  bronze  doors 
of  S.  Giovanni  in  Florence  took  place,  two  of  the 
competitors  were  Sienese — Jacopo  della  Querela 
and  his  pupil  Francesco  Valdambrini.  Cino  di  Bar- 
tolo  was  another  pupil,  but  nothing  is  now 
known  of  his  work  save  that  he  aided  his  master 
on  the  doors  of  vS.  Petronio  at  Bologna.  Pietro 
del  Mine II a  was  an  assistant  of  more  importance. 
He  laboured  with  his  master  on  the  Font  in 
vS.  Giovanni,  and  in  the  Duomo  executed  his 
share  of  several  works  which  will  be  mentioned 
later,  among-  them  being  one  of  the  interesting 
graffito  pavements  of  that  church.  Still  another 
sculptor  who  w^orked  on  the  Baptistery  Font 
was  Goro  di  Nej'occio.  ]\Iore  important  than  any 
of  the  above-named,  however,  as  far  as  the  number 
and  value  of  their  creations  are  concerned,  are  the  ^ 
members  of  the  Turini  family — ^Turino  di  Sano, 
and  his  three  sons,  Barna,  Lorenzo,  and  Giovanni 
—  sculptors  and  bronze-casters  deserving  of  far 
more  notice  than  has  hitherto  been  accorded 
them.  Contemporaries  of  Querela,  and  to  some 
extent  influenced  by  his  powerful   genius,  they 

—   171   — 

nevertheless  display  a  considerable  amount  of 
originality  in  their  work,  which  is,  as  a  rule, 
purely  Sienese  in  its  feeling  for  grace  and  in  its 
pleasing  expression.  Their  combined  talents 
may  be  judged  in  two  of  the  bas-reliefs  on  the 
above-mentioned  Font  of  vS.  Giovanni.  To  Gio- 
vaniti  himself  are  due  several  of  the  single  figures 
on  the  same  Font,  the  fine  holy-water  basin  in 
the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  and,  in  all  probability, 
the  bronze  wolf  on  the  column  in  front  of  the 
same  building-  (^). 

Whatever  may  have  been  Jacopo  della  Quer- 
cia's  influence  on  his  immediate  followers,  he 
can  scarcely  be  said  to  have  founded  a  real  or 
lasting  school  in  Siena  (^).  Of  the  artistic  g'en- 
eration  which  came  directly  after  his,  only  one 
sculptor  can  be  rightly  classed  as  showing  any 
influence  of  his  manner — Antonio  Federighi  (active 
1 444- 1 490).  Far  less  gifted  than  was  Querela, 
Federighi  still  shows  at  times  something  of  his 
energy  of  expression,  although  more  often  his 
sculpture  is  marked  by  a  certain  over-developed 
softness  that  was  conspicuously  absent  from 
the  older  master's  g'rander  style  f ).  One  of 
Federighi's  chief  claims  to  attention  lies  in  the 
fact    that    he    was    the    first    of    Sienese    artists 

(1)  By  two  unknown,  but  much  closer  followers  of  Quercia,  we  pos- 
sess works  in  the  churches  ot  S.  ^Martino  and  Sta.  ^Margherita. 

(-)  In  Lucca,  Jacopo  left  behind  him  one  of  his  best  pupils,  Matteo 
Civitali,  of  whose  work  there  are  many  examples  still  in  that  city. 

(•')  As  in  the  statues  on  the  Loggia  dei  Nobili. 

—     1/2 

after  Ouercia's  day,  to  become  imbued  with  the 
"  classic  "  spirit  of  Renaissance,  although  this, 
perhaps,  is  even  more  obvious,  and  certainly 
more  purely  expressed,  in  his  architectural,  than 
in  his  sculptural,  work. 

Older  and  younger  contemporaries  of  Fe- 
derighi  were  Lorenzo  di  Pietro,  usually  known 
as  "  Vecchietta ",  Neroccio  di  Landi,  and  Gio- 
vanni di  Stefano.  Vecchietta  (141 2-1480)  shows 
no  sign  of  Quercia's  influence,  but  seems  early 
to  have  fallen  under  that  of  Donatello,  of  whom 
he  became  at  a  later  period  a  somewhat  exag- 
gerated follower  (^).  Although  his  more  mature 
work  represents  the  very  antithesis  to  that  of 
Federighi,  he  is  in  no  wise  less  important  as 
a  vSienese  representative  of  the  Renaissance. 
Dominated  by  utterly  different  ideals,  and  em- 
ploying a  technique  equally  dissimilar,  there 
exists  between  his  minute  naturalistic  style  and 
the  broader  and  freer  one  of  Federighi,  a  dif- 
ference somewhat  similar  to  that  which  exists 
between  Donatello  and  Jacopo  della  Querela. 
Neroccio  di  Landi  (1447-1500),  painter  and  sculptor 
— as  was  Vecchietta, — belongs  to  the  foremost 
rank  of  Siena's  artists,  despite  the  extraordinary 
neglect  with  which  he  has  hitherto  been  treated. 
Probably  a  pupil  of  Vecchietta,  his  work  in 
sculpture  is  nevertheless  far  removed  from  that 

(')  As    an    example    of    this    exaggeration,  note    the   striking  bronze 
figure  of  the  Risen  Christ  in  the  Hospital  church. 

Lombardi  photo. 

Charity  (Rhea  Sylvia) 
Jacopo  della  Quercia 

of  his  master  both  in  style  and  spirit.  That,  as 
has  recently  been  suggested,  he  was  a  follower 
of  Federighi,  whom,  by  the  way,  he  far  sur- 
passed in  nobility  and  refined  grace,  is  very 
difficult  to  believe  ;  and  as  far  as  he  ma}^  be 
said  to  have  chosen  any  model  for  imitation, 
Quercia's  is  the  only  work  that  we  may  name 
as  such.  Of  his  beautiful  statues  in  the  Duomo 
and  the  churches  of  ^lonagnese  and  of  St.  Cath- 
erine, particular  mention  will  be  made  when 
speaking  of  those  buildings.  Giovanni  di  Stefano 
is  another  comparatively  unknown  sculptor  of 
this  period.  His  is  the  charming  statue  of 
Sant'  Ansano  in  the  Chapel  of  St.  John  in  the 
Cathedral  (^),  and  two  of  the  bronze  angels  on 
the  high-altar.  Nor  does  the  versatile  Francesco 
di  Giorgio  deserve  to  be  forgotten  under  this 
head.  His  two  bronze  angels,  companions  to 
those  of  Stefano,  do  not  fall  behind  them  in 
beauty  or  in  g'race.  With  Giacomo  CozzarcUi, 
Francesco's  favourite  pupil,  the  list  of  vSiena's 
Quattrocento  sculptors  comes  to  an  end.  Creations 
of  his  hand — he  worked  in  terra-cotta,  wood, 
and  bronze — are  not  uncommon  in  his  native 
town,  the  finest  of  them  being,  perhaps,  the 
hitherto  unknown  statues  in  the  church  of  Sta. 
Lucia — a  Bishop  and  Sta.  Lucia  herself  (the 
latter  much  "restored").    A  better  known  workQ 

(1)  The  beautiful  chapel  itself  was  built  on  his  designs. 

(2)  Most  certainlj-    not    by  Neroccio    to    whom  it   has    recently  been 
ttributed  by  the   Cicerone  (vol.  II,  p.  463). 

—    174   — 

is  the  kneeling  figure  of  the  Apostle  John  in 
the  Opera  del  Duomo.  But  above  all  is  this 
sculptor  famous  for  the  fine  torch  and  banner- 
holders  on  the  Palazzo  del  ]\Iagnifico — superb 
examples  of  the  decorative  use  of  bronze. 

Lorenzo  di  Mariano,  known  as  Marrina  (1476- 
1534),  flourished  in  Siena  after  her  school  of 
eclectics  was  well  under  way.  Retaining  the 
innate  Sienese  delicacy  of  touch,  and  having 
lost  the  nobility  and  simplicity  of  her  older  ar- 
tists, he  often  spent  his  efforts  in  carefully  fin- 
ished and  overburdened  detail  {^).  But  what- 
ever may  have  been  his  faults,  lack  of  refinement 
and  of  decorative  feeling  were  not  among  them, 
and,  of  its  kind,  his  work  can  but  rank  very  high. 
Marrina  may  virtually  be  said  to  have  been  the 
last  of  Siena's  sculptors  of  any  real  importance. 
Of  Beccafumi's  bronze  work  no  special  mention 
need  be  made. 

As  was  the  case  with  her  architects  and 
painters,  Siena's  stone-cutters  never  fell,  during 
the  centuries  that  followed,  into  the  disorderly 
extravagance  that  marked  the  history  of  other 
schools,  and  such  late  sculpture  as  she  turned 
out,  although  generally  quite  devoid  of  any  in- 
terest, possesses  at  least  the  merit  of  a  compara- 
tive sobriety  not  to  be  found  in  the  mass  of 
contemporary  Italian  work. 

v')  The  rercdos  in  the  church  of  Fontegiusta  shows  him  at  his  best. 

Alinari  photo. 

The  Risen  Christ 



FEW  schools  of  painting  have  met  with  such 
neg'lect  as  has  that  of  Siena — a  neglect  which 
may  in  part  be  accounted  for  by  the  extreme 
conservatism  of  her  art.  For,  although  the  work 
of  the  Sienese  School,  properly  so  called,  may 
be  said  to  have  extended  over  a  period  of  two 
full  centuries — and  those  the  most  important  in 
the  history  of  Italian  Painting — it  virtually  re- 
tained throughout  that  time  the  traditions  and 
the  technical  practices  of  the  Middle  Ages. 
Aluch  has  been  said  and  written  as  to  the  con- 
servative nature  of  the  Sienese  people,  but  to 
satisfactorily  explain  or  analyze  it  would  be  an 
almost  impossible  task.  It  is  sufficient  for  our 
present  purpose  to  accentuate  the  importance  of 
its  influence  on  Siena's  art.  It  has  been  fre- 
quently urged  that  all  inhabitants  of  mountain 
towns  or  districts  possess  in  common  this  same 
peculiarity  of  an  excessive  conservatism,  as  a 
natural  result  of  their  geographical  situation  ; 
but  when  regarding  Siena  in  connection  with 
her  art  history,  her  geographical  position  can 
count  for  but  little.  No  more  inaccessible  than 
she  is  to-day,  her  artists  must,  notwithstanding 

-  176  - 
the  bitter  rivalry  between  the  two  cities,  have 
frequently  visited  Florence,  and  have  been  well 
acquainted  with  the  masterpieces  of  Florentine 
art,  from  those  of  Giotto  to  those  of  the  Pol- 
lajuoli,  Verocchio,  and  Ghirlandaio.  However 
this  may  be,  with  but  few  and  partial  exceptions, 
they  derived  no  direct  benefit  or  inspiration 
from  this  acquaintance — even  the  powerful  ex- 
ample of  Giotto  failing  to  leave  more  than  a 
passing  impress  upon  them.  The  Sienese  State 
itself,  far  from  encouraging  any  foreign  influ- 
ences Avithin  its  w^alls,  took  good  care,  not  only 
jealously  to  guard  such  great  men  as  it  happened 
to  possess,  but  even  to  make  difficult  the  estab- 
lishing of  foreign  artists  within  the  city  (^).  The 
Sienese  painter,  even  in  the  15th  century,  thus 
retained  to  a  greater  or  less  degree  the  ideas 
and  the  methods  of  w^ork  of  his  fore-father 
Duccio,  and  continued  painting  visions  of  ideally 
beautiful  Madonnas  and  of  unsubstantial  Saints 
— often  stiff-jointed  and  comparatively  flat — long 
after  his  contemporaries  had  abandoned  mere 
Story-telling  and  dreamy  Sentiment,  and  were 
seeking  to  portray  the  new  and  sterner  Natural- 
istic ideals  of  the  Renaissance.  But  despite 
these  evident  defects — if,  after  all,  we  may 
term  them  such — the  pictures  which  the  Sienese 

(')  A  clause  of  the  Breve  delV  Arte  de'  Pittori  Senesi  imposed  a 
heavy  fine,  practicallj-  prohibitive,  on  each  painter  coming  to  reside  in 
Siena — a  curious  law,  but  one  verj-  characteristic  of  the  citj-. 

painters  produced  are  none  the  less  great  and 
delightful.  It  is  only  for  those  who  seek  solely 
the  more  material  values  of  modelling  and  chiaro- 
scuro that  they  have  no  charm.  The  Sienese 
artists  possessed  a  love  of  colour  equalled  only 
by  that  of  the  painters  of  Venice,  and  a  peculiar 
feeling  for  line  which  entitles  them  to  a  place 
beside  the  Japanese.  Having  combined  with 
these  two  gifts  all  the  elemental  delicacy  of  the 
Sienese  temperament  and  the  unspoilt  simplicity 
of  mediaeval  sentiment,  they  painted  pictures 
which  have  never  been  surpassed  in  pure  love- 
liness and  decorative  effect.  Surely,  therefore, 
although  they  may  have  failed  where  the  Flor- 
entine, the  Veronese,  and  the  Paduan,  succeeded, 
the  credit  that  is  due  to  their  success  in  their 
own  chosen  field  need  not  thereby  be  either 
diminished  or  withheld.  After  all,  have  we  not 
rather  reason  to  be  grateful  than  otherwise  for 
those  very  limitations  which  alone  made  such 
an  art  a  possibility  ?  It  is  difficult  under  all 
circumstances  to  grasp  the  ideals  of  another 
age,  and  particularly  is  it  difficult  for  our  modern 
mind  to  understand  and  appreciate  such  artists 
of  the  Middle  Ages  as  were  the  Sienese — but 
the  aesthetic  value  of  their  work  must  remain 
unchanged  throughout  all  time. 

Many    words    have    been    spent    over    the 
question  as  to    whether    the    Sienese    school    of 

-  i;^  - 

Painting  antedates  the  Florentine,  or  I'ice  versa. 
Both  Cimabue  and  Guido  da  Siena  have  had 
their  partisans  and  supporters,  claiming  now  for 
the  one  and  now  for  the  other  precedence  in 
the  honour  of  having  created  a  new  school  of 
art.  But  the  misty  personality  of  Cimabue,  re- 
presentative more  of  a  group  of  different  painters 
and  of  an  artistic  movement  than  of  an  indi- 
viduality, and  the  unending  discussion  as  to 
whether  Guido  painted  his  famous  signed  Ma- 
donna in  1 22 1  or  1 28 1  (^),  have  prevented  both 
sides  from  arriving  at  a  satisfactory  conclusion. 
To  many  the  much-vexed  question  continues  to 
be  of  absorbing  interest,  to  others,  however,  it 
has  lost  much  of  its  earlier  importance,  at  least 
as  far  as  it  concerns  the  formation  of  the  two 
great  schools  in  question.  AVhatever  may  have 
been  the  relation  of  "  Cimabue  "  and  of  Guido 
to  their  contemporaries,  neither  can  be  said  to 
have  had  any  direct  connection  with  the  forma- 
tion of  a  lasting  school  of  art.  Even  granting 
that  Cimabue  may  be  entitled  to  all  the  merit 
that  has  been  conferred  upon  him  as  a  re- 
generator, it  is  certainly  to  Giotto  that  the  credit 
of  having  founded  the  school  of  Florence,  as  we 
know  it,  is  rightly  due.  The  position  of  Giddo 
da  Siena  is  scarcely  dissimilar  to  that  of  Cima- 
bue,  and    it   is  sufficient    praise    to    allow    that 

(*)  There  are  critical  reasons  for  accepting  the  latter  date. 

—  179  — 
among  the  various  painters  who  in  his  day 
continued  in  the  traditional  and  debased  methods 
of  the  Italo-Byzantine  craftsmen,  he  was  pro- 
minent for  the  superior  quality  of  his  work  and 
for  a  return  to  better  models  (^).  Far  rather 
than  Guido,  the  real  founder  of  the  Sienese 
school  was  Diiccio  di  Bitoninsegna  (active  1278- 
13 19).  Although  we  know  nothing  of  his  early 
life,  his  style  is  so  purely  Byzantine  as  to  lead 
us  to  suppose  that  he  acquired  his  early  train- 
ing from  some  unusually  fine  Byzantine  master, 
possibly  at  Constantinople  itself.  The  work 
produced  by  his  Italian  predecessors  and  most 
of  his  contemporaries  appears  rough  and  uncouth 
when  compared  to  his  compositions,  glowing 
Avith  colour  and  almost  faultless  in  execution. 
Uninfluenced  by  the  new  methods  of  Giotto,  he. 
was  equally  independent  of  the  Pisani,  not- 
withstanding- the  fact  that  they  were  working  in 
his  very  town,  and  he  remained  throughout  his 
life  true  to  the  Byzantine  style.  Adopting  the 
same  types  that  had  been  in  use  for  centuries, 
he  imbued  them  with  a  life  and  beauty  all  his 
own,  clothing  them  in  colours  so  rich  and  varied 
that  his  panels  produce  the  effect  of  sumptuous 
mosaics.  His  compositions  surpassed  those  of 
his  contemporaries   not   only    in   the   balance  of 

(')  It  must  be  recalled  to  mind  that  in  Central  Italj-  the  art  of 
painting  had  at  this  period  sunk  to  the  production  of  works  that  were  mere 
caricatures  of  the  earlier  Byzantine  models. 

—   i8o  — 

their  parts,  but  also  because  of  his  power  to 
create  effects  of  space  and  even  of  distance. 
In  his  "  feeling  for  line  "  he  displayed  a  charac- 
teristic which  became  one  of  the  most  marked 
and  important  features  of  the  school  of  Sienese 
painting.  Without  any  of  the  power  of  gen- 
eralization with  which  Giotto  was  endowed,  he 
depicted  his  subjects  with  an  expressiveness 
which  places  him  at  once  in  the  ranks  of  the 
greatest  Illustrators  of  the  World. 

Such  painting  as  Duccio's  so  appealed  to 
the  colour-loving  Sienese,  and  his  story-telling 
faculties  so  satisfied  their  not  over  critical  intel- 
lectual demands,  that  the  artists  who  followed 
were  quite  overpowered  by  the  example  he  had 
set  them.  As  was  the  case  with  Duccio  himself, 
so  it  was  to  a  less  degree  with  the  entire  school. 
The  naturalistic  influences  of  Giotto  and  the 
Pisani  could  obtain  but  little  hold  on  a  people 
for  whom  there  existed  so  entirely  sympathetic 
a  style,  and  are  apparent  only  to  a  slight  degree 
in  the  work  of  the  greatest  of  Duccio's  pupils, 
Sbnojie  Mai'tini  (1285?-! 344).  Having"  freed  him- 
self from  many  of  the  more  purely  Byzantine 
elements  of  his  master's  style  (^),  Simone  became 
even  more  graceful  of  line,  more  gay  of  colour, 
less  stern  and  hieratic  of  type.     In  his  painting 

('1  Segna  di  Bonaveyitura  and   Ugolino,   Duccio's  closest  pupils,  re- 
tained throughout  their  career  the  more  strictly  Byzantine  spirit  of  his  work. 

—   i8i   — 

a  new  element  appears — a  greater  love  of  life 
and  a  more  subtle  depicting  of  its  joys  and  pas- 
sions. But  to  him  it  was  the  brighter  side  of 
existence  that  most  appealed—  its  darker  trage- 
dies repelled  rather  than  attracted  him,  and  his 
paintings  are  peopled  almost  invariably  with  the 
most  serene  and  unruffled  of  saintly  beings. 
Simone's  love  of  resplendent  colour,  and  that 
passion  for  curving  and  flowing  line  which  makes 
of  his  compositions  such  marvellous  and  unri- 
valled patterns,  led  him  to  pay  far  more  attention 
to  decorative  effect  than  to  the  equally  important 
problems  of  movement  and  of  form.  Yet  he 
was  not  lacking  in  the  possession  of  either 
of  these  last-named  qualities,  as  the  exquisite 
Annunciation  in  Florence,  and  the  wonderful 
frescoes  of  the  Life  of  St.  Martin,  in  Assisi, 
respectively  attest.  Although  Duccio  was  the 
founder  of  his  school,  JSimone  was,  far  rather 
than  he,  the  first  of  truly  Sienese  masters — 
masters  who  continued  to  repeat,  each  according 
to  his  ability  and  nature,  what  Simone  first  had 
said  (^). 

Pietro  Lorenzetti  (active  1 305-1 348),  Simone's 

(')  Simone  Martini  and  his  assistant  and  imitator  Lippo  Memmi  (died 
1357)  were  both  miniature  painters.  A  possible  example  of  the  former's 
work  is  an  illustration  in  a  manuscript  Virgil,  now  in  the  Ambrosian  Library 
at  Milan.  Another  miniaturist  of  the  same  period,  and  one  of  the  utmost 
delicacy,  was  Niccolo  di  Ser  Sozzo  Tegliacci.  A  beautiful  Assumption  of 
the  Virgin,  by  his  hand,  is  to  be  found  on  the  first  page  of  the  Caleffo  del- 
V  Assuuta,   in  the  Sienese  Archives. 


—     l82     — 

follower,  and  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti  (active  1323- 
1348),  his  younger  brother  and  pupil,  each  felt 
more  keenly  the  influences  of  Giovanni  Pisano 
and  Giotto.  Their  style  combines  something  of 
these  great  masters'  sense  of  plastic  values  with 
the  intensity  of  feeling  and  decorative  grace  so 
characteristic  of  the  Sienese.  Both  possessing* 
a  passionate  love  for  beauty,  Pietro's  types  are 
more  stern  than  those  of  Ambrogio.  He  re- 
turned rather  to  the  models  of  Duccio  than  to 
those  of  Simone.  The  painting  of  both  brothers 
can  be  fairl}^  well  studied  in  vSiena,  especially 
that  of  Ambrogio,  the  greater  genius  of  the 
two.  To  know  the  finest  of  Pietro's  works  one 
must  go  to  Arezzo,  or  to  Assisi,  where  he  painted 
that  most  exquisite  fresco  of  the  Madonna  with 
her  Babe  between  SS.  Francis  and  Louis.  It  is 
in  Assisi,  also,  that  Pietro  is  seen  at  his  worst, 
in  the  Scenes  from  the  Passion — frescoes  wherein 
all  significant  and  lasting  artistic  qualities  are 
subordinated  to  the  expression  of  exagg*erated 
emotion.  This  falling  away  from  the  high  ideals 
of  much  of  his  painting  is  paralleled  in  some  of 
the  works  of  his  brother.  Commissioned  to  paint 
for  the  Sienese  Commune  the  histories  of  Good 
and  Bad  Government,  Ambrogio,  instead  of 
concisely  presenting,  as  would  have  Giotto,  the 
essential  idea  of  his  subject  in  a  few  unmistak- 
able allegorical  figures,  covered  vast  wall-spaces 
with  endless  incident,   complete  in  every  detail. 

-    iB3   - 

employing"  as  a  final  explanatory  touch  the  use 
of  inscriptions.  Considering  Ambrogio's  im- 
mense gifts,  it  is  the  more  to  be  regretted  that 
he  ever  became  a  mere  retailer  of  facts.  What 
this  great  artist  was  really  capable  of  when  not 
carried  away  by  the  Sienese  passion  for  Illus- 
tration, is  well  shown  by  such  panels  as  that 
of  the  Annunciation  in  the  Sienese  Academy, 
and  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  in  the  vSacristy  of 
S.  Francesco,  not  to  mention  other  examples  of 
his  genius. 

Doubtless  the  greatest  of  the  Lorenzetti's 
followers  was  the  nameless  artist  Avho  painted 
the  frescoes  in  the  Campo  Santo  at  Pisa,  until 
recently  attributed  to  Orcagna  and  to  Pietro 
himself.  The  Last  Judgment,  the  Triumph  of 
Death,  and  the  Thebaid,  are  all  by  the  same  hand, 
and  are  painted  by  one  who  not  only  possessed, 
in  no  small  degree,  the  power  to  portray  both 
form  and  movement,  but  also  to  clothe  his  me- 
diaeval thought  in  most  realistic  garments. 

After  the  Lorenzetti  came  the  fall.  Never 
again  did  Jhe  Sienese  artists  quite  attain  to  the 
greatness  of  the  early  school.  Barna  (flourishing 
in  1370),  a  follower  of  Simone  and  Lippo  Memmii^), 

(')  Of  Lippo  Memmi's  work  in  Siena  but  a  single  example  remains 
to  us — the  charming  Madonna  del  Popolo  in  the  church  of  the  Servi.  To 
know  him  at  his  best  one  must  go  to  San  Gimignano  and  to  Orvieto.  The 
cathedral  of  the  latter  town  possesses  one  of  the  master's  most  important 
creations — the  Virgin  of  Mercy  in  the  Cappella  del  Corporale. 

_    i84   - 

Bartolo  di  Fredi  (active  1353-dead  14 10)  and  An- 
drea Vanni  (1332-14 14)  who  grew  out  of  Simone 
and  the  Lorenzetti,  carried  on  its  traditions,  and 
saved  it  from  falling  into  absolute  decadence. 
They  were  strong  artists,  each  in  his  way,  and 
not  altogether  lacking  in  originality.  Taddeo  di 
Bartolo  (about  1 362-1422),  a  pupil  of  Bartolo  di 
Fredi,  is  important  not  only  for  the  high  level 
of  his  work  but  also  for  the  number  of  his  pupils. 
His  painting,  now  Gothic  and  now  unconscious- 
ly Renaissance  in  sentiment,  shows  a  natural 
feeling  for  structural  significance  and,  to  a  lesser 
extent,  for  movement.  At  the  time  he  flourished 
there  were  but  fcAV  artists  of  note  in  the  field, 
which  may  account,  in  part  at  least,  for  his 
having  been  called  to  so  many  cities  of  Italy. 
He  painted  in  Genoa,  in  Pisa,  in  Volterra  and 
in  San  Gimingnano,  in  Montepulciano,  in  Peru- 
gia, and  in  Padua  (^).  His  influence  was  wide- 
spread, and  by  no  means  confined  to  the  painters 
of  his  own  town. 

Stefano  di  Giovanni,  called  Sassetta,  was  born 
in  1392  and  died  in  1450.  His  precise  artistic 
parentage  is  still  an  unsolved  and  most  difficult 
problem,  although  it  is  evident  that  he  derived 
some  inspiration  from  Taddeo.  In  spirit  and 
style,  however,  he  returned   rather  to  his  earlier 

(''  Both  in  Montepulciano  and  in  Perugia  some  of  his  most  importan- 
works  yet  remain. 

—    105   — 
predecessors.     Little  of  his  work  can  be  seen  in 
Siena  itself,  but  one  of  his  most  important  panels 
is  preserved  in  the  convent  of   the  Osservanza, 
a  short  distance  from  the  town. 

Among*  the  painters  who  came  under  Tad- 
deo's  influence  may  be  mentioned,  as  the  most 
important,  Domenico  di  Bartolo,  Sano  di  Pietro, 
and  I^orenzo  Vecchietta.  Domenico  di  Bartolo 
(1400-1449?)  was  one  of  the  few  Sienese  who 
tried  to  keep  abreast  of  their  Florentine  contem- 
poraries, but  failing  to  comprehend  the  essential 
spirit  of  their  ideals,  his  success  was  of  the 
slightest.  His  frescoes  in  the  Spedale  di  vSta.  Ma- 
ria della  Scala,  although  full  of  detailed  interest, 
lack  the  touch  of  genius,  and  remain  but  the 
records,  pleasing  it  is  true,  of  a  number  of 
events  in  the  history  of  the  hospital.  Like  all 
his  countrymen  he  was  more  at  home  when 
painting  purely  religious  subjects,  as  can  be  seen 
in  his  fine  polyptych  at  Asciano  and  in  the  large 
altar-piece  at  Perugia.  Sano  di  Pietro  (i  406-1 481) 
was  not  only  a  pupil  of  Taddeo  but  strongly 
influenced  by  Sassetta  as  well.  Far  from  being 
"  a  dulled  and  heavy  echo  of  Fra  Angelico  "  (^), 
he  is  one  of  the  most  charming  and  winsome 
of  artists ;  his  round-eyed  Madonnas  and  angels 
are  the  very  embodiment  of  religious  sentiment. 
His   colour   is   sometimes    brilliant,   but    always 

(')  Siena,  Its  Architecture  and  Art,  by  Gilbert  Hastings. 

—   i86  — 

delicate  and  lig'ht  in  tone  ;  and  he  clothes  his 
beings  in  undulating  draperies  that  remind  us 
of  Gentile  da  Fabriano  and  Lorenzo  Monaco. 
Vecchietta  (141 2-1480)  already  mentioned  as  hav- 
ing fallen  as  a  sculptor  under  the  influence  of 
Donatello,  appears  likewise  in  his  painting*  to 
have  been  inspired  by  many  of  the  new  longings 
of  the  Renaissance.  This  influence  was  most 
powerfully  felt  toward  the  end  of  his  life,  when 
he  painted  the  large,  and  unfortunately  ruined, 
panel  for  the  Hospital — now  in  the  Academy. 
His  earlier  work,  the  best  of  which  is  to  be 
found  in  some  ruined  frescoes  in  the  same  Hospital 
(Deposito  delle  Donne),  shows  him  to  be  an 
artist  possessed  of  fine  ideas  of  composition, 
and  a  love  of  soft  and  delicate  colouring.  Nev- 
ertheless, in  most  of  this  early  work,  his  figures 
tend  to  excessive  dryness  of  form*  and  to  ab- 
normal proportions.  A  somewhat  later  picture 
is  the  fine  triptych  at  Pienza,  which  combines 
the  new  feeling  with  all  the  old  Sienese  love 
of  gorgeous  surface  and  decorative  effect. 

The  traditional  and  tenaciously  beloved 
technique  and  sentiment  of  the  Sienese  school 
were  thus  gradually  infused  with  a  new  life, 
which  resulted  in  the  production  of  some  of  the 
most  charming  painting  the  world  has  ever 
known.  Out  of  Vecchietta  came  Fr-ancesco  di 
Giorgio  (1439-1502),  Neroccio  di  Laudi  [i^^"] -1^00), 
and  Benvenitto  di  Gioz'a?i?ii  {ij^t,6-i ^18?).     The  first 

-   i87   - 

two  mentioned  worked  together  for  a  space,  and 
for  the  unpractised  eye  it  is  somewhat  difficult 
to  distinguish  between  them,  although  France- 
sco's colour  is  apt  to  be  of  a  chalkiness  that  is 
quite  characteristic.  Neroccio,  however,  was  by 
far  the  greater  painter  of  the  tw^o — indeed  he 
may  justly  be  called  one  of  the  greatest  Sienese 
masters  of  the  1 5th  century.  We  have  already 
mentioned  his  remarkably  fine  creations  as  a 
sculptor ;  in  regard  to  his  work  as  a,  painter  we 
cannot  do  better  than  to   quote  Mr.  Berenson's 

own  words  : "he   was   Simone  come  to  life 

again.  Simone's  singing  line,  wSimone's  endlessly 
refined  feeling  for  beauty,  Simone's  charm  and 
grace — you  lose  but  little  of  them  in  Neroccio's 
panels,  and  you  get  what  to  most  of  us  counts 
more,  ideals  and  emotions  more  akin  to  our  own, 
with  quicker  suggestions  of  freshness  and  joy  "  (^). 
Of  Fra7icesco  di  Giorgio'^  paintings,  which  influ- 
enced to  no  small  extent  those  of  his  con- 
temporaries, there  is  at  least  one  panel  w^hich 
deserves  a  special  mention,  embodying  as  it  does 
much  of  the  classical  feeling  so  essentially  a 
part  of  his  nature — the  Adoration  of  the  Shep- 
herds in  the  church  of  S.  Domenico.  Benvemcto 
di  Giovanni,  although  living  w^ell  into  the  i6th 
century,  retained  not  only  the  brilliant  colouring 
of  his  ancestors,  but  continued  to  finish  his  pic- 

(')    The  Central  Italian  Painters  of  the  Renaissance. 

—   i88  — 

tures  with  such  care  that  the  surfaces  appear 
ahiiost  to  be  of  enameL  The  sentiment  of  much 
of  his  work,  however,  falls  far  beloAv  that  of 
Matteo  or  Neroccio.  Sometimes  a  painter  of 
idyllic  charm — as  in  his  panel  of  the  Annuncia- 
tion at  Volterra, — he  became  in  later  years  one  of 
great  austerity  and  keener  perceptions.  Indeed, 
his  peculiar  development  is  a  unique  feature 
in  Siena's  artistic  history.  His  son,  Girolamo 
di  Benvemito  (1470-1524)  hardly  equalled  him 
in  merit,  although  his  earlier  work  is  some- 
times confounded  with  that  of  his  father.  He 
was  virtually  one  of  the  last  of  the  Sienese 
painters  who  retained  unchanged  the  traditions 
of  their  school. 

Domenico  di  Bartolo's  great  pupil  was  Mat- 
teo di  Giovanni  (about  1435-1495),  who,  had  he 
received  a  different  artistic  education,  might 
have  succeeded  in  portraying  movement  and 
passion  as  well  as  did  his  Florentine  contem- 
poraries. Sienese  in  all  his  instincts,  in  his  love 
of  brilliant  and  rich  colouring,  in  his  appreci- 
ation of  the  lines  of  a  composition,  he  was,  in 
his  adopted  city,  one  of  the  greatest  artists  of 
his  day.  Nothing  could  be  lovelier  than  such  a 
head  as  that  of  St.  Catherine  in  one  of  his 
pictures  in  S.  Domenico — nothing  could  be  more 
grotesque,  and  at  the  same  time  more  splendid 
in  colour  and  design,  than  his  Massacre  of  the 
Innocents  in  Sant'Agostino.     His  greatest  work, 

O     H 


—    iSg  — 

the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  now  in  the  Na- 
tional Gallery,  takes  its  place  among  the  mas- 
terpieces of  Sienese  art.  Guidoccio  Cozzar-elli 
followed  very  closely  in  Matteo's  footsteps,  and 
although  at  times  pleasing  as  a  painter  was  far 
inferior  to  his  master. 

The  influence  of  Sassetta  is  clearly  discern- 
ible in  the  work  of  Giovajuii  di  Paolo  (1403  ?- 
1482),  which  is  as  easy  to  criticise  as  that  of 
his  master  is  difficult  (^).  Harsh'  in  types  and 
often  rough  in  execution,  he  nevertheless  was 
able  to  produce  such  a  charming  work  as  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin  in  the  Saracini  Palace. 
Bernardino  Fimgat  (1^60-1^  1 6),  a  pupil  of  Giovanni, 
was  one  of  the  last  of  Siena's  own  artists,  and 
even  his  painting  owes  in  some  ways  a  debt  to 
the  Umbrians.  His  chalky  colour  and  lack  of 
modelling  are  not  redeemed  by  any  great  ap- 
preciation of  beauty,  although  many  of  his  in- 
dividual heads  possess  considerable  charm. 

With  such  men  as  Pietj^o  di  Donienico  (1457- 
1501)  dci\&  And7-ea  di  Niccolb  (i 460-1 529),  although 
of  different  generations,  we  close  the  list  of  more 
truly  Sienese  painters.  The  influence  of  the 
Umbrians  was  already  paramount,  and  the  Cin- 

{})  As  a  miniaturist  his  work  is  more  pleasing.  Several  of  the  artists 
of  the  15th  century  practised  this  minor  branch  of  painting.  Sano  di  Pietro 
was  one  of  the  most  efficient.  Specimens  of  his  beautiful  work,  as  well  as 
that  of  his  assistant  Pellegrino  di  Mariano,  of  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  and 
of  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli,  are  to  be  found  among  the  choir  books  preserved 
in  the  Librcria  of  the  Sienese  Cathedral. 

—    I  go  — 

quecento  artists  of  Siena  became  purely  eclectic, 
borrowing  not  only  from  the  Perugian,  but  from 
the  Florentine,  and  even  Lombard  artists.  Gia- 
conio  Pacchiarotto  (i 474-1 540),  a  charming  pupil  of 
Fungai,  and  in  his  early  days  influenced  by 
Matteo  and  Francesco  di  Giorgio,  remained, 
perhaps,  more  truly  vSienese  than  did  his  con- 
temporaries Matteo  Balditcci  (active  first  quarter 
of  1 6th  century)  and  Girolamo  del  Pacchia  (1477- 
after  1535).  Both  followers  of  Fungai,  the  former 
was  carried  off  his  feet  by  Pintoricchio,  to  whom 
he  acted  as  an  assistant,  and  the  latter  borrowed 
promiscuously  from  many  of  the  great  artists 
of  his  day. 

When  Cardinal  Francesco  Piccolomini,  af- 
terwards Pius  III,  wished  to  decorate  his  new 
Libreria  in  the  Cathedral,  he  found  the  rather 
archaistic  Sienese  painters  but  little  to  his  taste, 
and  so  called  upon  the  Umbrian  Pinturicchio  to 
fulfil  the  task.  Pandolfo  Petrucci  followed  the 
cardinal's  example,  employing  to  decorate  his 
palace  not  only  the  above-mentioned  artist,  but 
Signoj'elli  and  his  pupil  Genga  as  well.  In  1501, 
a  young  follower  of  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  Gian- 
antonio  Bazzi,  called  "  II  Sodoma  ",  w^as  induced 
by  agents  of  the  wSpannocchi,  a  wealthy  family 
of  bankers,  to  come  to  vSiena  and  settle  there. 
The  presence  of  these  various  foreign  elements 
offered  not  only  an  opportunity  to  study  the 
newer  Renaissance    methods,  but   stimulated  in 

—    igi    — 

the  younger  of  the  vSienese  artists  a  desire  to 
draw  and  paint  after  the  fashion  of  their  more 
famous  contemporaries.  The  ragged  ends  of  the 
Sienese  school,  thus  gathered  together,  resulted 
in  the  electicism  already  mentioned,  very  de- 
lightful at  times,  but  retaining  only  the  merest 
shreds  of  the  ancient  Sienese  ideals. 

The  painter  who  exercised  by  far  the  great- 
est influence  over  this  class  of  workmen  was 
Sodoma  (147 7-1 549) — ^that  most  over-rated  of  all 
artists.  Incomprehensible  as  it  may  seem,  the 
work  of  few  painters  has  received  such  extrav- 
agant praise,  and  that  from  the  majority  of 
otherwise  intelligent  critics.  Highly  endowed 
by  Nature,  Sodoma  so  wasted  his  talents  that 
his  compositions,  almost  invariably  careless  to 
a  degree,  are,  more  often  than  not,  absolutely 
lacking  in  that  dignity  of  feeling  which  is  always 
present  in  the  work  of  a  truly  great  artist.  The 
highest  praise  that  can  be  bestowed  on  his  un- 
satisfactory productious  is  that  they  are  "  Leo- 
nardo watered  down  ".  His  facility  of  execution, 
his  "  sweetness  long  drawn  out  ",  his  exag- 
gerated sentimentality,  his  effective  colour,  and 
the  constant  repetition  of  his  effeminate  types, 
could  not  fail,  however,  to  obtain  for  his  pro- 
ductions the  wide-spread  popularity  which  the 
possession  of  such  qualities  invariably  brings. 
But  as  no  man's  work  can  be  entirely  con- 
demned,   so    does    that    of    Sodoma    appear    of 

an  excellent  quality  in  such  paintings  as  the 
Marriage  of  Roxana  and  Alexander,  in  the  Villa 
Farnesina  at  Rome.  His  Portrait  of  a  Lady,  in 
the  Stadel  Institute  at  Frankfort,  also  bears 
witness  to  his  great  possibilities  as  an  artist. 
Had  Sodoma  continued  to  produce  such  works 
as  these,  and  such  work  as  a  part  at  least  of 
the  famous  fresco  of  St.  Catherine,  in  S.  Dome- 
nico,  the  world  might  have  been  the  richer  by 
another  truly  great  painter. 

To  return  to  some  of  those  who  came  under 
his  influence.  Domenico  Beccafumi  (i 485-1 551) — 
as  unjustl^v  condemned  as  Sodoma  is  praised — 
was  a  pupil  of  Pacchiarotto.  He  copied  Sodoma 
to  some  extent,  although  much  of  his  inspira- 
tion was  undoubtedly  derived  from  the  works 
of  Fra  Bartolommeo,  as  is  most  apparent  in  the 
panel  in  the  Academy — St.  Catherine  receiving 
the  Stigmata.  Baldassm-re  Periizzi,  already  spoken 
of  as  one  of  the  most  renowned  of  Renaissance 
architects,  was  also  a  painter  of  some  importance. 
Probably  a  pupil  of  Pacchiarotto  in  Siena,  he 
afterwards  assisted  Pintoricchio  in  wSant'Onofrio 
at  Rome,  painting  many  of  the  frescoes  himself 
from  that  master's  designs.  Others  of  his  works 
in  Rome  show  the  influence  of  vSodoma,  and 
again,  that  of  Raphael  (^);  his  later  painting*,  of 

(')  A  fine  picture  from    his    hand    which  is  in  the  Borghese  Gallcrj* 
-Venus  leaving    her    Bath — is    highlj-    interesting    for    its    intensely    classic 

which  there  are  examples  in  Siena,  bears  the 
stamp  of  the  academic  Roman  school,  and  is  of 
little  comparative  interest.  With  Andrea  del 
Brescianino  (active  1507-after  1525),  we  close  this 
brief  notice  of  Sienese  Painting.  An  eclectic 
pai^  excellence,  his  style  is  a  happy  mingling  of 
many  elements,  the  predominating  notes  of  w^hich 
are  Florentine  and  Raphaelesque  (^). 

Faint  indeed,  in  the  work  of  all  these  men, 
is  the  echo  of  vSiena's  artistic  traditions.  Yet  a 
certain  delicacy  still  remains,  if  no  longer  that 
of  Simone,  at  least  the  semblance  of  w^hat  it  was. 
The  lovely  gracefulness  of  Sienese  workmanship 
is  the  one  heritage  left,  the  one  attribute  which 
never  deserted  her  artists.  Whether  erecting 
their  tower  to  rise  like  a  great  stone  lily  above 
their  city,  whether  carving  the  statues  for  their 
marble  fountain,  whether  painting  the  rush  of 
the  Announcing  Angel — all  was  done  with  a  love 
and  an  exquisite  grace  which  must  ever  endear 
the  Art  of  Siena  to  those  w^ho  seek  what  is 

feeling.  Perhaps  the  best,  and  at  the  same  time  the  most  characteristic,  of 
his  works  are  to  be  found  in  the  Villa  Farnesina,  Rome.  For  a  criticism 
of  Peruzzi  as  a  painter,  see  Dr.  Gustav  Frizzoni's  essay  in  his  Arte  Italiana 
nel  Rinascimento . 

(1)  An  interesting  essay  by  Mr.  Berenson,  entitled  "  The  British 
Museum  '  Raphael '  Cartoon  ",  is  concerned  with  this  artist's  work.  It  has 
recently  been  republished  in  the  second  volume  of  that  writer's  Study  and 
Criticism  of  Italian  Art,  London,  George  Bell  and  Sons,  1902. 


ALONG  with  the  Architects,  Sculptors  and 
Painters  of  Siena,  there  flourished  a  large 
number  of  cunning*  craftsmen  who  w^orked  in 
precious  metals  and  in  painted  glass,  who  were 
potters,  carvers  and  inlayers  of  wood,  and  dex- 
terous workers  in  commesso  in  marmo  or  the  inlay- 
ing of  marble. 

As  early  as  the  13th  century  the  Sienese 
goldsmiths  were  famous;  they  made  crowns  for 
royal  heads  and  costly  vessels  to  be  used  in 
churches,  not  to  mention  humbler  utensils  for 
the  e very-day  demands  of  private  life.  Several 
of  their  names  are  known  to  us,  but  a  mention 
of  one  or  two  of  them  must  here  suffice.  Lando 
di  Pietro,  already  spoken  of  as  a  great  architect, 
began  his  career  as  a  g-oldsmith,  and  it  was 
he  who  was  chosen  to  make  for  the  Emperor 
Henry  VH  the  crown  used  at  his  coronation. 
The  most  famous  of  Siena's  gold-workers  was 
Ugoliyio  di  Vieri,  he  who  fashioned  the  splendid 
tabernacle  which  is  still  to  be  seen  in  the  Cathe- 
dral of  Orvieto,  and  the  scarcely  less  beautiful 
reliquary  in  the  church  of  S.  Galgano  in  Siena. 

—  195  — 
The  Tiiri?iiidim\\Y  (working-  during  the  first  half  of 
the  1 5th  century)  have  already  been  mentioned  as 
sculptors  and  bronze-casters  (^).  They  and  their 
contemporaries  executed  many  statues  of  gold, 
silver  and  bronze  for  chapels  and  shrines,  some- 
times adding  colour  to  their  work  by  the  use 
of  bright  enamels.  A  small  quantity  only  of 
this  extensive  output  still  remains  intact. 

Among-  the  best  workers  in  stained  glass, 
at  the  end  of  the  14th  century,  was  Giacomo  di 
Castello,  Avho  designed  the  large  window  in  the 
apse  of  the  Duomo  of  Siena,  as  well  as  a  window 
in  S.  Francesco  at  Pisa,  and  one  in  a  chapel  of 
Sta.  Croce  at  Florence.  During  the  following 
century,  a  large  number  of  painted  windows 
were  executed  in  vSiena  for  the  Duomo,  the  Pa- 
lazzo Pubblico  and  the  Hospital,  the  majority  of 
which  have  long  since  been  destroyed.  Pastorino 
Pastori7ii,  a  fine  medallist  as  Avell  as  a  maker  of 
painted  glass,  was  the  last  of  such  artists  in 
Siena.  There  is  a  good  example  of  his  glass 
work  in  the  Duomo.  To  see  what  he  accom- 
plished as  a  medallist,  one  must  go  to  the  British 

That  the  practice  of  the  ceramic  art  was  for 
many  centuries  of  great  importance  among  the 
Sienese,  has  recently  been  proved  by  Prof.  Lang- 
ton  Douglas  (^),  to  whom  is  due  the  entire  credit 

(')  See  pages  170-171  supra. 

("^)  In  the  Nineteenth  Century    of  September,  1900. 

—    196   — 

of  having  rehabilitated  this  craft  as  one  of  the 
foremost  industries  of  old  Siena.  Except  for 
some  fine  tiles  in  Sta.  Caterina,  Sant'  Agostino, 
the  Petrucci  Palace,  and  in  the  cloister  of  S.  Fran- 
cesco, few  if  any  examples  of  this  lost  art  are 
to  be  seen  in  the  city.  There  still  exists  ^fab- 
brica  of  pottery,  but  it  produces  household  uten- 
sils only,  and  those  of  the  roughest  description. 
It  is  interesting  to  know,  however,  that  the  site 
of  this  present  fabbrica,  near  the  church  of  Sta. 
Lucia,  has  for  many  centuries  been  the  centre 
of  this  popular  trade. 

Although  mentioned  as  early  as  1259,  the 
art  of  wood-carving  and  inlaying,  for  which  Siena 
is  so  justly  famous,  did  not  reach  its  full  develop- 
ment until  the  15th  century.  In  the  cathedrals 
of  both  Siena  and  Orvieto  workmen  had  had 
ample  opportunity  to  perfect  their  technique,  and 
when  Domenico  di  Niccolb  commenced,  early  in 
the  Ouatb'ocento ,  to  decorate  the  choirs  of  the 
Sienese  Duomo  and  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  he 
lavished  upon  them  all  the  beauty  possible  to  his 
craft.  ]\Iany  of  his  works  have  disappeared ; 
that  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  however,  remains, 
and  is  one  of  the  finest  existing  specimens  of 
intarsia  work.  Pietro  del  Minella  and  his  two 
brothers  continued  to  execute  choirstalls  (for  the 
Hospital  church)  and  other  furnishings.  In  Anto- 
nio Barili,  the  art  of  wood-carving  and  wood-inlay- 
ing reached  its  highest  achievements.      Indeed, 

-  197  — 
both  he  and  his  nephew  Giovanni  were  among 
the  greatest  masters  this  art  has  ever  produced. 
Much  of  their  work  has  perished,  although  a 
part  of  the  decorations  for  the  Palazzo  "  del 
Magnifico  ",  now  in  the  Sienese  Academy,  and 
the  organ  and  cantoria  above  the  sacristy  door 
of  the  Duomo,  still  enable  us  to  form  a  fair  idea 
of  their  delicate  and  graceful  work. 

Although  the  last  to  be  mentioned,  the  art 
of  inlaying  in  marble  has  not  only  been  one  of 
the  most  important  of  Siena's  crafts,  but  has 
continued  to  be  practised  until  the  present  day. 
The  pavement  of  her  Cathedral,  which  indeed 
gave  rise  to  the  industry  in  Siena,  has  been 
pieced  together  by  artists  of  many  centuries — 
sometimes  producing-  a  beautiful  and  legitimate 
decorative  design,  sometimes  an  equally  displeas- 
ing one.  But,  taken  as  a  whole,  their  w^ork  is 
effective  and  forms  an  integral  part  of  the  strik- 
ing- interior  of  the  church  they  have  helped  to 
adorn.  The  pavement  will  be  described  in  detail 
when  speaking  of  the  Duomo. 



XOTE.  For  those  visitors  who  can  spend 
but  a  da}^  or  two  in  Siena,  the  following  points 
of  interest  are  the  most  important  :  Piazza  del 
Campo  and  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  Cathedral  and 
Baptistery,  Opera  del  Duomo,  Calleria  delle  Belle 
Arti ;  the  churches  of  S.  Domenico,  S.  Francesco, 
Sta.  Maria  dei  Servi  and  Sant'  Agostino ;  House 
of  St.  Catherine;  Archivio. 


THE  central  and  most  characteristic  part  of 
Siena  is  the  large  Piazza  del  Campo  (now 
called  the  Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele).  It  is  most 
easily  reached  by  following  the  Via  Cavour,  the 
principal  street  of  the  town,  as  far  as  the  Loggia  di 
Mercanzia,  which  stands  near  the  meeting  of  the 
Via  Ricasoli  and  Via  Cavour — a  point  called  the 
Croce  del  Travaglio  (^).  Passing  down  the  steps 
at  the  L  of  the  Loggia,  the  sudden  view  of  the 

\^i  See  page  8i  note  (')  supra. 

beautiful  Piazza  is  most  strikingly  impressive. 
Immediately  in  front,  at  the  bottom  of  the  slope, 
stands  the  great  Palazzo  Pubblico  with  its  won- 
derful soaring  bell-tower.  On  all  sides  are  high 
palaces,  but  palaces  that  have  lost  much  of  the 
mediaeval  aspect,  their  towers  having  been  cut 
down  and  their  facades  almost  entirely  made 
over  at  various  periods.  Only  the  huge  red 
Gothic  building  to  the  L,  the  Palazzo  Sansedoni, 
remains  almost  as  it  was  in  the  14th  century. 
The  fan-shaped  Piazza  itself  is  very  interesting. 
Its  central  area,  enclosed  by  a  broad  pavement 
over  which  the  famous  Palio  is  run,  is  divided 
by  stone  ribs  which  meet  in  front  of  the  Palazzo, 
the  spaces  between  being  paved,  herring-bone 
fashion,  w^ith  brick. 

This  unique  and  beautiful  square  has  at  all 
times  been  the  heart  and  centre  of  wSiena.  Here 
whether  for  pleasure  or  for  war,  for  councils 
g'ood  or  evil,  have  her  people  always  assembled. 
The  scene  of  the  many  games  so  dear  to  the 
heart  of  Sienese  (^),  it  yet  awakes  to  life  and 
gaiety  when  the  Palio  of  August  is  run,  and 
thousands  of  contadine  in  their  flapping  hats  and 
gaily  coloured  garments  crowd  the  Piazza  to 
witness  the  time-honoured  pageant.  Until  with- 
in the  last  twenty-five  years  the  market  was 
held  here — now  it  is  housed  in  an  uninteresting 

{' )  See  pages  145-147  supra. 


new  structure,  at  the  back  of  the  Palazzo  Pub- 
blico  on  the  square  below.  When  the  Piazza 
itself  was  used  for  this  purpose  ('),  each  vendor 
was  apportioned  his  particular  stand,  the  divid- 
ing lines  of  the  square  much  facilitating  such 
an  arrangement.  And  many  were  the  ancient 
laws  to  regulate  the  buying  and  selling  {-).  End- 
less associations,  historical,  political  and  social, 
are  connected  with  the  Piazza  del  Campo.  Dante 
has  immortalized  it  by  describing  the  scene  of 
the  proud  Provenzano  Salvani  begging  there 
of  the  people  alms  to  ransom  his  friend  impris- 
oned by  Charles  of  Anjou(^).  Here  it  Avas  that 
S.  Bernardino  held  captive  his  turbulent  audience 
by  means  of  his  splendid  eloquence.  Here  dur- 
ing the  days  of  the  city's  own  death  struggle, 
her  people   held   the   most   brilliant   games,   un- 

[^)  After  a  market  of  cattle,  as  well  as  food  of  all  kinds,  the  condi- 
tion of  the  Piazza  must  have  been  appalling,  and  the  magistrates  of  the  city 
evidently'  appreciated  the  difEculty  of  cleaning  it,  for,  in  the  13th  century, 
the  individual  charged  with  that  duty  was  allowed  to  keep  a  sow  and  four 
sucking  pigs  to  assist  him  in  his  endeavours. 

(■2)  During  the  14th  century  the  fishmongers,  who  had  their  stands 
below  what  is  now  the  Circolo  degli  Uniti,  were  evidently  inclined  to  sell 
old,  as  well  as  fresh,  fish.  We  read  that  on  market  days,  at  the  first  stroke 
of  the  evening  bell,  the  officials  charged  with  that  dutj'  proceeded  to  their 
counters  and  flung  on  the  ground  the  unsold  baskets  of  fresh  fish  ;  these 
were  immediately  seized  upon  by  those  needy  people  who  had  eagerly  await- 
ed the  moment.  Dishonesty,  however,  was  not  always  on  the  side  of  the 
seller.  It  is  related  how  once  a  man  stole  from  the  Piazza  flour  which  had 
been  left  there  over  night  bj*  the  owners  ;  he  went  on  all  fours  with  a  bell, 
and  the  people  taking  him  for  one  of  St.  Anthony's  pigs,  he  got  away  with 
a  goodly  quantity,  having  succeeded  in  making  three  or  four  trips. 

(■■*)  JDii'ina  Co  nniedia.     Purg.  XI,  133-136. 

—    20I     

daunted  by  the  ghosts  of  death  and  famine  that 
already  stalked  the  streets.  Nor  has  it  been 
free  from  darker  pictures  of  bloodshed,  riot  and 
rebellion.  Almost  in  our  own  times  it  has  been 
the  scene  of  the  utmost  cruelty,  as  well  as  of 
the  most  unbridled  mirth  (^).  Indeed,  the  very 
web  of  Siena's  history  has  been  spun  about  her 
Campo,  and  to  recount  even  a  small  part  of  the 
many  happenings  which  have  here  taken  place 
would  fill  a  goodly  volume.  To-day,  however, 
except  for  the  noisy  crowd  of  the  Palio,  the 
Piazza  basks  quietly  in  the  sun,  resting  sleepily 
after  its  varied  scenes  of  wild  gaiety  and  un- 
told terror;  even  the  clamour  and  colour  of  the 
market  is  gone.  Beautiful  and  more  enduring 
monuments  of  former  greatness  remain,  however, 
and  their  charm  is  the  more  enhanced  by  the 
present  quiet  and  rest. 

Near  the  centre  of  the  Campo  is  the  far-famed 
Fonte  Caia  (141 2-1 4 19),  once  a  splendid  work  of 
Jacopo  della  Querela,  but  now  a  lifeless  copy 
which  preserves  only  the  composition  of  the 
original  work,  the  ruined  fragments  of  which 
have  been  placed  in  the  Opera  del  Duomo  for 
safer  keeping.     It  is  well,  however,  to  examine 

(1)  Little  more  than  a  century  ago,  when  Napoleon  had  there  erected 
his  "  Tree  of  Liberty  ",  some  fanatic  priests  at  the  head  of  an  Aretine  mob, 
broke  into  Siena  and  into  the  Ghetto,  and  having  cut  down  the  "  tree  "  to 
make  a  bonfire,  they  threw  the  Jews  into  it  one  by  one,  thrusting  them 
back  as  they  attempted  to  crawl  out  ! 


this  modern  reproduction,  by  Sarrocchi,  in  order 
to  comprehend  what  the  work  must  once  have 
been  in  its  entirety. 

As  early  as  the  12th  century,  among  the 
various  houses  situated  on  the  site  now  occupied 
by  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  there  existed  a  dogaua, 
or  custom-house,  for  oil  and  salt,  many  of  the 
upper  rooms  of  which  were  occupied  by  admin- 
istrators of  the  Commune.  In  1282  the  General 
Council  of  the  city  elected  to  adopt  as  a  per- 
manent place  of  residence  this  building,  already 
occupied  as  it  was  by  some  of  their  offices.  In 
1288  they  commenced  to  purchase  the  adjoin- 
ing houses,  and  from  1294  these  underwent  an 
entire  rebuilding  which  ultimately  resulted  (by 
1309)  in  the  '*  Palazzo  della  Signoria  "  (^).  It 
was  not  until  the  15th  century,  however,  when 
the  third  storey  was  added  to  the  wings,  that 
the  palace  reached  its  present  dimensions;  one 
can  still  see,  above  the  windows  of  the  second 
storey,  the  corbels  which  supported  the  former 
battlemented  top.  The  rich  colour  of  the  brick 
walls  is  relieved  by  the  white  marble  of  the  di- 
viding window-shafts  and  by  the  use  of  black 
and  white  shields  above  each  window.  In  the 
centre  of  the  facade  are  th^  arms  of  Duke  Co- 
simo  I,  with  those  of  Siena  on  either  side — the 

(')  See  MiLAXESi,  Commentary  to  the  Life  of  Simone  Memmi,  Va- 
SARi,  Ed.  Sansoni,  vol.  I,  p.  566. 

—    203    — 

Libertas  {})  being  very  naturally  omitted.  Above 
is  the  splendid  monogram  of  Christ  (-)  executed 
by  the  Turini  family.  Over  the  door  at  the  R 
is  a  tiny  statue  of  St.  Ansanus,  one  of  the 
patron  saints  of  the  city  (') ;  and  below  this,  two 
Roman  she-wolves,  placed  on  either  side  of  the 
Lion  of  the  People — all  works  of  the  14th  century. 
At  the  R  of  this  entrance  stands  a  column  bear- 
ing, still  again,  the  Roman  emblem  of  Siena. 
Column  and  wolf  were  placed  there  in  1459  by 
the  Governors  of  the  Republic,  in  order  to  dis- 
tinguish their  entrance  from  that  of  the  Potesta. 
The  wolf  is  the  work  of  Giovanni  Turini. 

The  exquisite  bell-tower,  commenced  in  1338, 
and  not  yet  finished  in  1348,  is  known  as  the 
Torre  del  Mangia.  Its  name  is  probably  derived 
from  that  of  the  chief  of  the  bell-ringers  em- 
ployed before  public  clocks  were  introduced. 
When  the  tower  was   built    an   automaton    was 

(')  The  origin  of  the  Balzana,  and  also  that  of  the  Lion  shield,  have 
already  been  described,  pp.  30-31  and  p.  44.  That  of  the  Libertas  is  as 
follows  :  When  Charlemagne  sent  messengers  to  Siena  to  announce  his 
coronation,  the  people  of  the  city  selected  three  gentlemen  who  should  go 
to  the  Emperor  as  ambassadors  with  gifts,  and  with  instructions  to  ask  "  a 
remission  of  all  imperial  imposts,  old  and  new,  for  all  time  to  come,  agree- 
ing to  provide  on  request  of  the  Church  a  thousand  men  of  battle  ".  They 
obtained  all  that  they  asked,  and  the  three  ambassadors  were  ennobled  and 
made  counts  of  the  Empire.  On  their  return  it  was  ordered  that  in  all  public 
places  should  be  painted  an  azure  shield,  with  the  word  Libertas  inscribed 
within  it  in  letters  of  gold. 

(2)   See  page  98  supra. 

\^]   See  p.  20  supra. 

204    — 

placed  on  the  summit  to  strike  the  bells,  which 
being  in  its  turn  called  the  "  ^lang'ia  ",  ultimate- 
ly gave  its  name  to  the  tower  itself.  The  ar- 
chitects of  this  wonderful  shaft  were  several  in 
number.  Minuccio  and  Francesco  di  Rinaldo 
of  Perugia,  were  the  earliest  of  these,  and  were 
followed,  in  1339,  by  Agostino  di  Giovanni. 
The  design  for  the  top  of  the  tower  is  attributed 
to  Lippo  Alemmi  on  the  strength  of  two  docu- 
ments (^),  the  usual  translation  of  which  is,  how- 
ever, open  to  criticism. 

At  the  base  of  the  Torre  del  ]\Iangia  is  the 
Cappella  della  Piazza,  a  chapel  commissioned  by 
the  Commune  to  fulfil  a  vow  made  during  the 
terrible  plague  of  1348.  It  was  begun  in  the 
year  1352,  under  the  supervision  of  the  operaio 
del  Ditomo,  and,  after  several  unsuccessful  at- 
tempts, was  finally  completed  in  1376.  Nearly 
a  hundred  years  later  Antonio  Federighi  raised 
the  roof,  and  added  the  entire  upper  portion  of 
the  structure,  with  its  spirited  frieze  of  grifhns 
and  the  fine  Renaissance  wreaths  encircling  the 
arms  of  Siena.  The  twelve  Gothic  niches  were 
probably  intended  for  figures  of  the  Apostles, 
but  six  only  are  filled.  These  statues,  executed 
betAveen  1377  and  1381,  by  four  different  crafts- 
men— one  only  of  whom  was  a  sculptor  by 
profession — Avell  show  into  what  a  state  of  de- 

(ij  Misc.  Stor.  Sen.  vol.  II,  p.   148. 

—    205    — 

cadence  Sienese  sculpture  had  at  that  time  fallen. 
The  allegorical  figures  on  the  balustrade,  in 
front,  and  part  of  the  adjacent  decoration,  are 
modern  copies,  some  of  the  original  sculpture 
being  in  the  Opera  del  Duomo.  Over  the  altar 
is  a  much  damaged  and  retouched  fresco  by 
Sodoma.  The  chapel  as  a  whole  is  not  unpleas- 
ing,  but  lacks  unity  and  simplicity  of  line. 

Before  visiting  the  interior  of  tlie  Palazzo 
Pubblico,  the  visitor  should  notice  a  courtyard 
to  the  R  of  the  Cappella  della  Piazza,  which  is 
interesting-  both  for  its  architecture  and  for  the 
many  coats-of-arms  of  various  Potesta.  The 
palace  itself  is  a  veritable  treasure-house  of  early 
Sienese  painting.  In  order  to  take  the  works 
of  art  which  it  contains  as  nearly  as  possible 
in  chronological  sequence,  it  is  best  to  visit  first 
the  second  floor  (entrance  by  door  at  extreme 
R;  knock  at  first  landing;  fee  to  custodian,  who 
if  not  there  is  always  to  be  found  at  entrance 
to  ground  floor).  To  the  R,  as  we  enter,  is  the 
spacious  Sala  del  Mappamondo  or  Sala  delle  Bale- 
stre,  now  used  as  a  court-room.  The  end  wall 
is  almost  entirely  covered  with  a  vast  fresco  by 
Simone  Martini.  It  represents  the  Virgin  and 
Child  enthroned  beneath  a  splendid  canopy  up- 
held by  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  the  Baptist  and 
Evangelist,  and  attended  by  a  numerous  choir 
of  Saints  and  Angels.  In  front  of  the  Divine 
Protectress  of  Siena  kneel  the  city's  patron  saints 

—   2o6   — 

— Ansanus,  Victor,  Crescentius  and  Savinus. 
Painted  originally  in  13 15,  the  fresco  was  in 
great  part  renewed  within  the  following  decade 
by  Simone  himself,  owing  to  damage  caused  by 
the  dampness  generated  by  a  magazine  of  salt 
on  the  floor  below.  Its  present  condition  is 
none  of  the  best,  although  portions  of  it  are 
better  preserved  than  others.  Nevertheless,  nei- 
ther the  hand  of  time  nor  the  brush  of  the 
restorer,  whose  work  is  in  places  most  apparent, 
have  been  able  to  entirely  destroy  our  pleasure 
in  this  celestial  vision,  as  it  may  justly  be  called. 
The  Virgin  still  sits  in  majesty  with  the  g'entle 
yet  digniiied  Child  erect  upon  her  knee,  and 
the  surrounding  figures  still  retain  to  a  great 
extent  their  original  loveliness  of  colour  and  of 
face — the  whole  spirit  of  the  picture  remains 
unchanged.  This  is  in  a  way  the  earliest  of 
Simone's  works  that  are  now  left  to  us.  The 
change  from  Duccio's  types  is  in  many  cases 
but  slight,  yet  they  are  already  Simone's  own. 
In  the  little  rounds  about  the  fresco  are  half 
figures  of  Christ  and  various  Saints  and  Proph- 
ets, which,  together  with  the  intervening  orna- 
ment, are  all  worthy  of  careful  attention  {^). 

High  .up   on   the    opposite    wall   is    a   later 
work  of  Simone — his  splendid  equestrian  portrait 

(')  For  those  who  can  read  mediaeval  Italian,  there  are,  at  the  base 
of  the  fresco,  two  rhymed  inscriptions  of  considerable  poetic  charm. 

—    207     — 

of  Guidoriccio  da  Fogliano,  Captain  of  War  in 
Siena.  It  represents  the  warrior  firmly  seated 
on  his  richly  caparisoned  steed,  riding  out  from 
the  Sienese  camp  at  the  siege  of  Montemassi. 
This  is  probably  the  earliest  of  equestrian  por- 
traits in  Italian  art,  as  well  as  one  of  the  great- 
est. Considerably  restored  in  parts,  but  by  no 
means  ruined,  as  some  writers  would  lead  us  to 
believe,  this  fresco  is  strikingly  decorative,  with 
its  imposing  central  figure  thrown  out  against 
the  effective  background  of  dark  sky — with  its 
strange  pattern  of  picket-fence  and  lances,  and 
its  little  castellated  towns  rising  up  on  either 
side  (').  As  to  the  horseman  and  his  charger — 
follow  the  flow  of  the  mantle  and  the  gorgeous 
trappings,  as  they  sweep  away  toward  the  right, 
and  you  will  realize  how  Simone  loved  his  run- 
ning line.  For  those  who  really  appreciate 
wSienese  art,  this  work  remains  among  its  most 
wonderful  achievements. 

On  the  side   wall   are   two   battle-scenes  in 
monochrome  ;    that  to  the  L  is  the  finer  of  the 

(')  Since  writing  the  above  description,  it  has  been  pointed  out  to 
me  that  it  is  possible  that  one  of  the  "  little  castellated  towns  "  is  not  a 
town  at  all  but  a  Battifolle. 

"  The  name  of  Battifolle  was  given  to  a  fortress  with  towers  and 
ramparts  made  almost  entirely  of  wood.  It  was  usual  to  construct  such  a 
fortress  whenever  it  was  necessary  to  maintain  a  long  siege  of  some  large 
town  or  village.  In  the  Palazzo  Comunale  of  Siena,  Simone  Martini  painted 
an  afFresco  of  Guido  Riccio  Fogliani  at  the  siege  of  Montemassi.  In  that 
picture  may  be  seen  a  Battifolle,  complete  in  all  its  parts  ". — Lisini  and 
Mengozzi,  Frammento  di  una  Cronachetta  Senese  d'  Anonimo  del  Secolo 
XIV.     (Siena,  Tip.  Lazzeri,   1893)  page  12,  note  (}). 

two,  and  represents  the  victory  of  the  Sienese 
over  the  Compagnia  del  Cappello,  in  1363,  at 
Torrita(^);  that  to  the  R  represents  the  battle  of 
Poggio  Imperiale  near  Poggibonsi,  fought  be- 
tween the  Florentines  and  the  Duke  of  Calabria 
in  1479  (")•  The  authorship  of  both  frescoes  is 
someAvhat  doubtful.  The  first  is  perhaps  by 
Lippo  di  Yanni,  and  the  second  by  Giovanni  di 
Cristofano  and  Francesco  d' Andrea,  two  painters 
by  whom  we  can  cite  no  authenticated  work. 
Both  paintings,  apart  from  their  historical  interest, 
contain  much  deserving  of  greater  attention  than 
is  usually  bestowed  upon  them.  On  the  pilas- 
ters below,  are  figures  of  S.  Bernardino,  by  Sano 
di  Pietro,  of  St.  Catherine— a  fine  ideal  finely 
carried  out — by  Vecchietta,  and  of  B.  Ambrogio 
vSansedoni,  by  a  later  and  inferior  artist. 

Under  the  portrait  of  Guidoriccio  hangs  the 
famous  Aladonna  by  Guido  da  Siena.  The  flesh 
parts  of  the  two  principal  figures  in  this  much- 
discussed  picture — which  was  doubtless  painted 
by  Guido  during  the  second  half  of  the  13th 
century,  and  not  in  1221  as  the  present  inscrip- 
tion records(^) — were  entirely  renewed  by  a  mem- 
ber of  the  school  of  Duccio  in  the  early  years 
of  the  century  following.  The  limits  of  Guido's 
style  may  be  gauged,  however,  by    the  figures 

(')   See  page  70  supra,  and  note  ('). 
(')  See  page  104  supra. 
{^)  See  page  178  supra. 

—    2og   — 

of  the  six  adoring  angels  in  the  upper  part  of 
the  main  panel,  that  of  Christ  in  the  triangle 
above,  and  such  parts  of  the  Virgin's  figure  and 
drapery  as  have  escaped  alteration.  On  either 
side  are  frescoes  by  Sodoma — St.  Ansanus  bap- 
tizing the  Sienese,  and  St.  Victor.  The  fresco 
of  the  Beato  Bernardo  Tolomei  is  likewise  from 
his  hand.  They  rank  among  his  more  creditable 
works,  the  St.  Victor,  more  especially,  being,  for 
its  author,  an  exceptionally  masculine  conception. 
It  is,  however,  difficult  to  appreciate  the  work 
of  Sodoma  in  this  room,  surrounded  as  it  is  by 
masterpieces  of  so  infinitely  nobler  and  more 
refined  an  art. 

From  this  room  we  enter  the  Sala  della  Pace, 
or  as  it  was  once  called,  the  Sala  dei  Nove — the 
room  of  the  Magistracy  of  the  Nine.  Three  of 
its  walls  are  covered  with  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti's 
world-famous  alleg"ories  of  the  causes  and  results 
of  Good  and  Bad  Government.  The  first,  and 
least  damaged,  of  the  series  is  opposite  the  win- 
dows. On  the  L  sits  the  noble  figure  of  Justice, 
enthroned,  with  crowned  AVisdom  above  to  guide 
her.  Wisdom  holds  a  pair  of  scales  from  which, 
on  her  R,  leans  downward  the  Angel  of  Distrib- 
utive Justice,  beheading  one  man  and  crowning 
another;  from  the  left  arm  leans  the  Angel  of 
Commutative  Justice,  giving  money  to  one  and 
weapons  to  another.  Below  Justice  sits  Concord 
— a  most  characteristic  example  of  Ambrogio's 

work^holding  two  cords  which  proceed  from 
the  scales  above  her,  and  which  unite  the  group 
of  citizens  who  pass  from  her  before  the  Com- 
mune of  Siena(') — a  majestic  figure  of  a  middle- 
aged  man,  clothed  in  rich  garments  of  the  Sienese 
colours.  He  holds  in  his  right  hand  the  sceptre 
of  government  to  which  is  attached  the  end  of  the 
cord  of  Justice  and  Wisdom,  and  in  his  left  a 
disk  bearing  an  image  of  the  Virgin — always 
the  Protectress  of  Siena.  Above  him  hover 
Faith,  Hope  and  Charity.  To  his  R  and  L  are 
seated  Prudence,  Fortitude  and  Peace,  Magna- 
nimity, Temperance  and  Legal  Justice.  Most 
beautiful  of  these  is  the  exquisitely  modelled 
figure  of  Peace,  crowmed  with  olive  and  hold- 
ing in  her  hand  a  branch  of  the  same.     Below 

(<)  The  allegorj'  is  repeated  in  the  Tavoletta  di  Biccherna  of  1383; 
while,  on  the  Tavoletta  di  Gabella  of  1480,  the  Blessed  Virgin  is  depicted 
as  kneeling  before  a  miniature  Siena,  raised  upon  three  columns,  around 
which  she  draws  a  rope,  the  ancient  emblem  of  civic  concord. 

The  same  symbolism  is  often  to  be  met  with  in  the  elder  writers. 
Thus  Tirare  a  una  fune  or  a  una  corda  is  a  phrase  which  is  constantlj- 
used  to  signify  united  and  concordant  effort.  Compare,  for  example,  the 
following  lines  from  the  Proem  to  the   Tesoro  of  Brunetto  Latini  : 

Ond'  io  non  so  nessuno 
Ch'  io  volessi  vedere 

La  mia  cittade  avere 
Del  tutto  alia  sua  guisa, 

Ne  che  fosse  divisa  ; 
Ma  tutti  per  comune 

Tirassero  una  fune 
Di  pace  e  di  ben  fare. 

(The  above  note  has  been  sent  me  by  ^Ir.  Heywood). 

2  11     

the  Commune  are  the  Wolf  and  Twins,  and 
groups  of  fully  armed  warriors  on  horse  and 
on  foot.  To  the  R  come  men  offering  tribute, 
while  others  are  led  before  him  in  fetters. 

On  the  R  wall  are  depicted  the  effects  of 
Good  Government.  Within  the  city,  scenes  of 
prosperity  and  gaiety  abound ;  knights  and 
ladies  ride  through  the  town;  in  a  square  a 
group  of  young  girls  join  in  a  merry  dance  (^). 
Outside  the  town  there  stretches  a  smiling  land- 
scape, and  peasants  safely  bring  their  produce 
toward  the  city  gate.  Above  the  whole  scene 
hovers  Security,  a  winged  woman  w4th  a  scroll 
and  gallows.  On  the  opposite  wall  are  seen  the 
effects  of  Bad  Government.  At  the  R  sits  the 
horned  and  monstrous  figure  Tyranny,  his  left 
foot  resting  on  a  goat.  Above  him  are  Avarice, 
Pride  and  Vainglory.  Horrible  beings  sit  on 
either  side — Fraud,  Treason  and  Cruelty,  Fury, 

(*)  This  seems  to  be  the  celebrated  Rigoletto  or  Ridda,  a  sort  of 
round  dance  (ballo  tondoj  in  which  the  dancers  moved  in  a  circle,  hand  in 
hand,  singing.  It  is  alluded  to  by  Boccaccio,  and  seems  to  have  been  a 
usual  form  of  amusement  with  the  Florentines  on  May  Day. 

In  the  Rime  of  Franco  Sacchetti,  we  read: 

Sempre  danze,  e  rigoletti 
Con  diletto,  e  gioia  ciascuno  ; 

Vecchi  come  giovenetti 
Non  e  difFerente  alcuno. 

Sucn  dances  appear  to  have  continued  in  Siena  up  to  the  fall  of  the 
Republic.  On  January  13th,  1555,  we  read  that  the  youths,  who  were  about 
to  play  at  Pallone,  "  fecero  un  grandissimo  ballo  tondo  che  empiva  piu  di 
mezza  la  piazza  " — Sozzini,  Diario  ad  annum. 


Division  and  AVar.  Below  lies  Justice,  over- 
thrown and  bound.  Within  the  walls  of  the  city 
murder  and  evil  deeds  prevail,  anarchy  and 
disorder  reign  supreme;  without,  the  fields  are 
devastated.  Over  the  miserable  town  hovers  the 
demon  of  Terror. 

Of  the  illustrative  tendencies  of  these  fres- 
coes, I  have  spoken  in  the  Introductory  chapter  (^). 
Considered  purely  as  a  decoration,  they  do  not 
form  as  successful  a  whole  as  might  have  been 
expected.  The  detail  is  too  exacting  and  deters 
the  spectator  from  receiving  a  comprehensive 
impression  of  the  entire  work.  Again,  the 
damaged  condition  of  the  frescoes — fortunately, 
they  are  but  slightly  restored — does  not  add  to 
the  decorative  effect.  Their  wonderful  deep  and 
dull  colour,  reminding  us  as  it  does  of  some  of 
the  work  of  China  and  Japan,  is,  however,  an 
everlasting  source  of  pleasure.  To  thoroughly 
enjoy  these  paintings  we  must  examine  them  in 
detail.  Many  of  the  individual  figures  and  in- 
cidents are  not  only  possessed  of  great  charm,  but 
are  masterly  as  regards  both  form  and  action. 
The  figure  of  Peace,  already  mentioned,  is  even 
classic  in  its  pure  simplicity  and  delicate  model- 
ling. The  episode  of  the  dancing  girls,  in  the 
fresco  on  the  R,  and  that,  on  the  L,  of  the  mail- 
clad  knight  issuing  from  the  city  gate — to  men- 

(')  Pages  182-183  supra. 

2  I 

tion  but  two  examples — show  a  power  equal  to 
that  of  the  Florentines  over  modelling,  splendid 
movement,   and  even  foreshortening. 

From  the  Sala  del  ]\Iappamondo  opens  also 
the  Chapel  of  the  palace,  the  Avails  and  ceilings 
of  which  are  covered  with  frescoes,  begun  in 
1407,  by  Taddeo  Bartoli.  Those  in  the  corridor, 
outside  the  screen,  represent  Roman,  and  what 
might  be  called  Biblical,  heroes — curiously  fore- 
shadowing Perugino's  decorations  of  the  vSala  del 
Cambio  at  Perugia.  The  colossal  figure  of  St. 
Christopher  and  the  smaller  one  of  Judas  Mac- 
caboeus  are  particularly  notew^orthy  in  their  origi- 
nal brilliant  colouring.  Over  the  entrance  to  the 
corridor  is  painted  an  interesting  mediaeval  map 
of  Rome.  The  beautiful  holy-water  basin,  w4th 
its  supporting  figures  of  bronze,  was  designed 
and  cast  by  Giovanni  Turini.  The  frescoes 
within  the  chapel  itself  represent  various  Saints, 
and  four  closing  scenes  from  the  life  of  the 
Virgin — her  Farewell  to  the  Apostles,  her  Death, 
her  Funeral  and  her  Assumption.  Although 
almost  entirely  repainted  at  a  recent  period, 
these  frescoes  retain  much  of  their  original 
simplicity  and  force,  and  are  very  characteristic 
works.  The  Assumption  of  the  Virgin  fairly 
glows  with  the  reflected  light  of  its  golden  sky, 
which  throws  out  in  bold  outline  the  city  on 
the  hills,  much  as  Siena  can  be  seen  to-day  at 
the  setting    of    the    sun.       One  of   the    greatest 


—    214    — 

beauties  of  this  remarkable  work  is,  however, 
the  sweeping  downward  movement  of  the  group 
of  Christ  and  His  angels.  Taddeo's  powers  of  de- 
picting movement  are  also  showm  in  the  first  of 
the  frescoes — that  in  w^hich  the  Apostles  are  mak- 
ing their  last  earthly  visit  to  the  Virgin.  Among 
the  other  objects  of  interest  in  this  almost  per- 
fectly furnished  chapel,  we  would  call  especial 
attention  to  the  handsome  iron  screen,  finished 
in  1445  by  Giacomo  di  Giovanni  (^) — one  of  the 
finest  existing  example  of  its  kind.  The  inlaid 
choir-stalls,  which  illustrate  the  Nicene  Creed, 
were  executed  by  Domenico  di  Xiccolo.  The 
scenes  begin  at  the  L  of  the  altar,  and  con- 
tinue at  the  further  R  corner.  Beneath  them 
are  interesting  carved  and  inlaid  medallions 
containing  various  Gothic  motifs.  Over  the  altar 
is  a  picture  by  vSodoma,  with  a  very  fantastic 
background — rightly  praised  by  Vasari  as  being 
one  of  the  master's  more  carefully  finished  paint- 
ings. The  handsome  organ  is  another  late  piece 
of  work.  In  the  centre  of  the  chapel  hang"s 
a  fine  Gothic  lantern. 

AVe  pass  into  the  next  room,  known  as  the 
Sala  dei  Cardinal!.  On  the  L  is  a  fresco  of  the 
Virgin  and  Child  Avith  Saints,  which,  although 
absolutely    ruined,    still    remains   a  pleasing  bit 

(')  It  has  been  thought    that    the    design    for  this    screen   is    due  to 
Jacopo  della  Quercia.     Doc.  Borghesi  c  Banchi,  p.  177. 

—     2  1,5    — 

of  colour.  Another  ruined  fresco,  of  St.  Paul, 
was  once  the  work  of  a  follower  of  Taddeo 
Bartoli.  On  the  R  a  repainted  triptych  is  also 
of  the  school  of  Taddeo.  The  panel  of  the 
Virgin  and  Child  with  Angels,  dated  1484,  and 
attributed  to  Alatteo,  is  by  his  pupil  Cozzarelli. 
This  is  a  fine  example  of  how  near  the  pupil 
could  at  times  come  to  his  master,  the  difference 
here  being-  one  of  quality  only.  Two  small  and 
interesting  panels  which  represent  a  sermon  and 
a  miracle  of  S.  Bernardino,  attributed  to  Fran- 
cesco di  Giorgio,  are  by  Vecchietta. 

The  walls  of  the  following  Sala  della  Balla 
were  decorated  by  one  of  the  most  famous  of 
the  later  followers  of  Giotto,  vSpinello  Aretino, 
Avho  was  assisted  in  the  work  by  his  son  Parri. 
This  decoration  is  one  of  the  very  rare  examples 
of  painting  by  a  foreign  artist  in  Siena.  The 
allegorical  figures  in  the  ceiling  are  by  Martino 
di  Bartolommeo,  a  pupil  of  Taddeo.  They  are 
graceful  and  pleasing  in  colour.  The  scenes 
painted  by  JSpinello  and  his  son  represent  various 
episodes  in  the  life  of  the  great  Sienese  Pope 
Alexander  III  (Orlando  Bandinelli),  many  of 
them  bearing  upon  the  heroic  struggle  of  the 
Italians  against  the  invader  Frederic  Barbarossa. 
Artistically  speaking,  the  most  interesting  are 
those  depicting  the  Pope  giving  a  sword  to  the 
Doge  Ziani  of  Venice  as  he  kneels  surrounded 
by  his  soldiers  (opposite  the  first  window)  and, 

—    2l6    — 

on  the  wall  opposite  the  entrance,  the  triumph- 
ant procession  of  the  victorious  Alexander,  his 
bridle  held  by  the  Doge  and  the  humbled  Em- 
peror himself.  Above  the  entrance  is  the  con- 
fused but  interesting"  painting  of  a  mediaeval 
naval  fight — between  the  Venetians  and  Barba- 
rossa's  son  Otho,  who  w^as  eventually  taken  pris- 
oner, as  can  be  seen  at  the  right  of  the  fresco.  In 
this  room  there  are  also  three  small  coffers. 
The  paintings  on  one  of  them,  proudly  shown 
by  the  custodian  as  genuine  Fra  Angelicos,  are 
by  a  Sienese  artist  of  the  end  of  the  14th  cent- 
ury. The  chest  of  iron  and  wood,  decorated 
by  some  artist  of  the  school  of  Lippo  jMemmi, 
is  said  to  have  been  used  to  hold  the  money 
for  the  daily  expenditures  of  the  Republic.  The 
wolf  on  the  third  coffer  is  generally  attributed 
to  Barili,  the  coffer  itself  being  in  great  part 
modern.  The  room  contains  also  a  fine  intarsia 
door  (leading  into  the  Chapel)  and  handsome 
Gothic  seats  decorated  with  the  arms  of  Siena, 
the  latter  executed  by  Barna  di  Turino.  At  the 
end  of  the  corridor  beyond  the  Sala  di  Balia  is 
the  only  known  fresco  by  Neroccio — a  Virgin 
and  Child  enthroned.  Although  not  devoid  of 
the  inherent  charm  which  that  artist's  work 
invariably  possesses,  this  fresco  does  not  make 
us  regret  the  fact  that  he  limited  his  attention 
to  the  painting  of  panels.  The  end  room,  known 
as   the  Sala  Monumentale,   has   been    adorned  by 

—  217   — 

modern  Sienese  artists  with  scenes  from  the 
story  of  the  unification  of  Italy.  Considered  as 
reminders  of  certain  important  historical  events, 
these  works  may  have  some  interest,  but  when 
looked  at  from  an  artistic  standpoint  the  less 
said  of  them  the  better. 

Before  leaving  this  part  of  the  palace,  the 
visitor  is  conducted  into  the  Sala  del  Concistoro. 
The  fine  marble  doorway  is  attributed,  with  no 
reason,  to  Jacopo  della  Querela.  Executed  in 
1446,  it  is  in  all  probability  the  work  of  the 
Florentine  Bernardo  Rossellino.  It  is  an  excel- 
lent piece  of  carvHng,  and  the  delicate  touches  of 
gold  and  colour  only  enhance  its  effect.  The  in- 
tarsia  doors  are  by  a  Sienese  artist.  The  ceiling 
paintings,  by  Beccafumi,  representing  scenes  from 
ancient  history,  can  hardly  be  classed  among* 
his  more  successful  works,  overcrowded  as  they 
are  in  composition.  The  present  somewhat 
garish  colour  is  probably  in  no  small  part  due 
to  restoration.  The  effects  of  light  and  shade 
are,  as  is  usual  with  this  master,  very  interest- 

On  the  top  floor  of  the  palace  is  a  loggia 
(admission  granted  by  the  door-keeper)  from 
which  a  splendid  view  is  to  be  had — a  view  of 
unending  distances  with  the  misty  and  beautiful 
outline  of  Monte  Amiata  far  off  against  the  sky. 
The  grand  but  ruined  fresco  of  the  Virgin  and 
Child,  on  the  end  wall,  is  by  Ambrogio  Loren- 

—     2lb     — 

zetti.      The    timbered   ceiling    of   the    log-gia    is 
also  worthy  of  note. 

The  entrance  to  the  ground  floor  is  by  the 
second  door  from  the  R  (custodian  necessary  ; 
fee).  Just  inside  the  door  are  the  remnants  of 
some  Trecento  frescoes.  On  the  ceiling  is  a  fine 
figure  of  Christ  with  Cherubim  and  four  Evan- 
g'elists,  and  on  either  wall  two  saints — orig'inally 
all  works  from  the  hand  of  Bartolo  di  Fredi. 
The  visitor  is  conducted  through  various  small 
rooms  now  used  as  municipal  offices.  The  Sala 
del  Sindaco  contains  a  fresco  of  the  Resurrection 
of  Christ  by  Sodoma,  which  although  fine  in 
action,  is  unpleasant  in  colour  and  coarse  in 
execution.  In  the  Sala  di  Blccherna  (^)  Sano  has 
expended  his  greatest  efforts  on  his  ever  fa- 
vourite subject — ^the  Coronation  of  the  Virgin. 
This  beautiful  fresco  (1445),  filling  so  perfectly 
its  apportioned  space,  is  one  of  the  most  splendid 
examples  of  the  decorative  tendencies  of  the 
Sienese  school.  Strange  to  say,  several  of  the 
principal  figures — e.  g.  the  foremost  saints  in  the 
group  to  the  left — are  by  another  painter  of  the 
Quattrocento  (')  whose  style  is  easily  distinguish- 
able from  that  of  Sano.  The  entire  work  was 
painted  over  an  earlier  fresco  by  Lippo  Vanni, 
whose  signature  still  remains.      The  S.  Bernar- 

(')  As  to  the  Magistracy  rfj  ^zccA^^wa.     Seepage  56  note  (')  supra. 
C^)  According  to  ilr.  Perkins,  by  Domenico  di  Bartolo. 

—   219  — 

dino  is  likewise  by  Sano.  Another  and  very 
poor  Sodoma  is  to  be  seen  in  the  Sala  del  Ma- 
trimoni.  In  the  Secretary's  room  is  a  fresco  of 
St.  Catherine — the  head  entirely  repainted — by 
vSano.  Outside  the  Sala  di  Biccherna  is  a  large 
fresco  of  three  saints  (^),  an  interesting  but  da- 
maged work,  also  by  Sano — fine  in  colour.  In  a 
room  called  the  Ufficio  di  Anagrafe  (in  constant 
use  by  officials,  who  courteously  allow  visitors 
to  enter)  is  the  finest  of  Vecchietta's  existing 
works  in  Siena.  In  the  centre  of  the  fresco  is 
the  Virgin  of  Mercy,  her  mantle  spread  out  to 
shield  the  suppliants  about  her  feet  ;  above 
her  are  choirs  of  exquisite  angels — beautiful 
alike  in  drapery  and  movement;  to  the  right  a 
splendid  figure  of  St.  Martin  leans  from  his 
horse  to  divide  his  cloak  with  the  beggar.  By 
no  means  the  least  pleasing  quality  of  this  fresco 
is  its  subdued  and  dignified  colouring".  On  the 
side  wall  is  a  really  fine  work  by  Sodoma.  It 
represents  the  arms  of  the  city  with  the  imperial 
Ghibelline  eagle  above  them. 

Leaving  the  Piazza,  we  return  to  the  Cro- 
ce  del  Travaglio.  The  Loggia  di  Mercanzia  C). 
Early  in  the  14th  century  the  wealthy  Guild  of 

(1)  S.  Pietro  Alessandrino,  the  B.  Ambrogio  Sansedoni  and  the  B. 
Andrea  Gallerani. 

(^)  Now  known  as  the  I^OS'S;-in  (Ic^li  Ulliti,  and  occupied 
as  a  club-house.     Sometimes  also  called  the  LosS^S'iil.  *lei  Xol>ili. 


]\Ierchants  (^)  determined  to  possess  a  residence 
of  its  own,  and  to  that  end  bought  several 
houses,  (in  1309)  (-),  on  the  site  of  the  present 
Loggia.  The  buildings  satisfied  the  needs  of 
the  Guild  for  nearly  a  century,  and  were  re- 
constructed only  in  141 7,  by  Sano  di  ]\Iatteo. 
His  loggia,  with  the  later  addition  of  a  storey, 
still  exists  as  one  of  the  pleasing  monuments 
of  vSiena— that  part  of  the  building  which  faces 
on  the  Piazza  del  Campo  having  been  entirely 
remodelled  in  the  i8th  century.  The  Loggia 
as  a  whole,  although  not  ineffective,  is  somewhat 
heavy  in  its  parts.  The  upper  storey,  notwith- 
standing- its  much  later  date,  is  quite  in  harmony 
with  the  older  portion  of  the  building.  Of  the 
statues  which  adorn  the  piers  those  of  SS.  Peter 
and  Paul  are  by  Vecchietta  (1458-60) — 'those  of 
SS.  Victor,  Ansanus  and  Savinus  are  by  Fe- 
derighi.  The  ascetic  fig'ures  of  Vecchietta,  with 
their  minute  and  detailed  execution,  contrast 
strongly  with  the  somewhat  pompous  and  heav- 
ily draped  statues  of  his  rival.  At  either  side 
of  the  Loggia  is  a  carved  marble  seat  ;  that  to 
the  R,  by  Federighi  (1464),  is  decorated  with 
figures  of  Roman  heroes,  and  on  the  back  bears 

{')  As  to  the  important  position  held  by  the  A  fie  dei  Meicanti,  sec 
p.  46  supra  ;  and  more  fully  in  the  Mercante  Senese  nel  Dtigento  of  Prof. 
L.  Zdekauer. 

(-)   Misc.  Stor.  Sen.  vol.  Ill,  p.  27. 


the  various  coats-of-arms  of  the  city ;  the  L 
bench,  by  Urbano  da  Cortona  (^),  is  ornamented 
with  figures  of  the  Cardinal  Virtues,  and  on  the 
back  with  wreaths  enclosing  the  Lion  andBalzana 
shields,  and  two  of  the  devices  used  by  the 
Consoli  di  Mercanzia  in  their  seal—  a  pair  of  scales 
and  a  bale  (■).  The  ceiling  of  the  Loggia  was 
to  have  been  entirely  decorated  (in  1549)  by 
Pastorino,  but  as  he  finished  in  two  years  only 
a  single  compartment,  the  remainder  of  the  work 
was  carried  on  by  a  later  artist.  It  has  not 
been  definitely  established  which  is  Pastorino's 
ceiling;  all  three  bays  seem  to  have  been  dec- 
orated by  different  hands,  the  one  to  the  L 
being  the  best. 

Continuing  up  the  Via  Cavour,  which  shortly 
becomes  the  Via  di  Citta  (now  re-christened 
Via  Umberto  I),  we  pass  on  the  R  the  Via  di 
Beccheria.  Half  way  up  this  street  is  a  fine 
emblem  of  the  Guild  of  Butchers.  Nearly  op- 
posite, on  the  L,  is  the  Costarella  dei  Barbieri, 
with  an  imposing  view  of  the  Piazza.  The  high 
stone  tower  on   the   corner  is  a   clever   modern 

(»)  This  work  has  lately  been  given  to  Marrina  on  the  strength  of  a 
document  which  contains  an  order  of  1331  for  a  bench  by  Pietro  Compa- 
gnini,  Lorenzo  Marrina,  and  Michele  Cioli  da  Settignano.  (Doc.  Ill,  136). 
Despite  the  document,  however,  the  present  work  is  obviously  by  Urbano 
da  Cortona,  who  died  in  1504. 

("-)  Toward  the  14th  century,  the  Guild  of  Merchants  had  on  their 
shield  the  effigy  of  Brutus,  consul  of  the  Romans,  together  with  scales  and 
a  bale.     Misc.  Stor.  Sen.  vol.  II,  p.   124. 

reconstruction.  Opposite,  at  the  entrance  to  the 
Via  dei  Pellegrini,  stands  a  very  interesting 
Gothic  palace,  comparatively  unrestored,  in  the 
early  days  once  the  residence  of  the  Potesta. 
We  follow  the  Via  di  Citta.  The  Palazzo  Elci, 
No.  II,  on  the  L,  contains  a  finely  modelled 
little  statue  of  Bacchus,  by  Federighi,  long  con- 
sidered an  antique.  Over  No.  12  is  a  delicately 
carved  coat-of-arms.  Another  fine  stone  tower 
is  on  the  L.  Directly  ahead  of  us  stands  the 
great  Gothic  Palazzo  Saracini  {^),  dating  in  large 
part  from  the  14th  century  with  later  restora- 
tions. It  contains  an  extensive  gallery  of  pict- 
ures, which  can  be  visited  by  applying  to  the 
custodian  (ring  at  bottom  of  stairs  beyond  en- 
trance court ;  fee).  Not  having"  yet  been  system- 
atically hung,  there  is  some  difficulty  in  finding 
those  that  are  of  interest.  The  gallery  is,  I 
believe,  soon  to  be  carefully  re-arranged  and 
the  pictures  re-numbered. 

On  entering,  the  visitor  is  conducted  through 
a  hall  into  a  square  room.  Among  the  many 
pictures  it  contains,  two  by  Neroccio  are  of 
especial    interest — -No.    8,    a    Virgin    and    Child 

(')  It  was  from  the  tower  of  the  older  palace  on  this  site — then 
belonging  to  the  Marescotti — that  the  drummer  Cerreto  Ceccolini  reported 
the  changeful  progress  of  the  Battle  of  Montaperti.  Tradition  has  it  that 
Ceccolini  was  gifted  with  so  good  a  pair  of  eyes  that  he  could  see  the 
moving  Florentine  and  Sienese  hosts,  three  or  four  miles  distant,  as  they 
swayed  backward  and  forward,  up  and  down  the  slope  of  Montesclvoli. 

with  Bk^  -xol  and  Alagdalen,  and  No.  14,  Virgin 
with  Child  standing  in  front,  and  SS.  Catherine 
and  Bernardino — both  charming  specimens  of 
that  master's  work.  A  large  and  grandiose  al- 
tar-piece representing  the  Marriage  of  the  wSt. 
Catherine  of  Siena  is  by  Beccafumi.  It  is  well 
composed  and  one  of  the  most  ambitious  at- 
tempts of  this  gifted,  but  at  times  somewhat 
academic,  master.  No.  6g,  an  interesting  marble 
relief  with  a  fine  patina — Virgin  and  Child — is 
by  some  vSienese  follower  of  Donatello.  Various 
remnants  of  Gothic  and  other  sculpture  of  more 
or  less  interest  are  scattered  through  the  room. 
The  adjacent  dining-hall  contains  good  Renais- 
sance doorways  and  a  similar  fire-place,  decorated 
with  various  coats-of-arms  including  that  of  the 
Saracini — a  Saracen's  head.  Two  round  pictures, 
Nos.  135  and  133,  are  pleasing  and  character- 
istic works  of  Brescianino.  No.  131,  Portrait  of 
a  bearded  Man,  if  not  by  Sebastiano  del  Piombo 
himself,  is  certainly  by  a  very  close  imitator  of 
that  master's  later  manner.  In  the  following 
narrow  room,  a  portable  altar-piece,  No.  244,  is 
by  Brescianino.  The  crucifix  itself  is  of  a  some- 
what later  period.  No.  205  is  a  hard  but  quaint- 
ly interesting  portrait  of  a  young"  woman  with 
the  attributes  of  St.  Catherine,  ascribed  to  Bot- 
ticelli (!)  but  evidently  by  jMainardi,  the  little- 
known  pupil  of  Ghirlandaio. 

The  next  two  rooms  contain  no  objects  of 

particular  interest  save  a  hastily  executed  St. 
Sebastian  by  Brescianino,  a  large  Virgin  en- 
throned with  Saints,  probably  by  a  vSienese 
eclectic  much  influenced  by  Genga  and  Signo- 
relli,  and  a  collection  of  porcelain.  We  pass 
into  a  square  room  with  two  high  windows. 
A  delicate  little  triptych,  Xo.  1275,  is  by  Sas- 
setta,  the  left  wing  entirely  repainted.  Xos.  1278 
and  1277  are  fragments  of  Saints  by  Sano  di 
Pietro.  There  are  some  good  majolica  plates, 
in  frames,  hanging  about  the  room.  The  ad- 
joining badly  lighted  closet  contains  several 
pictures  of  interest  by  earlier  Sienese  masters. 
No.  1268,  Virgin  and  Child,  is  a  curious  example 
of  the  most  degraded  period  of  Italo-Byzantine 
art.  Xo.  1263,  a  large  panel  of  the  Virgin  and 
Child  surrounded  by  Cherubim,  although  some- 
what damaged,  is  one  of  the  finest  and  most 
charming  examples  of  Giovanni  di  Paolo's  paint- 
ing— exquisite  in  decorative  feeling;  it  is  sig'ned, 
and  dated  1427.  Xos.  1257,  58,  59,  60,  four 
small  scenes  from  the  life  of  Christ,  are  later 
works  by  the  same  artist.  On  either  side  of  the 
large  panel  are  two  pinnacles,  Xo.  1266 — the 
Announcing  Angel  and  the  Virgin— pleasing 
works  of  Andrea  Vanni.  Xo.  1264  is  a  Virgin 
and  Child  with  Saints,  coarse  in  quality,  of  the 
school  of  Matteo.  Xo.  1265,  Christ  and  the 
Executioners,  is  by  Sano.  Xo.  1273  (low  down) 
is  a  remarkably  fine  little  panel  by  Vecchietta 

— St.  Martin  dividing  his  cloak  with  the  Beggar. 
The  small  and  shivering  figure  of  the  latter 
is  particularly  worthy  of  notice.  The  arms  of  a 
Crucifix,  on  the  R,  No.  1256,  are  also  by  Vec- 
chietta.  Nos.  1237  and  38  are  more  fragments 
of  Saints  by  Sano.  The  small  half  figure  of  an 
Angel,  No.  1236,  is  a  genuine  work  of  Duccio. 
No.  1274  (high  up),  Virgin  and  Child  in  glory 
with  wSaints,  is  an  interesting  late  Giottesque 
bit  of  painting.  And  No.  1269,  a  curious  pict- 
ure of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with  Saints,  Angels, 
and  Eve  lying  before  the  Virgin's  throne,  is 
probably  by  Paolo  di  Giovanni  Fei. 

We  pass  throug'h  a  small  room  into  another 
somewhat  larger.  In  the  L  corner  is  a  quaint 
picture  of  a  Vestal  Virgin  by  some  artist  influ- 
enced by  Sodoma  and  the  Umbrians.  Nos.  1423, 
1432^^%  mythological  figures,  show  the  influence 
of  Beccafumi  and,  more  obviously,  that  of  Pe- 
ruzzi.  No.  1424  is  a  charmingly  naive  panel  by 
Balducci  and  represents  the  Dream  of  Hercules. 
Above,  No.  1422,  the  Rape  of  the  Sabines, 
shows  Beccafumi  in  his  early  Florentine  period. 
Nos.  1359,  1362,  63,  64,  figures  in  landscape, 
are  interesting  panels,  pleasing*  in  colour  and 
very  near  to  Brescianino.  On  the  L  wall  before 
leaving  the  room  is  a  pleasant  little  jMadonna 
by  an  Umbro-Sienese  artist.  Returning  to  the 
square  room,  we  go  out  at  L  and  pass  into  a 
long  gallery.        In  the    corner    room   ahead    are 

—     226     — 

various  objects  in  bronze,  etc.,  and  a  good  pict- 
ure by  Pacchia,  Xo.  752,  the  Virgin  and  Child 
with  St.  John  and  SS.  Bernardino  and  Catherine. 

Ahiiost  the  last  room  to  be  shown  contains 
the  gem  of  the  collection — a  beautiful  little 
predella  picture,  much  prized  as  a  g'enuine  Fra 
Angelico,  representing  the  Adoration  of  the  ]\Iagi 
(No.  933).  This  delicately  executed  panel  is  ob- 
viously by  the  still  little-known  Sassetta.  Xo. 
934,  Virgin  adoring  the  Child,  with  Ang-els,  is 
an  interesting  Flemish  painting',  minute  in  execu- 
tion and  finish,  and  containing  much  that  is  most 
enjoyable.  Xo.  973,  St.  Jerome,  is  by  a  German 
artist.  Another  St.  Jerome,  Xo.  965,  is  of  the 
school  of  Beccafumi.  By  that  master  himself 
is  a  IMadonna  and  Child,  Xo.  1029 — an  early 
work,  fresh  in  colour  and  execution.  Xo.  918, 
a  pleasing  round  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  is  by 
some  Umbro-Sienese  eclectic. 

The  custodian  then  shows  a  few  of  the  pri- 
vate dwelling  rooms  which  contain  various 
cabinets,  some  good  ivory  carving,  and  a  fine 
collection  of  majolica.  There  are  two  Giottesque 
pictures  of  the  Florentine  school — an  Annuncia- 
tion ;  and  a  Virgin  and  Child  with  two  Saints 
and  two  Angels.  The  charming  Madonna  sur- 
rounded by  little  angels,  with  SS.  Jerome  and 
Bernardino,  is  by  Sano.  The  private  chapel  of 
the  palace,  beyond  the  entrance  court,  contains 
a  fresco  of  the  school  of  Sodoma. 

Opposite  the  Palazzo  Saracini  stands  a  late 
Renaissance  palace,  No.  i8,  with  a  boldly  rus- 
ticated door.  Farther  along  is  the  Palazzo 
Nerucci  or  Piccolomini  (now  occupied  by  the 
Banca  d'  Italia).  It  was  built  by  Catherine,  the 
sister  of  Pius  II,  and  was  known  as  the  "  Palazzo 
delle  Papesse  ".  The  original  design  by  Rossel- 
lino  evidently  underwent  considerable  change 
at  the  hands  of  the  actual  architects,  Federighi 
and  Urbano  da  Cortona,  but  the  effect  is  never- 
theless both  imposing  and  refined.  Beyond, 
past  the  Via  del  Castoro  which  leads  up  to  the 
ruins  of  the  unfinished  Cathedral,  is  the  Palazzo 
de' Marsili,  rebuilt  in  the  Gothic  style  in  1459. 
This  palace  is  a  curious  and  characteristic  ex- 
ample of  the  tenacity  with  which  the  Sienese 
clung  to  what  had  for  so  long  been  their  fa- 
vourite style  of  architecture.  Over  No.  22  are 
interesting  arms  of  the  Piccolomini,  probably 
the  work  of  Urbano  da  Cortona.  The  Via  di 
Citta  ends  at  the  Piazza  di  Postierla.  On  the 
rig-ht-hand  corner  stands  the  tower  of  the  For- 
teguerri  de'  Grandi,  one  of  the  oldest  families 
of  Siena.  It  was  originally  joined  by  a  bridge 
with  a  palace  opposite  which  belonged  to  the 
same  family.  Remains  of  the  connecting  arch 
are  still  to  be  seen  embedded  in  the  side  of  the 
tower  (^). 

(*!  Many  houses  were  connected  by  bridges  not  only  to  insure  as- 
sistance when  needed,  but  in  order  to  evade  the  laws  which  forbade  being 
out  after  curfew. 

—     228    — 

In  the  square  is  one  of  the  several  similar 
columns  to  be  found  throughout  the  city,  sup- 
porting* the  emblem  of  the  she-wolf  and  twins. 
Beside  the  "  Lupa  ",  the  column  bears  a  fine 
iron  banner-holder,  also  of  the  15th  century. 
Turning  into  the  Via  del  Capitano  we  pass,  on 
the  corner,  the  handsome  Palazzo  Chig-i,  built 
toward  the  end  of  the  i6th  century.  Xo.  3  is 
a  simple  Gothic  palace  with  fine  coats-of-arms. 
Further  on  is  the  Palazzo  Grottanelli— once  inhab- 
ited by  the  Captain  of  AVar — one  of  the  most 
striking  of  Sienese  palaces.  Erected  about  1300, 
it  passed  through  various  vicissitudes  until,  in 
in  1854,  it  Avas  restored  to  its  original  form. 
Although  richly  decorative,  it  lacks  that  har- 
mony of  proportion  so  characteristic  of  other 
Sienese  buildings.  The  modern  courtyard  and 
staircase  are  worthy  of  notice.  At  the  corner 
of  the  street,  to  the  R,  is  the  large  Palazzo 
Reale,  designed  for  the  Grand  Dukes  of  Tuscany 
by  Bernardo  Buontalenti.  The  Gothic  palace 
opposite  bears  the  scala — the  emblem  of  the  Hos- 

Few  cathedral  squares  possess,  at  the  pres- 
ent day,  a  charm  surpassing*  that  of  the  Piazza 
del  Duomo  of  Siena,  with  its  splendid  Cathedral, 
its  tall  pinnacled  Campanile,  and  the  magnificent 
ruins  of  what  was  once  intended  to  be  the  most  im- 
posing church  in  Christendom  (').     For  centuries 

See  page  6i  supra. 

—     229     — 

the  centre  of  Siena's  spiritual  life,  it  has  wit- 
nessed many  varied  scenes  of  fervour  and  devo- 
tion, enacted  at  different  times,  and  under  vastly 
differing  conditions,  by  a  people  who,  despite 
their  many  contrary  failings,  were  always  at  heart 
distinctly  fervent  and  religious  (^).  The  Cathe- 
dral itself,  had  the  people  been  enabled  to  carry 
out  their  great  intentions,  would  have  resulted 
in  a  symbolic  summing  up  of  all  their  religious 
pride  and  glory,  even  as  the  splendid  Palazzo 
Pubblico  represented  the  strength  and  pride  of 
the  State.  Taken  as  it  is,  however,  the  present 
Duomo  remains  an  unique  and  not  unworthy 
monument  of  their  nobler  aspirations.  As  is  the 
case  with  the  Piazza  del  Campo,  many  an  in- 
teresting page  could  be  w^ritten  on  the  historic 
associations  of  this  beautiful  old  square,  but, 
great  as  is  the  temptation  to  enter  into  such 
details  here,  the  limited  space  and  the  fixed 
intention  of  this  Guide  prevent  my  doing  so, 
and  the  reader  must  look  elsewhere  for  this  sat- 

The  site  of  the  Cathedral  has,  even  from 
Roman  times,  been  occupied  by  some  edifice 
of  worship,  although  the  earliest  place  of  central 
worship  for  the  Sienese  was  probably  in  Castel 

(')  Compare  J.  A.  Symonds,  Renaissance  in  Italy,  The  Fine  Arts 
(London  1877)  pages  220-221,  and  W.  Heywood,  The  "  Ensamples  "  of 
Fra  Filippo,  (jfc  ,  op.  cit.  pages  89  et  seq. 

—     230    — 

Vecchio.  Both  the  name  of  the  architect  and 
the  exact  date  of  the  foundation  of  the  present 
cathedral  are  unknown.  Begun  during-  the  sec- 
ond quarter  of  the  14th  centur3%  the  building"  was 
practically  completed  by  1267.  The  then  exist- 
ing church  was  not  only  shorter  than  the  present 
Duomo  by  one  or  two  bays,  but  did  not  include 
the  present  choir  or  the  Baptistery  of  S.  Giovanni 
beneath.  This  addition  of  choir  and  baptister}^ 
was  commenced  by  13 17.  Partly  because  of 
defects  soon  discovered  in  the  new  work,  which 
rendered  the  building  unsafe,  and  partly  because 
of  the  desire  of  the  city  to  outshine  her  rival 
Florence,  there  arose  the  idea  of  building  a  new 
and  more  magnificent  cathedral.  Although  en- 
couraged in  this  proposition  by  the  architects 
of  the  Duomo,  among  whom  was  no  less  a  master 
than  Lorenzo  di  Maitano,  it  was  not  until  1339 
that  the  citizens  finally  adopted  this  plan.  It 
was  then  decided  to  add  to  the  old  Duomo  a 
huge  nave  toward  the  Via  di  Citta,  the  Duomo 
itself  to  be  retained  as  transepts.  The  famous 
Sienese  architect  Lando  di  Pietro  was  placed 
in  charge  of  this  work,  and  for  some  years  it 
progressed  rapidly.  But  the  g-reat  plague  of 
1348,  and  the  constant  strife  raging  within  Siena, 
sapped  the  city's  energy  and  resources.  Defects 
in  construction  also  became  apparent.  The 
Sienese  authorities  turned  for  advice  to  several 
Florentine  architects,  who  suggested  the  taking- 

down  and  rebuilding  of  the  weaker  parts  ;  but, 
appalled  not  only  at  the  necessary  expense  of 
such  an  undertaking-,  but  at  the  length  of  time 
the  proposed  labour  seemed  to  require,  the  people 
finally  abandoned  the  idea  of  their  wonderful 
new  cathedral,  and  turned  to  beautifying  the 
older  building.  S.  Giovanni  was  presently 
completed  (1370) — its  fagade  from  a  design  by 
Mino  di  Pellicciaio.  Within  the  next  ten  years 
the  Duomo  itself  was  lengthened  toward  the 
Hospital  and  much  of  the  sculptural  work  of 
the  present  fagade  was  then  carved  and  put  into 
place (^).  The  handsome  Romanesque  Campanile 
had  already  been  built  during  the  first  half  of 
the  century.  Compared  with  its  splendid  rival, 
the  fapade  of  Orvieto  Cathedral,  that  of  vSiena's 
Duomo  falls  in  many  ways  behind,  especially 
in  architectonic  feeling.  The  three  portals  of 
equal  size  and  height,  and  the  absence  of  any 
accentuating  perpendicular  or  horizontal  lines, 
emphasize  this  fact.  In  a  word,  the  Siena  facade 
lacks  the  unity  of  conception  and  the  harmony 

(ij  The  tradition,  still  generally  accepted,  that  the  present  fa9ade  Wcis 
the  work  of  Giovanni  Pisano  and  his  followers,  was  first  attacked  bj^  Nardini- 
Despotti.  Further  proof  that  it  was  posterior  to  1370  was  given  b}-  Lisixi. 
^Irs.  RiCHTER  also  combats  the  tradition  in  her  Siena,  and  lastlj-  Prof.  Lang- 
ton  Douglas,  in  his  new  History  of  Siena, .  which  has  reached  us  while  the 
present  Guide  was  going  to  the  press,  gives  a  length)'  and  detailed  exposi- 
tion of  the  truth.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  contemporary  and  future  writers 
on  the  architecture  of  Siena  will  at  last  be  persuaded  to  take  some  heed 
of  what  has  been  written  on  this  important  subject. 

of  style  which  is  found  at  Orvieto — this  being 
of  course  in  great  part  due  to  the  fact  that  its 
construction  has  been  spread  over  many  cent- 
uries. The  lavish  use  of  ornament,  also,  is  not 
so  well  applied  as  at  Orvieto,  and  its  detail  is 
not  only  overburdened  but  frequently  out  of 
scale.  Yet,  w4th  all  that  can  be  said  against  it, 
the  impression  of  the  present  facade  is  one  of 
a  certain  opulent  magnificence  (^).  Of  the  sculpt- 
ures which  at  present  adorn  it,  those  about 
the  great  central  window,  together  with  a  few 
of  the  remaining*  figures  and  certain  other  de- 
tails, are  modern  reproductions,  the  orig-inals 
having  been  transferred  to  the  Opera  del  Duomo. 
The  full-length  statues  in  the  different  tiers  to 
either  side,  and  the  fig'ures  on  the  pinnacles,  are, 
in  almost  every  case,  genuine  works  of  the  end 
of  the  Trecento  and  the  earlier  years  of  the  cent- 
ury following,  by  Sienese  sculptors  who  still 
distinctly  show  a  direct  descent  from  the  Pisani. 
Among  these  statues  some  are  of  no  small  merit ; 
that  of  the  prophetess  in  the  first  tier  above  the 
portal  to  the  left,  and  a  somewhat  similar  female 
figure  on  the  southern  corner  of  the  facade,  are 
especially  noticeable  for  their  dignity  and  g-race, 
forcibly  reminding  us  as  they  do  of  the  Gothic 

(*)  If  possible,  visitors  should  see  the  Cathedral  by  moonlight,  when 
disagreeable  details  are  unapparent  and  the  great  mass  of  black  and  white 
marble  becomes  a  gleaming  vision. 

—  233  — 
sculpture  of  the  North.  The  relief  over  the  cen- 
tral portal,  representing  scenes  from  the  life  of 
the  Virgin,  is  of  a  far  earlier  date,  and  may 
possibly  have  once  formed  a  part  of  the  original 
facade.  Certain  it  is,  whether  this  be  the  case 
or  not,  that  this  much  damaged  piece  of  carving 
dates,  at  the  very  latest,  from  the  commence- 
ment of  the  14th  century,  and  is  the  work  of  a 
direct  follower  of  the  Pisani.  The  unfinished 
appearance  of  this  central  portal  is  a  sufficient 
proof,  to  those  who  will  use  their  eyes,  that 
this  relief  was  not  intended  for  its  present  posi- 
tion. The  fine  carved  columns  of  this  central 
doorway  date,  again,  from  the  end  of  the  14th 
century,  or  the  early  years  of  that  following". 
The  half-figures  of  saints,  and  the  surrounding 
ornament  in  the  lunettes  of  the  side  portals,  are 
works  of  the  full  Renaissance,  by  a  sculptor  of 
the  15th  century  who  nearly  approaches  Urbano 
da  Cortona  in  style.  The  three  busts  (^)  in  the 
triangular  spaces  above  the  three  portals  are  of 
a  still  later  date,  having  been  excuted  by  Tom- 
maso  Redi.  The  effect  of  the  fagade  as  a  whole, 
as  is  also  the  case  at  Orvieto,  is  greatly  marred 
by  the  inharmonious  modern  mosaics. 

The  interior  of  the  Cathedral  is  at  once  im- 
pressive and  unusual.     The  continued  additions 

(')   B.  Ambrogio  Sansedoni,  B.  Giovanni  Colorabini  and  B.  Andrea 

—  -234  — 
of  succeeding  centuries  have  not  gone  to  in- 
crease an  effect  of  unity,  in  its  decorative  feat- 
ures at  least,  althoug'h  when  seen  under  any  other 
condition  save  that  of  glaring  sunlight,  there  is 
a  certain  harmony  in  the  whole.  The  use  of  al- 
ternate bands  of  black  and  white  marble  may 
strike  the  visitor  as  a  particularly  disag'reeable 
feature,  but  after  the  first  impression  of  a  striped 
surface  has  worn  off,  the  sensation  is  rather  pleas- 
ing than  otherwise.  The  interior  as  a  whole, 
with  its  many  Romanesque  details — the  heavy 
piers,  the  arcades  within  and  without  the  dome, 
the  carving*  of  the  capitals,  the  predominating 
horizontal  lines,  etc. — is  but  slig'htly  Gothic  in 
feeling,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  ground 
plan  of  the  church  is  doubtless  to  a  great  extent 
inspired  by  that  of  San  Galgano.  Moreover,  the 
sensation  of  spaciousness  here  present  is  es- 
sentially a  Romanesque  feature,  seldom  to  be 
found  among  the  soaring  Gothic  churches  of  the 
North  (i).  The  fittings  and  decoration  of  the 
interior  are  almost  entirely  of  Renaissance  work- 
manship, and  only  serve  to  add  to  the  irregular 
effect  of  the  whole.  A  characteristic  and  pro- 
nounced feature  of  this  period  is  the  row  of 
terra-cotta  busts  of  the  Popes  which  form  the 
supports  of  the  corbel  table  dividing  the  nave 
from  the  clerestory.      Commencing  with  that  of 

(')  See  p.  158  siipt 

—    235   — 

Christ,  above  the  centre  of  the  apse,  and  continu- 
ing, to  His  left,  with  St.  Peter,  they  form  a  con- 
tinuous and  chronological  line  around  the  church, 
and  end  with  Lucius  III,  the  successor  to  the 
famous  Sienese  Alexander  III  (Bandinelli).  Be- 
low them,  in  the  spandrels  of  the  arches,  are 
similar  busts  of  Roman  Emperors.  Xeedless  to 
say,  few  if  any  of  these  heads  make  any  attempt 
at  authentic  portraiture;  they  are  individualized, 
however,  to  a  remarkable  extent. 

On  the  inner  side  of  the  main  portal,  at  its 
base,  are  some  low  reliefs  representing  scenes 
from  the  life  of  the  Virg-in,  by  Urbano  da  Cor- 
tona.  Above  them,  on  the  R,  is  cut  the  date 
1483,  probably  that  of  the  two  heavily  carved 
columns  which  support  the  tribune.  Along  the 
base  of  the  tribune  itself  are  reliefs  of  the  late 
Quattrocento,  representing  scenes  from  the  life  of 
vSant'  Ansano.  The  holy-water  basins,  on  either 
side  of  the  nave,  are  very  beautiful  works  by 
Federighi.  The  base  of  that  to  the  R,  the  finer 
of  the  two,  has  long*  been  erroneously  considered 
a  Roman  antique.  The  large  window  in  the 
fagade,  representing  the  Last  Supper,  was  exe- 
cuted in  1549  by  Pastorino,  from  a  design  by 
Pierino  del  Vaga.  Near  the  side  portals  are 
statues  of  two  Sienese  popes  (^),  Paul  II  (Camillo 
Borghesi),  1605-162 1,  and  Marcellus  II  (Alarcello 
Cervini),   1555. 

(1)  Interesting  from  an  historical  standpoint  only. 

In  the  R  aisle,  next  to  the  entrance  beneath 
the  Campanile,  is  the  tomb  of  Bishop  Tommaso 
Piccolomini,  who  died  in  1483,  a  refined  work 
by  Neroccio,  worthy  of  the  closest  study.  Be- 
low it  are  more  bas-reliefs  by  Urbano  da  Cor- 
tona,  representing  scenes  from  the  life  of  the 
Virgin,  several  of  them  being  very  charming  in 
detail.  The  addition  of  the  adjoining  Cappella 
del  Voto,  in  1661,  necessitated  the  blocking  up 
of  the  famous  Porta  del  Perdono,  remains  of 
which  can  still  be  traced  on  the  outside  of  the 
church.  The  chapel  was  built  to  enshrine  the 
still  miraculous  (^)  "  Madonna  del  Voto  ",  also 
known  as  the  "  Madonna  degli  Occhi  Grossi  " 
— the  picture  before  which  Siena  begged  for 
divine  intervention  when  sorely  oppressed  by 
the  foe.  This  "  Madonna  ",  an  Italo-Byzantine 
picture,  is  seldom  exposed  to  the  public  view 
save  on  the  occasion  of  some  great  festa  ("-). 
The  highly  emotional  statues  of  St.  Jerome  and 
of  the  Magdalen   are   characteristic   productions 

(1)  See  Heywood's  A  Pictorial  chronicle  of  Siena,    page  64. 

(*)  On  five  different  occasions,  with  solemn  pomp  and  great  humilitj-. 
did  the  Sienese  place  before  this  picture  the  keys  of  their  threatened  citj', 
thus  throwing  themselves  upon  the  special  mercy  of  their  Divine  Protectress 
— once  before  the  never-to-be-forgotten  \-ictorj'  of  Montaperti  in  1260  ;  again, 
in  1483,  when  the  Signoria  was  terrified  by  the  threatening  attitude  of  po- 
litical exiles  ;  in  1526,  before  the  Battle  of  Camollia  ;  in  1550,  while  the 
Spaniards  were  constructing  their  fortress  ;  and  still  again  in  1555,  during 
the  doughty  little  Republic's  death  struggle  with  her  foes.  For  interesting 
accounts  of  these  ceremonies  of  dedication,  see  ^Mr.  Heywood's  Our  Lady 
of  Augjist  and  the  Falio  of  Siena,   chapter  I. 

—   237   — 

of  Bernini,  remarkable,  as  is  all  that  master's 
work,  for  the  soft  modelling  of  the  flesh. 

In  the  right  transept  are  monuments  of  two 
other  Sienese  popes — Alexander  III,  and  Alex- 
ander VII  (Fabio  Chigi),  who  built  the  Cappella 
del  Voto.  There  is  also  a  graffito  tomb  (re- 
stored) of  some  slight  artistic  interest,  designed 
by  Pietro  del  Minella,  in  1444,  who  was  assisted 
in  his  work  by  Giuliano  da  Como  and  Federighi. 
In  the  Cappella  del  Sagramento  (corner  of  tran- 
sept) are  reliefs  (1423)  of  the  four  Evangelists 
and  of  St.  Paul,  by  Giovanni  da  Imola  and  Gio- 
vanni Turini. 

The  present  high-altar  replaces  an  older  one 
which,  until  early  in  the  i6th  century,  stood 
beneath  the  cupola  (^)  and  was  glorified  by  Duc- 
cio's  great  "  Majestas  ",  now  in  the  Opera  del 
Duomo.  The  design  for  the  new  altar  is  said  to 
have  been  made  by  Peruzzi.  This  may  originally 
have  been,  but  the  work  now  shows  constructive 
faults,  and  defects  in  proportion,  of  which  that 
master  could  never  have  been  guilty.  Upon  the 
altar  rests  the  magnificent  bronze  tabernacle  by 
Vecchietta.  On  either  side  of  it  are  Giovanni 
di  Stefano's  light-bearing  angels,  below  which 
stand  the  even  more  beautiful    statues  of  Fran- 

(')  The  monochrome  irescoes  of  Saints  which  adorn  the  base  of  the 
cupola  are  the  work  of  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli,  and 
possibly  other  masters  of  the  end  of  the  15th  century. 

-   238  - 

cesco  di  Giorgio,  worthy  in  every  way  of  Va- 
sari's  enthusiastic  praise.  The  small  lateral  half- 
figures  are  also  by  Francesco  (^).  Against  the 
columns  to  either  side  are  specimens  of  Becca- 
fumi's  work  in  bronze,  the  consols  supporting 
the  figures  being  from  the  design  of  Giacomo 
Cozzarelli.  The  six  angels  on  the  columns  lead- 
ing toward  the  nave  are  also  by  Beccafumi. 

The  richly  carved  seat  at  the  R  of  the  altar, 
and  a  large  part  of  the  choir-stalls,  together  with 
the  reading-desk,  were  designed,  and  in  great  part 
executed,  by  Bartolommeo  Neroni,  called  II  Ric- 
cio.  Despite  the  germs  of  Baroque  which  these 
works  (begun  in  1567)  contain,  they  are  temper- 
ate and  splendid  examples  of  Cinqiiecento  carv- 
ing— magnificent  in  colour.  The  choir-stalls  of 
intarsia  were  made  by  Fra  Giovanni  da  Verona, 
in  1503,  for  the  monastery  of  Monte  Oliveto. 
They  are  surmounted  by  interesting  little  painted 
wooden  figures  of  Prophets  and  Saints — all  that 
remains  of  the  older  choir — -dating  from  the  last 
years  of  the  14th  century.  The  frescoes  in  the 
apse  were    once    by  Beccafumi,  but   have  been 

(1)  It  is  hardly  necessary  to  dilate  upon  the  artistic  merits  of  this 
superb  group  of  master-pieces  in  bronze,  and  it  is  as  well  to  leave  the  vis- 
itor to  his  or  her  own  appreciation  of  their  manifold  and  varied  beauties. 
Even  in  the  later  and  in  many  ways  inferior  work  of  Beccafumi,  who  was 
pre-eminently  a  painter,  we  find  the  same  astonishing  and  facile  mastery  in 
the  handling  of  bronze  which  seems  to  have  been  inborn  in  the  Sienese, 
and  which  made  of  the  Turini,  of  Vecchietta,  of  Francesco  di  Giorgio  and 
Giovanni  di  Stefano.  such  consummate  masters  of  that  art. 

Lombardi  photo. 

The  Pulpit  of   the  Duomo 

ruined  by  restoration.  The  organ  and  cantoria 
above  the  sacristy  door  were  designed  by  the 
Barili  in  151 1.  The  large  circular  window  above 
the  choir  was  executed  by  Giacomo  di  Castello 
in  1369,  although  in  style  appearing  to  be  of  an 
earlier  period.  Pleasing'  in  colour,  it  is,  owing 
to  its  peculiar  division  into  squares,  too  unsym- 
metrical  to  be  effective  as  a  whole.  In  the  en- 
trance to  the  sacristy  is  a  fine  little  holy-water 
stoop  by  Giovanni  Turini.  The  chapels  of  the 
sacristy  itself  contain  fragmentary  remnants  of 
14th  century  frescoes.  An  old  wooden  Crucifix 
hangs  above  the  entrance  door  In  the  Chapter- 
house beyond  are  two  interesting  panels  by  Sano, 
one  representing  S.  Bernardino  preaching  from 
an  extemporized  pulpit  before  the  Palazzo  Pub- 
blico,  the  fagade  of  which  is  here  seen  in  its 
original  condition  ;  the  other  a  similar  scene 
taking  place  in  front  of  S.  Francesco.  The  fine 
large  panel  of  S.  Bernardino  is  also  by  Sano. 
The  only  other  picture  of  interest  in  this  room 
is   a  Madonna  by  Pacchiarotto. 

Of  all  the  objects  of  artistic  interest  in  the 
Cathedral,  the  great  marble  pulpit  of  Niccolo 
Pisano  (i)  (begun  1266)  is  undoubtedly  the  most 
celebrated.  In  more  ways  than  one  this  work 
is  rightly  to  be  considered  as  the  first  important 

(1)  Niccolo  was  aided  in  this  work  by  his  son  Giovanni,  and  by  his 
pupil  Arnolfo  and  other  assistants. 

—     24U    — 

creation  of  Modern  Italian  art — as  distinguished 
from  that  of  classic  times,  and  of  the  earlier 
Middle-Ages.  Here,  for  the  first  time  in  Italy, 
the  spirit  of  what  is  known  as  Gothic  sculpture 
makes  itself  clearly  and  logically  felt,  and  Xic- 
colo  shows  himself  no  longer  a  limited  imitator 
of  late  Roman  models— as  in  his  earlier  pulpit 
at  Pisa — but  an  artist  thoroughly  alive  to  the 
possibilities  of  embodying  in  his  work  both  a 
freer  selection  of  natural  forms  and  a  truer 
expression  of  the  emotions  and  ideals  of  his 
own  age.  The  gap  which  separates  this  pulpit 
from  its  predecessor  is  one  which  separates  two 
different  epochs  in  Italian  art  ('). 

In  form  the  pulpit  is  octagonal,  and  is  sup- 
ported by  columns  which  rest  upon  the  backs 
of  lions  and  lionesses.  The  base  of  the  central 
supporting  column  is  encircled  by  allegorical 
figures.  Above  the  capitals,  beautifully  carved 
with  birds  and  foliage,  are  statues  of  the  Virtues. 
Above  these  again  are  figures  separating  the 
bas-reliefs.  Commencing  to  the  R  of  the  steps, 
they  represent:  a  Sybil,  Prophets,  the  Virgin  and 
Child — one  of  the  most  exquisite  works  of  its 
kind  and  strongly  reminiscent  of  the  Gothic 
sculpture  of  the  North — Angels,  the  Redeemer 
of  the  World,  and  symbols  of  the  Evangelists. 

(')  For  a  more  detailed  notice  of  this  change  in  Niccolo's  style,  see 
IMr.  Perkins'  Giotto,  Geo.  Bell  &  Sons,  London. 

—    241     — 

The  first  relief  represents  several  of  the  scenes 
connected  with  the  birth  of  Christ — the  Visitation, 
Birth  of  the  Baptist,  the  Nativity,  Adoration  of 
Shepherds.  The  second  represents  the  Adora- 
tion of  the  Magi.  Next  comes  the  Presentation 
in  the  Temple,  Joseph's  Dream  and  the  Flight 
into  Egypt.  Then  the  Massacre  of  Innocents, 
the  Crucifixion,  and,  last  of  all,  the  Final  Judg*- 
ment,  with  Christ  in  the  centre  dividing  the  saved 
from  the  lost.  The  inappropriate  but  handsome 
steps  leading*  to  the  pulpit  were  added  by  Ric- 
cio  toward  the  end  of  the   i6th  century. 

Opposite  the  pulpit  is  the  Cappella  di  S.  An- 
sano,  containing  the  simple  bronze  tomb  of 
Bishop  Pecci,  executed  by  Donatello  in  1426, 
and  some  crude  bas-reliefs  of  the  13th  century 
— Adoration  of  the  Magi  etc. — which  once  served 
as  an  altar  frontal  in  the  Pieve  del  Ponte  alio 
wSpino.  In  the  L  transept  is  a  sacred  wooden 
Crucifix  once  said  to  have  been  carried  by  the 
vSienese  at  Montaperti  (^).  It  is,  however,  a  work 
of  the  early  Oitatt7'ocento.  Here  are  also  statues 
of  Pius  II  and  Pius  III,  both  Piccolomini  popes. 
The  Cappella  di  S.  Giovanni,  next  to  the  tran- 
sept, contains  what  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  arms 
of  the  Baptist    himself,  presented    to    Siena  by 

(')  In  the  cathedral  are  two  authentic  relics  of  that  famous  battle — 
the  antenne  which  once  decorated  the  Sienese  carroccio,  now  standing  next 
the  first  piers  of  the  nave,  and  the  tomb-stones  of  Andrea  Beccarini  aud 
Giovanni  Ugurgieri  (in  the  pavement  close  to  the  main  portal  ,  two  of  the 
noblest  victims  of  Siena's  greatest  triumph. 

242     — 

Pius  II  in  1464.  The  architect  of  the  chapel 
was  Giovanni  di  Stefano  ;  the  external  sculpt- 
ures are  bv  ]\Iarrina,  the  pedestal  of  either 
column  being*  by  Federighi.  Within  the  chapeh 
above  Donatello's  superb  bronze  figure  of  the 
Baptist,  is  the  reliquary  containing  the  sacred 
arm.  On  either  side  are  statues  of  St.  Ansanus 
and  wSt.  Catherine  of  Alexandria.  The  one  is  the 
not  over  intellectual  but  dignified  and  pleasant 
work  of  Giovanni  di  Stefano  ;  the  other  is  by 
Neroccio — an  unfinished  statue  of  great  and  clas- 
sic beauty.  The  low  reliefs  on  the  Font  are 
fine  works  by  Federighi,  and  represent  the  Crea- 
tion of  Adam,  of  Eve,  Temptation  of  the  Serpent, 
Eve  tempting  Adam,  Denial  of  their  vSin,  Ex- 
pulsion from  Paradise,  and  two  scenes  of  the 
labours  of  Hercules,  alludinar  to  the  strenuous- 
ness  of  Christian  life.  Below  these  reliefs  is  an 
allegorical  and  decorative  frieze,  some  of  the 
groups  of  which  possess  great  charm.  All  of  the 
frescoes  of  the  chapel  were  originally  by  Pinto- 
ricchio  and  his  pupils.  Three  of  these  have  been 
replaced  by  later  works  of  no  artistic  value. 
Those  by  the  master  himself  represent  Alberto 
Aringhieri  (the  donor  of  the  frescoes)  as  a  ^^oung 
knight  keeping  his  vigil,  and,  on  the  other  side 
of  the  entrance,  the  same  at  middle-age  dressed 
as  a  knight  of  Rhodes — this  latter  an  authentic 
portrait.  The  fresco  of  the  Birth  of  the  Baptist, 
opposite,  is  also  by  Pintoricchio.  There  is  a 
great    difference,  both  in  colour  and    spirit,  be- 

—    243    — 

tween  these  works  and  the  two  frescoes  above 
the  entrance — representing  the  Baptist  alone,  and 
preaching,  in  the  Wilderness — early  works  of 
Peruzzi  while  still  strongly  under  the  influence 
of  Pintoricchio.  Outside  the  chapel,  high  up  to 
the  R,  is  the  Gothic  tomb  of  Cardinal  Petroni 
(died  13 1 3)  probably  by  Gano,  the  pupil  of  Tino 
di  Camaino. 

The  fourth  altar  in  the  L  aisle  belong's  the 
famous  Piccolomini  family.  It  was  commis- 
sioned by  Cardinal  Francesco  di  Nanni  Tode- 
schini,  a  nephew  of  Pius  II,  some  years  previous 
to  his  own  unexpected  election  to  the  papal 
chair,  and  was  originally  intended  to  serve  as 
his  tomb.  A  great  part  of  the  architectural 
framework  was  executed  by  Andrea  Bregno 
(1481-85).  Of  the  statues  which  adorn  it,  four 
(those  of  SS.  Peter,  Paul,  Pius  and  Gregory)  are 
generally  attributed,  on  the  strength  of  docu- 
ments, to  Michelangelo  Buonarroti,  who  is  said 
also  to  have  finished  the  statue  of  St.  Francis 
begun  by  Torrigiani.  Despite  the  documentary 
evidence,  I  cannot  bring  myself  to  believe  that 
Michelangelo  had  more  than  a  small  share  in  the 
direct  execution  of  these  works,  which,  though 
showing-  unmistakable  traces  of  his  manner,  were 
probably  in  great  part  cut  by  pupils  under  his 
supervision  (^).     Next    to  this  altar  is   the  small 

(*)   Above  the  altar  itself  is  a  verj-    charming  ^Madonna    of    the  late 
Trecento  (covered) . 

—    244   — 
figure    of    a  Risen  Christ,   with    two   Angels,  a 
work    far    too    w^eak    to    be    from    the    hand    of 
^lichelangelo,  to  whom  it,  also,  is  ascribed. 

The  famous  adjoining  Libreria  was  built  by 
the  above-mentioned  Cardinal  Francesco  to  con- 
tain the  valuable  library  bequeathed  to  him  by 
his  uncle  Pius  II,  and  to  honour  the  memory 
of  that  great  pope.  Above  the  entrance,  in  the 
L  aisle,  is  a  fresco  of  the  Coronation  of  Pius  III, 
painted  after  that  prelate's  death  by  Pintoricchio. 
It  contains  many  interesting  details  as  to  types, 
and  is  more  pleasing  and  subdued  in  colour  than 
the  frescoes  of  the  interior.  The  figure  of  the 
Pope  himself  is  executed  in  partial  relief.  The 
marble  work  about  the  door  is  by  ]\Iarrina.  The 
altar  to  the  R,  with  the  seated  figure  of  St.  John 
is  by  some  Sienese  follower  of  Donatello.  The 
splendid  bronze  doors  (opened  by  custodian;  fee) 
are  by  Antoniolo  Ormanni  (1497).  The  walls 
of  the  interior  are  covered  with  frescoes,  executed 
by  Pintoricchio  and  his  pupils  (i 503-1 508),  rep- 
resenting various  events  in  the  life  of  Pius  11. 
Despite  all  local  protests  to  the  contrary,  these 
frescoes  have  undergone  thorough  and  energetic 
cleanings,  nor  are  they  entirely  free  from  a  con- 
siderable amount  of  restoration.  Nevertheless, 
their  present  fine  condition  is  in  great  part  due 
to  the  excessive  care  bestoAved  upon  them,  and 
to  favourable  atmospheric  conditions  (').       Com- 

(';  The  comparison  between  these  well-groomed  paintings,  and  their 
equally  important  companion  outside  the  door,  is  interesting. 

—    ^45    — 

mencing  at  the  spectator's  R,  as  he  faces  the 
windows,  the  subjects  are  as  follows  :  i.  Enea 
Silvio  (Piccolomini)  starting  with  Cardinal  Ca- 
pranica  for  the  Council  of  Basle.  2.  He  is  at 
the  court  of  James  I  of  vScotland  as  ambassador 
of  the  Cardinal  of  vSta.  Croce  (1435).  3.  He  is 
crowned  poet-laureate  by  the  Emperor  Fred- 
erick III  (1442).  4.  He  is  before  Pope  Euge- 
nius  IV  as  the  envoy  of  the  Emperor.  5.  Hav- 
ing abandoned  a  worldly  life  for  the  Church, 
we  see  him  as  Bishop  of  Siena  present  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Emperor  and  his  betrothed  Eleo- 
nora  of  Portugal  outside  the  Porta  Camollia 
(1452).  6.  He  is  made  Cardinal  by  Calixtus  III 
(1456).  7.  He  is  made  Pope  under  the  name  of 
Pius  II  (1458).  8.  He  holds  a  congress  at  Mantua 
to  promote  a  crusade  against  the  Turks.  9.  He 
canonizes  the  great  saint  of  his  native  town — 
Catherine  of  Siena.  10.  Although  in  a  dying 
condition  (^)  he  goes  to  Ancona  to  hasten  the 
crusade  (1464). 

Critically  speaking,  these  works  show  both 
the  limit  and  the  possibilities  of  Pintoricchio's 
later  style.  Their  colour  is  gaudy  and  over- 
laden (^),  the    fig'ures  are    painted  with    no  care 

1')  In  the  fresco,  Pius  II  is  being  carried  down  to  meet  the  Doge 
in  command  of  the  Venetian  fleet,  while  in  reality  the  Pope  was  dead  be- 
fore the  latter  arrived. 

{-)  This  may  in  part  be  due  to  a  clause  in  the  contract  for  the  work 
which  expressly  required  the  use  of  much  gold  and  many  varied  colours. 
See  Vasari,  Ed.  Sansoni,  vol.  Ill,  p.   519. 


—   246  • — 

for  structural  form,  the  compositions  are  usuall}^ 
poor  and  burdened  with  many  unnecessary  fig- 
ures. But,  on  the  other  hand,  the  spacious 
and  arch-framed  landscapes  produce  an  effect 
of  Umbrian  airiness  which  is  most  delightful. 
Many  charming  details,  also,  are  found  through- 
out the  frescoes,  and  some  of  the  heads  are 
authentic  portraits  of  various  historical  charac- 
ters. The  architectonic  arrang*ement  of  the 
whole — of  the  ten  pictures,  divided  by  pilasters 
worked  in  delicate  arabesques,  and  covered  by 
a  ceiling  of  the  most  refined  and  harmonious 
pattern  (^) — ^could  not  be  more  complete,  and 
w^hatever  may  be  urged  against  the  frescoes 
in  themselves,  the  Piccolomini  Library  remains 
one  of  the  gTeatest  decorative  triumphs  of  the 

In  the  windows  are  the  arms  of  the  Picco- 
lomini in  fine  old  painted  glass.  On  the  wooden 
shelves  carved  by  Antonio  Barili  are  the  famous 
choir-books,  beautiful  without  and  Avithin.  They 
are  filled  with  many  lovely  miniatures  by  various 
Sienese  artists — Sano,  Pellegrino  di  ]\Iariano, 
Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  Cozzarelli — and  by  two 
great  Northern  masters,  Liberale  da  Verona  and 
Girolamo  da  Cremona  (^).     The  marble  group  of 

(';  The  ceiling,  the  pilasters  with  the  charming  piitti,  and  the  shields 
and  angels  above  the  windows  were  executed  by  Balducci  and  other  assist- 
ants of  the  master. 

(*)  Permission  to  examine  those  of  the  illuminations  not  exposed,  is 
obtained  with  the  greatest  difficult}-  from  the  Rector  of  the  Opera  del  Duomo. 

—  247  — 
the  Three  Graces  is  a  Roman  work  brought  to 
vSiena  by  the  Cardinal  Francesco.  Over  the  door 
is  a  plaster  cast  of  a  work  of  the  school  of 
Jacopo  della  Querela,  often  quoted  as  an  original. 
The  execution  of  the  famous  pavement  of 
the  Duomo  represents  the  labour  of  many  cent- 
uries, commencing  as  it  did  directly  after  work 
on  the  original  church  had  been  resumed,  and 
continuing  to  the  present  day.  Constant,  ex- 
cessive, and  ofttimes  unnecessary,  restoration  has 
deprived  many  of  the  earlier  designs  of  much 
of  their  original  subtlety  and  refinement  of  line ; 
others  have  even  been  entirely  renewed  or  re- 
placed by  later  works  (^).  Following  the  an- 
nexed plan,  we  commence  with  the  R  aisle  (^) 

(1)  The  limits  of  this  Guide  prevent  me  from  entering  into  a  detailed 
discussion  of  this  unique  feature  of  Siena's  Duomo.  Except  in  one  or  two 
instances,  I  give  only  the  subject  of  the  work,  its  probable  designer — the 
execution  was  frequently  carried  out  by  another  artist — and  the  date.  I  can- 
not do  better  than  recommend  to  the  reader  Mr.  R.  H.  Hobart  Gust's 
little  book  on  The  Pavement  Masters  of  Siena,  which,  although  modestly 
disclaiming  all  critical  pretentions,  is  an  admirable  example  of  a  handbook, 
quite  indispensable  to  those  interested  in  the  history  of  the  pavement. 

(■i)  The  earliest  method  adopted  in  the  piecing  together  of  the  various 
figures  or  scenes  was  to  incise  the  necessary  lines  for  draper}',  face,  etc.,  in 
slabs  of  white  marble,  filling  in  the  cuts  with  black  cement.  Later,  an  at- 
tempt was  made  to  give  relief  to  the  figures  by  placing  them  on  a  dark 
background.  Still  later  again  it  was  thought  that,  to  depict  a  complicated 
subject,  the  simple  black  and  white  would  not  suffice,  and  coloured  marbles 
were  introduced  in  architectural  accessories,  or  occasionally  in  some  of  the 
garments.  The  next  and  least  successful  method  consisted  in  attempting  a 
would-be  realistic  effect  by  adopting  dark  marble  for  the  shadows  and  7'ice 
versa,  and  the  last  and  modern  method  consists  in  misapplying  the  beautiful 
material  by  using  it  as  one  would  a  piece  of  drawing-paper — scratching  lines 
on  it  for  effects  of  modelling  and  perspective. 




I   21 

24  22  23 











/  44 































16  14  15 

13    12 


—  249  — 
A.  I.  The  Delphic  Sybil,  1482.  2.  The  Cumean 
Sybil,  1482.  3.  The  Cuman  Sybil  (Giovanni  di 
Stefano),  1482.  4.  The  Erythrean  Sybil  (Federi- 
ghi),  1482.  5.  The  Persian  Sybil  (Urbano  da 
Cortona),  1482.  B.  6.  A  modern  reproduction  of 
the  Seven  Ag^es  of  Man,  executed  by  Federighi 
in  1475.  It  is  best  to  study  this  charming  work 
in  the  original  now  preserved  in  the  Opera  del 
Duomo.  7.  8.  9.  10.  Hope,  Faith,  Charity  and 
Religion;  modern  reproductions  of  works  orig- 
inally designed  in  1780.  li.  The  Sacrifice  of 
Jephthah  (Bastiano  di  Francesco),  1483.  12.  The 
Story  of  Absalom  (Pietro  del  Minella),  1447  — 
a  work  remarkable  for  its  decorative  quality. 
13.  The  Emperor  Sigismund  Enthroned  (Dome- 
nico  di  Bartoli),  1434 — a  most  interesting  work 
by  this  Sienese  exponent  of  the  Renaissance, 
well  composed,  and  noteworthy  for  its  architect- 
ural details.  14.  Samson  slaying  the  Philistines 
with  the  Jawbone  of  an  Ass  (Paolo  di  Martino?), 
1426.  15.  Judas  Maccabaeus  (Domenico  di  Nic- 
colo),  1424.  16.  Moses  (Paolo  di  Martino),  1426. 
C.  17.  IB.  Temperance  and  Prudence,  1380? 
19.  20.  Christian  Piety  and  Justice,  1406?  21.  For- 
titude, executed  in  1406  by  Marchesse  d'Adamo 
and  his  companions  the  Comacene  workmen. 
Despite  all  restoration,  these  five  figures  are 
among  the  noblest  of  the  pavement.  D.  22.  Joshua 
and  the  king  of  the  Ammonites  (Paolo  di  Mar- 
tino ?),     1426.     23.    Joshua,    1426.     24.    Solomon, 

—   250   — 

1447  •■'  25.  The  Relief  of  Bethulia  (authorship  un- 
certain— Francesco  di  Giorgio? — much  restored), 
1473  ? — interesting  for  its  architecture  as  well 
as  for  its  figures.  26.  The  Massacre  of  the  In- 
nocents (Matteo  di  Giovanni),  i48i^on  the  whole 
the  most  successful  representation  of  movement 
which  Matteo  has  left  us ;  even  more  interesting 
than  the  main  picture,  in  this  respect,  is  the 
pseudo-classic  frieze  (^).  27.  The  Expulsion  of 
Herod  (Benvenuto  di  Giovanni),  1485 — a  splendid 
and  spirited  composition.  E.  28.  The  Albunean 
or  Tiburtine  Sybil  (Benvenuto  di  Giovanni),  1483. 

29.  The  Samian  Sybil  (Matteo  di  Giovanni),  1483. 

30.  The  Phrygian  Sybil,  1483?  31.  The  Helles- 
pontine  Sybil  (Xeroccio),  1483.  32.  The  Lybian 
Sybil  (Guidoccio  Cozzarelli),  1483.  F.  33.  Hermes 
Trismegistus  (authorship  doubtful),  1488?  34.  Em- 
blems of  Siena  and  her  allies  (a  modern  copy 
of  the  only  real  mosaic  pavement  in  the  Duomo), 
1373.  35.  A  AVheel  with  the  Imperial  Eagle  in 
the  Centre,  1373?  36.  An  Allegory  of  Fortune 
(Pintoricchio),  1504.  37.  The  AVheel  of  Fortune 
(modern  copy),  1372.  C.  The  scenes  beneath  the 
cupola  represent  the  Story  of  Elijah.  41.  Elijah's 
vSacrifice,  42.  The  Compact  of  Elijah  and  Ahab, 
43.  The  Slaughter  of  the  Prophets  of  Baal,  44. 

(')  This  subject  seems  to  have  been  a  favourite  one  with  the  master. 
Xo  less  than  three  examples  of  its  treatment  are  in  Siena,  a  fourth  is  in  the 
Gallery  at  Xaples,  and  a  fifth  is  in  Aix-en-Provence. 

—     2  SI 


Ahab's  Sacrifice,  45.  Elijah  sends  Obadiah  for 
Ahab,  46.  The  Meeting  of  Ahab  and  Elijah- 
all  works  designed  by  Beccafumi,  1518-1531. 
47.  Elijah  fed  by  the  Ravens,  48.  Elijah  anoints 
Jehu,  49.  Elijah  asks  bread  of  the  Widow,  50. 
Elijah  raising  the  AVidow's  Son — free  modern 
copies  by  Franchi  of  older  works  probably  de- 
signed by  Sozzini  or  Beccafumi.  39.  Elijah  pre- 
dicts Ahab's  Death,  38.  Elijah  carried  to  Heaven, 
40.  Ahab  mortally  wounded — original  composi- 
tions by  Eranchi  which  replace  older  works  now 
in  the  Opera  del  Duomo  (').  H.  51.  Moses  strik- 
ing the  Rock  (Beccafumi),  1525.  52.  Moses  receiv- 
ing- the  Tables  of  the  Law  on  Mount  Sinai,  with 
five  other  scenes  relating  to  the  same  (Becca- 
fumi), 1 53 1.  53.  King  David,  54.  Goliath,  55.  The 
young  David — all  three  designed  by  Domenico 
di  Xiccolo  in  1423.  1.  56.  The  story  of  Abraham's 
Sacrifice  and  fourteen  other  smaller  scenes  from 
Old  Testament  history  (Beccafumi),  1544-46. 
Outside  the  main  entrances,  57.  The  Publican 
and  the  vSinner,  1448.  58.  A  Jar  labelled  Fel 
(Gall),  1448.  59.  A  Jar  labelled  J/^'/ (Honey),  1448. 
In  the  spaces  in  the  three  doorways  are  scenes 
representing-  the  "  Ceremonies  of  Ordination  " 
(Nastagio  di  Guasparre),   1450. 

(1)  The  subjects  of  the  earlier  works  were:  38.  The  Parable  of  the 
^Slote  and  the  Beam,  1374-75.  39.  A  ilan  giving  alms  to  a  Woman  (Dome- 
nico di  Xiccolo  :-),    1433?   40.   Two  Blind  ^len    (Federighi),    1459. 

Over  the  southern  entrance  to  the  Duomo 
is  a  fine  relief  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  by  a  pupil 
of  Donatello,  often  attributed  to  that  master 
himself.  The  buttresses  of  the  main  and  clere- 
story walls  are  crowned,  on  the  south  side,  with 
a  number  of  statues  which  once  stood  against 
the  pillars  of  the  nave.  With  the  exception  of 
the  upper  one  to  the  R,  which  is  of  the  school 
of  Federighi,  they  are  all  works  of  the  end  of 
the   14th,  or  beginning  of  the   15th,  century. 

When  Lando  di  Pietro's  plans  for  the  new 
Duomo  were  abandoned,  a  part  of  the  structure 
which  had  been  already  begun  remained  stand- 
ing, and  constitutes  to-day  the  mass  of  unfinished 
work  stretching  away  to  the  R  of  the  church. 
What  would  have  been  the  facade  of  this  vast 
edifice  faces  toward  the  Via  di  Citta.  The  two 
central  round-arched  windows  with  their  Renais- 
sance adornments  seem  to  indicate  that  work  on 
it  was  recommenced,  for  a  time  at  least,  during 
the  15th  century  (1).  Part  of  this  structure  has 
been  converted  into  the  Cathedral  Museum — the 
Opera  del  Duomo,  and  contains  many  objects  of 
the  greatest  artistic  interest.  (If  not  at  the  Opera, 
the  custodian  is  to  be  found  in  the  Duomo;  fee). 
Ground  Floor.  The  larg-e  hall  contains  many 
fragments  of  original  sculptures  once  on  the 
facade  of  the  Duomo,  together  Avith  remains  of 

(^)  See  Cicerone,  vol.  II,  p.  67. 

■      —    253   — 

other  beautiful  works  which  have  been  replaced 
by  modern  copies.  Among  the  more  interesting 
are  six  life-size  statues  from  the  faQade,  and,  to 
the  R  :  (2nd  bay)  fragments  of  the  only  portion 
of  the  Duomo  pavement  executed  in  mosaic, 
and  samples  of  marbles  which  are  found  in 
Sienese  territory ;  (3rd  bay)  a  ruined  stone  wolf ; 
(4th  bay)  reliefs  of  allegorical  figures,  originally 
a  part  of  the  balustrade  of  the  Cappella  della 
Piazza  ;  above  these,  a  vigorous  statue  of  Aloses, 
by  Federighi,  which  once  stood  on  the  fountain 
of  the  Jews  in  the  Ghetto  ;  a  fragment  of  a 
horse  ;  (6th  bay)  an  interesting  terra-cotta  bust 
of  an  old  man  ;  (7th  bay)  two  of  the  worn  and 
weather-stained  reliefs  from  Fonte  Gaia.  These 
reliefs,  tog'ether  with  others  of  the  six  remaining 
Virtues,  that  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  (on  the  L 
of  the  room),  those  representing  the  Creation  of 
Adam  and  the  Expulsion  from  Paradise,  and  the 
two  beautiful  statues  of  Charity,  once  formed 
part  of  Jacopo  della  Quercia's  famous  fountain 
in  the  Campo.  Although  many  are  but  mere 
fragments,  at  times  almost  undecipherable,  these 
fine  sculptures,  instinct  with  life  and  movement, 
still  show  in  every  line  the  hand  of  the  great 
master  (^) — particularly  in  such  a  relief  as  that 
of  the  Creation  of  Adam,  and  in  the  splendid 
figure  of  Charity  opposite.      At  the  end  of  the 

(')   See  pp.   169-170. 

—  ^54  — 
room  are  other  parts  of  the  Duomo  pavement 
— Federighi's  delightful  Seven  Ages  of  Man,  and 
the  design  of  a  Renaissance  candlestick  by  the 
same  master.  Against  the  wall  is  a  large  paint- 
ing of  the  Transfiguration,  once  an  organ-screen, 
by  Girolamo  Genga.  Returning,  the  following 
objects  on  the  R  are  noteworthy  :  an  interesting 
gargoyle  of  the  vSienese  wolf ;  (4th  bay)  two 
marble  panels  {98),  probably  by  Urbano  da  Cor- 
tona,  and  half  figures  from  the  Duomo  facade 
with  strongly  individualized  heads  ;  part  of  a 
marble  bull  ;  above  this  a  relief  of  the  Emblems 
of  the  Evangelists,  of  the  school  of  the  Pisani 
— once  used  face  downward  as  part  of  the  Cathe- 
dral pavement ;  (5th  bay)  Virgin  and  Child  with 
two  adoring  Angels;  other  parts  of  the  pavement; 
(6th  bay)  the  painted  Avooden  figure  of  a  Bishop, 
of  the  end  of  the  14th  century;  a  kneeling 
St.  John,  in  terra-cotta,  bv  Giacomo  Cozzarelli  ; 
(7th  bay)  the  side  of  a  Roman  sarcophagus;  and, 
to  the  R  and  L  of  the  entrance,  two  weather- 
beaten  wooden  doors,  formerly  in  the  Palazzo 

On  the  second  floor  is  a  large  room  filled 
with  modern  models  and  plans  connected  with 
the  Duomo  (^).      The  small  adjoining  room  con- 

(1)  The  accurate  coloured  drawing  of  the  entire  pavement  will  greatlj' 
assist  the  visitor  who  may  not  find  himself  in  Siena  during  the  month  of 
August,   when  only  the  pavement  is  entirely  uncovered. 

—  ^00  — 
tains  various  drawings,  the  more  interesting 
being  :  (20)  the  design  for  the  facade  of  S.  Gio- 
vanni, by  Mino  del  Pellicciaio  ;  (33)  a  drawing 
for  a  portico  which,  early  in  the  i6th  century, 
was  suggested  as  an  addition  to  the  Piazza  del 
Campo;  (34)  what  may  possibly  have  been  Giot- 
to's design  for  the  Campanile  of  the  Florentine 

Third  floor.  Ascending-  the  stairs,  we  notice 
the  carefully  carved  capitals  of  the  pillars  of 
the  New  Duomo.  At  the  last  landing  is  a 
small  predella  of  great  charm,  and  peculiarly 
fine  in  colour,  by  Matteo  di  Giovanni,  represent- 
ing the  Martyrdom  of  St.  John  ;  St.  Nicholas 
giving  purses  to  the  three  poor  maidens  ;  the 
Resurrection ;  Scene  from  the  life  of  St.  Gregory ; 
and  St.  Jerome  removing  the  thorn  from  the 
lion's  paw.  On  the  R  wall  of  the  Gallery  itself 
hang  the  dismembered  panels  of  Duccio's  world- 
famous  "  Majestas  ",  not  only  the  most  important 
work  in  the  annals  of  Sienese  painting,  but  one 
of  the  most  remarkable  in  the  history  of  Italian 
art  (^).      This  wonderful  altar-piece  has  been  so 

(')  When  finished  in  131 1,  the  picture  was  destined  to  stand  on  the 
high-altar  of  the  Duomo,  exposed  to  view  both  from  the  nave  and  from  the 
choir,  and  was  therefore  painted  on  either  side.  It  was  sawed  apart  in  later 
years  when  removed  from  its  original  position.  The  large  panel  of  the  Virgin 
and  Child  with  Angels  and  Saints  once  faced  the  nave ;  below  it  was  a  pre- 
della, and  above,  various  smaller  panels  refering  to  the  life  of  the  Virgin  — 
all  placed  in  a  Gothic  frame.  On  the  reverse  were  the  twenty-six  scenes 
connected  with  the  Passion  of  Christ,  and  above  and  below  this  other  small 
panels  depicting  scenes  from  His  life. 

-   256  - 

adequately  and  admirably  criticised  by  'Mr.  Ber- 
enson,  in  his  Central  Italian  Painters — which 
book  I  take  for  granted,  here  as  elsewhere,  to 
be  in  the  hands  of  every  serious  student  of 
Siena's  art— ;that  I  cannot  do  better  than  to  refer 
the  reader  to  his  pages  (^),  as  well  as  to  suggest 
repeated  visits  to  the  painting  itself,  which,  in 
all  its  glory  of  molten  gold  and  brilliant  colour, 
represents  the  very  apotheosis  of  Byzantine  art 
as  well  as  the  foundation  of  that  of  Siena.  In 
the  large  panel,  to  the  R,  the  Virgin  and  Child 
are  enthroned,  in  hieratic  splendour,  amidst  a 
glorious  company  of  Angels  and  of  Saints.  To 
her  R  are  SS.  John  the  Evangelist,  Paul  and 
Catherine,  to  her  L,  the  Baptist,  Peter  and  Agnes. 
In  the  foreground  kneel,  to  either  side,  the 
patron  saints  of  Siena,  Savinus  and  Ansanus, 
Crescentius  and  Victor.  Above,  half  figures  of 
the  Apostles  look  out  from  within  their  niches. 
Among  the  smaller  panels,  of  which  there  are 
forty-four  in  all,  mention  can  be  made  but  of  a 
few.  Particularly  noteworthy  among  those  sep- 
arately numbered  are  :  the  Presentation  in  the 
Temple;  the  Journey  into  Egypt;  the  Doubting 
Thomas ;  and,  on  what  was  once  the  back  of  the 
principal  panel;  the  Entry  into  Jerusalem;  Christ 
washing  the  Disciples'  Feet;  the  Betrayal;  Peter 
denying  Christ;   the   Crucifixion;    and  the    three 

(')  See  also  pp.   179-180  sup/a. 

^  0  / 

Marys  at  the  Tomb.  These  scenes  represent  a 
few  only  of  the  more  striking  of  these  superb 
compositions,  but,  indeed,  to  give  the  preference 
to  any  one  above  the  others  is  unfair  to  Duccio ; 
each  and  every  one  of  them  is  worthy  of  long 
and  careful  study  (^). 

Turning  to  other  pictures  in  the  room,  we 
find,  near  at  hand,  nine  panels  illustrative  of  the 
Creed,  by  Taddeo  Bartoli — careful  in  execution 
and  imaginative  in  quality.  Below  is  a  panel 
of  the  Crucifixion  by  the  same  master.  Xo.  59 
is  a  Madonna,  Child,  and  Saints,  by  the  favourite 
pupil  of  Taddeo,  ]\I."  Gregorio,  a  charming  re- 
tardaire.  Above,  a  large  panel  of  the  Virgin 
and  Child  with  Angels  and  SS.  Bernardino  and 
Anthony  is  somewhat  doubtfully  attributed  to 
Pietro  degli  Oriuoli,  a  painter  who  enjoyed  a 
considerable  reputation  during  the  latter  half  of 
the  15th  century.  Xo.  62,  St.  Francis  appearing 
to  St.  Anthony,  is,  curious  to  relate,  a  direct 
copy  of  Giotto's  frescoes  of  the  same  subject  at 
Assisi  and  at  Florence,  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo. 
The  Birth  of  the  Virgin  (63),  by  Pietro  Loren- 
zetti,  painted  in  1342,  although  much  damaged, 
is  beautiful  in  colour  and  composition,  and  is  a 

^})  Sufficient  blame  cannot  be  attached  to  the  present  authorities  of 
the  Opera  del  Duomo  for  allowing  the  discordant  modern  paintings  which 
hang  upon  the  wall  above  these  sacred  masterpieces,  to  remain  where  they 
now  are — an  offence  to  the  good  taste  of  the  visitor,  and  a  reproach  to  that 
of  the  Sienese  themselves. 

-  258  - 

fine  example  of  the  realistic  tendencies  of  that 
master.  Above  is  a  large  panel  of  the  Virgin 
and  Child  surrounded  by  dignified  Saints — a 
work  of  ^latteo,  to  which  once  belonged  the 
predella  now  in  the  entrance.  On  the  L  wall 
are  five  panels  relating  to  the  story  of  the  True 
Cross,  by  a  pupil  of  Pietro  Lorenzetti— generally 
attributed  to  the  master  himself.  On  the  reverse 
of  each  panel  are  pleasing  head  of  angels.  In 
the  centre  of  the  wall  are  four  damaged,  but 
very  fine,  panels  of  Saints — early  and  beautiful 
works  of  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  still  showing 
the  direct  influence  of  his  brother.  Above  are 
two  parts  of  a  predella  by  Taddeo.  On  the 
end  wall  is  a  characteristic  St.  Jerome  by  Gio- 
vanni di  Paolo.  The  St.  Paul  is  by  Beccafumi. 
In  this  room  are  also  several  embroidered  altar 
frontals,  that  placed  next  to  Duccio's  work  being 
perhaps  the  finest.  In  the  centre  of  the  adjoin- 
ing room  are  two  cases  containing  handsome 
vestments,  and  a  third  filled  with  various  objects 
of  interest — three  early  pastoral  staves  (^)  of 
ivory  (the  Annunciation  in  one  of  them  is  a 
Seicento  addition);  another  gilt  bronze  staff  with 
figures  in  niello  and  a  gilded  figure  of  S.  An- 
sano  ;  three  rings,  one  of  which  belonged  to 
Pius  II ;  and  fine  examples  of  early  niello  cutlery. 
Still  another    case    contains  :    a  beautiful   silver 

(')  One  of  these  belonged  to  the  Abbots  of  S.  Galgano. 

—   259   — 

gilt  relief  of  the  Trecento — Christ  in  a  mandorla 
of  cherubs  with  figures  of  the  Evangelists  and 
the  arms  of  Siena  in  niello;  an  Italo-Byzantine 
Crucifix  of  the  Dugento;  an  enamelled  figure  from 
a  Crucifix  of  the  same  period;  a  fine  enamelled 
plate;  two  chalices — one  worked  in  niello;  and 
a  handsome  helmet  of  the  Cinqtiecento.  The  door 
at  the  end  of  this  room  admits  the  visitor  to  the 
stairs  which  lead  to  the  top  of  the  unfinished 
fagade,  Avhence  a  magnificent  view  of  the  city 
and  the  surrounding  country  is  obtained. 

On  leaving-  the  Museum,  we  pass  to  the  R 
through  a  handsome  Gothic  portal  (with  a  sculpt- 
ured gToup  of  Christ  and  two  Angels)  which 
would  have  formed  a  side-entrance  to  the  New 
Duomo.  Before  descending  the  steps  to  S.  Gio- 
vanni, we  may  visit  the  church  of  Monagnese, 
at  the  entrance  to  the  Via  del  Poggio,  to  the 
R,  (custodian  at  the  Scuole  Regie  near  by  ; 
fee).  In  this  church  is  one  of  the  little-known 
treasures  of  Siena,  a  painted  wooden  statue  of 
St.  Nicholas  by  Neroccio — one  of  the  finest 
works  of  its  kind,  splendid  in  colour,  untouched 
by  restoration,  and  possessed  of  a  beauty  and 
dignity  quite  Neroccio's  own.  On  the  way  to 
S.  Giovanni,  we  notice,  on  the  R,  the  mass  of 
the  Palazzo  del  Magnifico,  built  for  Pandolfo  Pe- 
trucci  by  Giacomo  Cozzarelli.  Near  the  bottom 
of  the  marble  steps  are  seen,  embedded  in  its 
Avail,  remains  of  Roman  brick  work.     The  lower 

—   26o   — 

facade,  on  the  Via  dei  Pellegrini,  is  adorned 
with  Cozzarelli's  fine  bronze  torch-holders.  AVith- 
in  the  courtyard  are  still  to  be  seen  several  Re- 
naissance doors  and  windows.  The  edifice  has, 
however,  been  so  mutilated  that  but  a  poor  idea 
of  its  original  appearance  can  be  had.  In  the 
attic  of  one  of  the  upper  rooms  are  remnants 
of  ceiling  frescoes  by  Pintoricchio^medallions 
with  classic  subjects,  etc. — very  charniing,  but 
to  be  seen  only  with  difficulty.  The  Palazzo 
Bindi-Sergardi,  on  the  opposite  side  of  Via  dei 
Pellegrini,  contains  a  remarkable  ceiling  by 
Beccafumi,  far  surpassing  his  later  work  in  the 
Palazzo  Pubblico. 

As  has  already  been  stated,  the  construction 
of  S.  Giovanni,  which  replaced  an  earlier  Bap- 
tistery situated  on  the  Piazza  del  Duomo,  was 
commenced  early  in  the  14th  century.  Its  un- 
finished facade,  designed  by  Mino  del  Pellicciaio, 
with  its  simple  yet  effective  lines,  is  far  more 
pleasing  than  that  of  the  Cathedral  above.  Before 
the  three  doors  are  interesting  scenes  in  gy-affito 
of  the  Birth,  the  Baptism,  and  the  Confirmation, 
of  a  Child  (i  450-1 451),  the  middle  one  having 
been  designed  by  Federighi. 

The  interior  (^),  despite  modern  restorations, 
is  harmonious  in  effect,    the  chief    centre  of  at- 

^l)   A  word  of    praise    is    due  to  the  keepers  of    this  church  for  the 
care  taken  to  preserve  order  and  cleanliness  within  it. 

—    26l     — 

traction  being'  Jacopo  della  Quercia's  celebrated 
Baptismal  Font.  This  work,  although  designed 
by  the  master  himself,  was  in  great  part  executed 
by  his  pupils  (141 7-1432).  The  six  gilt  bronze 
reliefs  which  adorn  the  sides  are  the  work  of 
some  of  the  most  famous  sculptors  of  the  Quat- 
trocento. By  Jacopo  himself  is  the  relief  of  the 
Vision  of  Zacharias  (facing  the  apse) — a  vigorous 
work,  although  somewhat  poor  in  composition. 
The  figures  of  Justice  and  Prudence,  on  either 
side,  are  by  Giovanni  di  Turino.  The  next  relief, 
the  Birth  of  the  Baptist,  is  a  joint  production 
of  the  Turini  family,  and  the  figure  of  Fortitude 
is  by  Goro  di  Neroccio.  The  Preaching  of  the 
Baptist  is  another  creditable,  but  somewhat 
unequal,  work  of  the  Turini,  and  the  following 
figure  of  Charity  is  ag-ain  by  Giovanni.  The 
Baptism  of  Christ,  and  John  before  Herod,  are 
both  celebrated  works  of  the  Florentine  Lorenzo 
Ghiberti,  the  latter  being  one  of  the  most  dram- 
atic creations  which  we  have  from  that  mas- 
ter's hand.  Even  more  strikingly  dramatic  is 
Donatello's  Feast  of  Herod,  which  follows,  a 
very  naturalistic  work,  surpassing  all  the  preced- 
ing reliefs  in  energy  of  expression.  The  sculp- 
tor's treatment  of  the  architectural  background 
is  here  particularly  noticeable.  The  beautiful 
figures  of  Faith  and  Hope,  to  the  R  and  L,  are 
also  by  Donatello,  the  latter,  especially,  being  a 
most    exquisite    conception.         The    five    noble 

—    262    — - 

marble  bas-reliefs  of  Prophets  (^)  are  by  Jacopo 
della  Querela,  as  is  probably  the  statuette  of  the 
Baptist  which  surmounts  the  whole  Avork.  Three 
of  the  charming  bronze  piif^i  are  due  to  Dona- 
tello,  and  the  fourth  (probably  the  one  to  the 
extreme  L),  to  Giovanni  di  Turino,  by  whom  is 
also  the  Madonna  in  bronze  on  the  door  of  the 

The  greater  part  of  the  frescoes  on  the  walls 
and  vaulting  are  by  Vecchietta  and  his  assist- 
ants ( 1 450-1 453).  The  master's  hand  shows  it- 
self most  distinctly  in  those  of  the  Evangelists 
in  the  vaulting  next  the  entrance,  in  the  scenes 
illustrative  of  four  of  the  Articles  of  the  Creed  (-), 
above  the  Font,  and  in  the  finely  decorative 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  on  the  face  of  the 
great  arch.  ]\Iany  of  the  angels'  heads  in  this 
last  work  are  particularly  noticeable  for  their 
dignity  and  charm.  The  bays  to  the  R  and  L 
of  the  entrance  were  probably  painted  by  a  con- 
temporary of  Vecchietta,  in  whose  work  lingers 
more  markedly  the  influence  of  Taddeo  Bartoli. 
The  frescoes  to  the  R  of  the  Font  are  by  Vec- 
chietta and  his  pupils.       Those  to  the  L  show. 

(')  The  authorship  of  these  dignified  and  classic  figures  has  recently 
been  questioned,  but  a  comparison  of  them  with  the  reliefs  of  S.  Petronio 
at  Bologna  will  confirm  my  opinion  that  their  traditional  attribution  to 
Jacopo  himself  is  correct. 

(*)  On  the  arches  of  this  and  the  preceding  vault  are  various  al- 
legorical and  symbolic  figures  by  Vecchietta's  own  hand,  which  are  par- 
ticularly charming  in   feature  and  in  colour. 

-   263   - 

to  a  less  degree,  the  master's  hand,  but  are  cer- 
tainly by  a  follower  of  his  manner,  and  not  by 
the  Bolognese  Michele  Lambertini,  to  whom  they 
have  heretofore  been  ascribed  on  the  strength 
of  documentary  evidence.  The  paintings  on  the 
wall  to  the  L  of  the  apse,  representing  two 
miracles  of  St.  Anthony  of  Padua,  are  also  by 
Vecchietta,  who,  judging  by  their  style,  was 
here  probably  assisted  by  Benvenuto  di  Gio- 
vanni. The  architectural  backgrounds  in  these 
works  are  especially  interesting-.  The  corres- 
ponding fresco  on  the  R — Christ  in  the  House 
of  the  Pharisee — is  probably  by  the  little-known 
Pietro  degli  Oriuoli  (1489?).  In  the  apse  are  a 
Flagellation  and  a  Procession  to  Calvary,  by 
Vecchietta.  The  Annunciation  is  more  the  work 
of  a  pupil.  The  recess  between  the  Angel  and 
the  Virgin  is  decorated  with  busts  of  Saints  by 
Vecchietta  himself.  Above  are  three  scenes 
from  the  Passion,  the  Agony  in  the  Garden,  the 
Crucifixion  and  the  Entombment,  by  a  con- 
temporary of  Vecchietta,  generally  ascribed,  on 
documentary  grounds,  to  a  certain  Guasparre 
d'  Agostino,  a  painter  concerning  whom  little  or 
nothing  is  known.  The  small  and  almost  oblit- 
erated medallions  below  these  works  are  also 
worthy  of  attention.  The  greater  part  of  these 
frescoes  have  been  so  damaged  and  restored  that 
much  of  their  original  character  has  been  lost, 
and  it  is  not    always    easy    to   distinguish  Vec- 

-   264  - 

chietta's  own  handiwork  from  that  of  his  assist- 
ants. Nevertheless,  looked  at  in  detail,  they 
still  contain  much  to  reward  a  careful  examina- 

From  the  Piazza  di  S.  Giovanni,  the  Via 
Franciosa  leads  to  the  former  convent  of  the 
Gesuate,  now^  a  hospital  for  foundling's,  and 
to  the  small  church  of  S.  Sebastiano  in  Valle 
Piatta  (^),  erected  in  1507  (?)  by  Domenico  Ponsi. 
It  is  built  on  the  plan  of  a  Greek  cross  sur- 
mounted by  a  cupola,  and  for  elegance  and 
simplicity  of  proportions,  and  interior  space  ef- 
fects, ranks  among  the  best  Sienese  buildings 
of  the  Renaissance.  The  interior  decorations, 
by  various  Sienese  artists  of  the  Cinquecento,  are 
exceptionally  effective.  The  sacristy  contains  : 
a  Madonna  with  SS.  Jerome  and  John  the  Bap- 
tist, by  Matteo  di  Giovanni,  in  his  peculiar  grey 
manner  (much  damaged)  ;  a  smaller  Madonna 
between  SS.  James  and  Jerome,  by  Benvenuto 
di  Giovanni ;  and  a  sadly  repainted  picture  by 
Guidoccio  Cozzarelli.  From  the  Via  di  Valle 
Piatta,  a  steep  causeway,  the  Via  del  Costone, 
leads  down  the  hill  to  Fontebranda.  The  shrine 
half  w^ay  down  the  slope  commemorates  a  fam- 
ous vision  of  St.  Catherine.  The  view  of  the 
massive   apse   and   foundations   of  S.  Domenico 

(')  Generally  known  as  the  church  of   the    Innocenti,  and  now  used 
as  the  oratory  of  the  Contrada  della  Selva. 

-  265  - 
from  this  picturesque  point  is  a  fine  one.     The 
pleasant  Via  del  Fosso  di  S.  Ansano  (^)  leads  from 
the  church  of  S.  Scbastiano  to  the  Via  Baldas- 
sarre  Peruzzi,  past  the  back  of  the  Hospital. 

We  may  return  to  the  Piazza  del  Duomo 
by  the  steps  going  up  beneath  the  arch  opposite 
S.  Sebastiano.  To  the  L  is  the  Bishop's  Palace, 
rebuilt  in  the  Gothic  style  early  in  the  i8th 
century.  In  the  wall  to  the  R  of  the  entrance 
is  a  marble  slab  traditionally  pointed  out  as  the 
tomb-stone  of  Giovanni  Pisano  {'^).  The  entire 
south-west  side  of  the  Piazza  is  occupied  by  the 
Spedale  di  Sta.  Maria  della  Scala  (^).     The  former 

(1)  At  the  beginning  of  the  street  is  a  tablet  recording  the  tradition 
that  St.  Ansanus  was  here  boiled  in  pitch  and  oil  and  escaped  uninjured. 

(2)  This  stone  bears  the  following  inscription  :  Hoc  est  sepidcriim 
magistri  loannis  quondam  magistri  Nicolai  et  de  ejus  eredibus,  and  may 
originally  have  been  intended  to  mark  what  was  to  be  the  master's  last 
resting  place.  There  seems,  however,  little  doubt  that  he  was  actually 
buried  with  his  father  in  Pisa. 

(^)  The  legend  which  ascribed  the  foundation  of  this  famous  institu- 
tion to  the  Blessed  Sorore  has  been  set  aside  by  modern  authorities,  and 
it  is  now  generally  accepted  that  the  hospital  owed  its  origin  to  the  nth 
centur}-.  It  was  established  by  the  Canons  of  the  Duomo,  who  then  lived 
together  like  monks  and  were  obliged  to  devote  a  part  of  their  revenue  to 
the  assistance  of  the  poor.  In  time  the  governing  power  passed  from  their 
hands  into  those  of  the  laity. 

Like  the  Duomo  and  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  the  Spedale  can  boast  a 
long  history  of  its  own.  For  centuries  it  served  as  a  lodging  house  for 
pilgrims,  as  well  as  an  asylum  for  the  sick  and  the  poor.  The  names  of 
two  of  Siena's  greatest  saints  are  intimately  connected  with  its  history — 
St.  Catherine,  who  here  made  her  daily  and  nightly  rounds  among  the  ill 
and  dying,  and  S.  Bernardino,  who,  together  with  his  companions,  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  heroic  care  of  the  plague-stricken  during  the  ter- 
rible pestilence  of  1400.  Nor  were  these  the  only  heroes  that  the  Hospital 
has  known— many  another  lesser  saint  has  added  his  or  her  share  to  the 
record  of  self-sacrifice  and  devotion  which  makes  the  storj'  of  the  Spedale 
what  it  is. 

—   266  — 

Gothic  facade  has  undergone  many  changes,  and 
has  lost  a  masterpiece  which  once  adorned  it — 
a  large  fresco  by  the  Lorenzetti. 

Within  the  entrance,  at  the  L,  is  the  marble 
tomb  of  Jacopo  Tondi,  by  Giacomo  Cozzarelli. 
In  a  room  to  the  R  is  a  fresco  of  the  Vis- 
itation, by  Beccafumi.  Beyond,  is  the  great  hall 
known  as  the  Pellegrinaio,  decorated  with  famous 
frescoes  concerning  the  history  of  the  Hospital. 
That  over  the  door  on  the  R,  the  subject  of 
which  is  somewhat  doubtful,  is  by  Domenico  di 
Bartolo,  and  has  been  hitherto  unnoticed  by 
writers  on  Siena.  The  next  three  frescoes  are 
by  the  same  master,  and  represent  the  Mar- 
riage of  Foundlings;  the  Giving  of  Alms ;  the  Care 
of  the  Sick  and  Injured.  The  fresco  opposite 
this  last  is  again  by  Domenico  di  Bartolo,  and 
depicts  the  granting  by  Celestine  III  of  the  priv- 
ilege which  transferred  the  governing  power 
from  the  Canons  to  the  laity.  To  the  L  is  a 
work  chiefly  interesting  as  having  been  painted 
by  Priamo,  the  brother  of  Jacopo  della  Querela 
— the  entry  into  the  Hospital  and  the  taking 
of  the  robe  by  a  woman  about  to  enter  its  ser- 
vice. Then  another  fresco  by  Domenico  di  Bar- 
tolo represents  the  enlarging  of  the  Hospital 
with  alms  given  by  the  Bishop.  It  is  evident 
that,  throughout  these  paintings  (1440- 1443),  Do- 
menico was  attempting  what  was  beyond  his 
powers — a  realization  of  the  Renaissance  ideals 

—   267   — 

which,  in  Florence,  had  resulted  in  the  decora- 
tions of  the  Brancacci  Chapel.  But  although  he 
failed  in  the  greater  issues  of  his  art,  he  has 
given  us  a  picturesque  and  realistic  idea  of  the 
life  of  the  Hospital,  and  of  the  costumes  and 
manners  of  his  day.  As  a  portrait-painter,  also, 
he  is  not  incapable,  and  his  architectural  back- 
grounds show  a  keen  appreciation  of  Renais- 
sance detail.  Artistically  more  interesting  than 
any  of  its  companions  is  the  adjoining  fresco 
by  Vecchietta,  representing  the  dream  of  a  devout 
woman,  who  saw  a  ladder  reaching  down  from 
Heaven  and  little  children  passing  up  it — tradi- 
tionally the  reason  for  the  institution  of  the 
foundling  asylum  attached  to  the  Hospital. 

The  most  important  of  the  other  frescoes  in 
the  building  are  those  which  cover  the  walls  and 
ceilings  of  Avhat  is  now  the  Deposito  delle  Donne 
— early  works  of  Vecchietta,  painted  in  1448. 
Although  hopelessly  damaged,  several  scenes, 
such  as  the  Annunciation  and  Nativity  on  the  L 
wall,  and  the  Last  Judgment  on  the  R,  retain  much 
of  their  original  interest  and  charm.  At  the 
end  of  the  room,  below  the  tabernacle,  is  a  little- 
known  Virgin  of  Mercy  (covered) — ^once  an  im- 
portant work,  and  still  a  delightful  piece  of  colour 
— by  Domenico  di  Bartolo.  The  Infermeria  di 
S.  Pio  contains  a  monochrome  fresco,  the  Prayer 
of  the  Beato  Sorore,  also  by  Domenico ;  and  the 
Infermeria  di  S.  Calgano  a  Crucifixion  by  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli. 

—    268   — 

The  adjoining'  church  was  rebuilt  in  the 
15th  century.  Over  the  high-altar  is  a  bronze 
figure  of  the  Risen  Christ  by  Vecchietta,  pre- 
sented by  him  to  the  Hospital  in  1477.  Despite 
its  excessive  naturalism  and  study  of  detail,  this 
work  remains  one  of  the  superlative  achievements 
of  the  Renaissance  in  the  technical  handling  of 
bronze.  High  up  on  the  R  of  the  church  is  the 
splendid  organ  designed  by  Peruzzi  (^)  (covered). 
To  obtain  a  view  of  its  fine  detail,  one  must 
ascend  into  the  organ-loft  opposite.  The  small 
side  chapel  contains  a  good  iron  screen,  an  old 
Sienese  Crucifix,  and,  over  the  altar,  a  repainted 
Madonna  by  an  artist  of  the  late    Trecento. 

Below  the  Hospital  are  the  chapels  of  cer- 
tain Confraternities  (entrance  by  door  furthest 
to  L  ;  open  until  two  o'  clock).  In  that  of  the 
Compagnia  di  S.  Caterina  della  Notte  (custodian 
in  Via  dei  Pellegrini)  is  a  Virgin  and  Child 
with  Saints,  by  Taddeo  Bartoli.  In  the  cell 
adjacent  to  this  chapel,  St.  Catherine  was  wont 
to  pray  and  sometimes  to  rest  during  the  inter- 
vals of  caring  for  the  sick  in  the  Hospital.  Con- 
tinuing down  the  stairs,  we  pass  into  a  vestibule, 
to  the  R  of  w^hich,  in  a  room  of  the  Confrater- 

(')  "  The  design  is  one  which  deserves  most  minute  and  careful  stud}-. 
It  is  more  imaginative  and  capricious  than  anj-thing  else  he  produced,  and 
suggestions  of  previous  and  future  architectural  work  appear  in  many  of  its 
parts  ".  W.  J.  Anderson,  The  Architecture  of  the  Renaissance  in  Italy, 
p.   118. 


nita  della  Madonna,  is  a  small  collection  of  pict- 
ures, many  of  which  have  been  mercilessly 
restored  of  recent  years.  On  the  end  wall  is  a 
large  Madonna,  with  Saints  and  Angels,  by  a 
pupil  of  Pietro  I>orenzetti.  The  accompanying* 
figures  of  SS.  Peter  and  Paul  were  possibly 
once  by  the  same  hand.  Four  bier-heads,  rep- 
resenting the  Virgin  of  Mercy  and  the  Adora- 
tion of  the  Cross,  are  by  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli. 
The  central  Crucifixion  in  a  small  triptych  is  a 
genuine  work  of  Duccio,  as  are  also  the  sides 
of  a  similar  triptych,  above,  representing  the 
Flagellation  and  the  Entombment.  Still  another 
equally  repainted  triptych,  the  Virgin  Avith  the 
two  vSt.  Catherines  and  other  Saints,  is  by  Fungai. 
On  the  L  wall  is  a  Madonna  by  Sano,  the  Christ 
above  it  dating  from  the  end  of  the  T7'ece7ito. 
The  chief  treasure  of  the  collection  is  a  fine 
painting  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni  {1501),  rep- 
resenting vSt.  Catherine  bringing  Pope  Gregory 
back  from  Avignon — remarkable  alike  for  its 
fig'ures  and  its  landscape.  Near  by  is  a  taber- 
nacle in  niello  work.  To  the  L  is  a  gaily  coloured 
St.  Eustace,  by  a  pupil  of  Bartolo  di  Fredi.  A 
Holy  Family  by  Sodoma  contains  an  exception- 
ally dignified  Madonna  and  a  pleasant  landscape. 
The  Dead  Christ  beneath  is  perhaps  by  Ben- 
venuto. In  the  sacristy  of  the  Chapel  opposite 
(opened  by  custodian  ;  fee)  are  ruined  but  im- 
portant monochrome  frescoes  of  the  Last  Judg- 

ment,  by  an  unknown  follower  of  the  Loren- 
zetti  (^).  The  figure  of  Christ  is  scarcely  visible, 
but  the  groups  of  the  Dead  rising  from  out  their 
tombs  and  sweeping  through  the  air  toward  the 
Judgment  Seat,  are  still  left  to  us  as  truly 
wonderful  examples,  both  in  technique  and  con- 
ception, of  the  early  vSienese  school.  The  strik- 
ing fresco  of  the  Sybil  appearing  to  the  Em- 
peror Octavius  is  by  a  painter  closely  resembling 
the  dramatic  Barna  in  style.  An  almost  effaced 
John  the  Baptist  is  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo. 

Returning  to  the  Piazza  di  Postierla  we 
follow,  straight  ahead,  the  Via  di  S.  Pietro.  On 
the  L  are  three  interesting  Gothic  palaces  in  brick, 
of  which  the  graceful  and  elegantly  proportioned 
Palazzo  Tegliacci  or  Buonsignorif)(well  restored) 
ranks  among  the  most  pleasing  of  later  Gothic 
buildings  in  Siena.  At  the  turn  of  the  street 
is  S.  Pietro  alle  Scale.  The  large  canvas  over 
;he  high-altar,  by  Rutilio  IManetti  (162 1),  is  one 
of  the  more  creditable  works  of  the  Sienese 
seicentisti.  Above  the  2nd  altar  to  the  R  is  the 
fragment  of  a  picture  by  Sano  di  Pietro  (covered). 
In  the  sacristy  are  two  small  tondi,  also  by  Sano, 
St.  Lucy  and  the  Angel  of  the  Annunciation — 
the  latter  a  veritable  gem  in  colour,  line,  and 
movement.       Here   are   likewise   three    coarsely 

(')  Possiblj'  Paolo  di  Maestro  Xeri. 
r^)  See  p.   160  supra. 

—    271    — 

repainted  panels  by  some  contemporary  of  Duc- 
cio,  and  a  press  with  figures  in  medallions  by 
a  pupil  of  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni.  In  a  room 
of  the  priest's  house  is  a  half-figure  of  Christ 
blessing  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo,  and  a  Virgin 
and  Child  by  a  close  follower  of  the  Lorenzetti 
— both  much  damaged  and  repainted  (^). 

Retracing-  our  steps  to  the  Postierla,  Ave 
follow  the  Via  di  Stalloreggi,  the  continuation  of 
the  Via  di  Citta.  In  this  street  are  the  remains 
of  some  of  the  oldest  Gothic  palaces  in  the  city — 
Nos.  4,  12  and  1 1  (^).  At  the  corner  of  the  Via  di 
Castelvecchio  is  a  frescoed  Pieta  by  Sodoma — 
one  of  that  master's  better  works  (^).  To  the  L 
of  the  Arco  delle  due  Porte  stands  the  house  in 
which  Duccio  painted  his  masterpiece,  now  bear- 
ing a  tablet  to  that  effect  (^).  From  the  Via  Bal- 
dassarre  Peruzzi  the  quiet  Via  del  Nuovo  Asilo 
leads  down  to  the  Porta  Laterina,  and  to  the  new 
Via  delle  Scuole,  which  commands  a  charming* 
view.     In  the  Via  Baldassarre  Peruzzi  (No.  24) 

(')  It  is  perhaps  needless  to  say  that  for  the  unveiling  of  pictures, 
the  unlocking  of  sacristy  doors,  and  similar  services,  a  small  fee  is  invariably 
expected.  Churches  are  usually  open  until  noon,  and  from  three  or  four 
o'  clock  until  sundown,  but  are  always  opened  at  other  times  by  the  cus- 
todian upon  request. 

(2)  See  p.  160  supra. 

The  last-named  possibly  occupies  the  site  of  a  once  celebrated  palace 
of  the  Longobard  counts. 

(■')  This  fresco  has  perhaps  been  saved  from  the  fate  of  other  equally 
important  works,  in  similarly  exposed  positions,  by  the  timely  initiative  of  an 
English  admirer  of  Sodoma,  Mr.  R.  H.  Hobart  Cust. 

I*)  On  the  R,  in  a  covered  shrine,  is  a  fresco  by  Peruzzi. 

—     272    — 

is  an  unfinished  facade  which  has  close  affinities 
with  Peruzzi's  style.  The  present  church  of  the 
Carmine,  with  its  well  proportioned  campanile(^), 
dates  from  the  early  i6th  century.  The  convent 
(now  used  as  barracks)  is  said  to  have  been 
founded  as  early  as  the  8th  century.  It  contains, 
in  the  further  cloister,  the  famous  Pozzo  della 
Diana  (^).  AVithin  the  church  itself,  over  the  2nd 
altar  R,  is  an  early  and  crudely  executed  Ma- 
donna, let  into  the  centre  of  an  uninteresting 
canvas  by  Francesco  Vanni.  Over  the  4th 
altar  is  an  Ascension  of  Christ,  a  well-com- 
posed work  by  Girolamo  Pacchiarotto,  showing 
the  influence  both  of  Perugino  and  Pintoricchio, 
although  the  master's  own  marked  individuality 
is  recognizable  in  many  of  the  heads.  Above 
the  entrance  to  the  adjacent  chapel  is  a  pleas- 
ing Madonna,  in  fresco,  of  the  14th  century. 
Over  the  altar  within  hangs  a  Nativity  of  the 
Virgin,  by  Sodoma,  particularly  poor  in  com- 
position and  disagreeable  in  colour.  The  head 
of  the  woman  in  the  foreground  is,  however,  one 
of  Sodoma's  most  pleasing  types.  A  small  Italo- 
Byzantine  Madonna  (covered)  stands  upon  the 
high-altar.  To  the  L  is  Beccafumi's  celebrated 
St.  Michael.  Despite  all  that  has  been  brought 
against  it  by  the    modern    and    fashionable   de- 

(1)  Certainly  not  by  Peruzzi. 

(2)  The  Diana  was  a  river  supposed  to  have  existed  beneath  the  city, 
and  for  which  the  Sienese  often  searched  in  their  need  of  water.  Purga- 
torio  XIII.   153. 

tractors  of  Beccafumi,  this  work  is  certainly 
possessed  of  true  dramatic  feeling,  and  in  its 
composition,  its  masterly  handling  of  light  and 
shade,  its  treatment  of  form,  and  even  its  pe- 
culiar colour,  is  not  unworthy  of  much  of  the 
lavish  praise  bestowed  upon  it  by  Vasari  and 
Peruzzi.  The  strangely  beautiful  angels  are 
particularly  characteristic  of  this  master.  In  the 
finely  proportioned  sacristy  is  a  statue  of  St.  Si- 
gismund — a  poor  work  by  Cozzarelli. 

Opposite  the  church  stands  the  Palazzo  Celsi 
(PoUini),  one  of  the  most  perfect  buildings  of 
its  time,  an  authentic  and  highly  interesting 
work  of  Peruzzi,  especially  noticeable  for  its 
refined  proportions  and  its  handsome  cornice. 
It  contains  three  much  restored  ceiling  paint- 
ings, also  by  Peruzzi.  Beyond  the  palace,  the 
Via  della  Diana  and  the  Via  di  S.  Marco  lead 
to  the  Porta  S.  Marco,  where  there  is  a  shady 
little  park  with  splendid  views.  On  the  way, 
at  Via  di  S.  Marco  Nos.  46,  48,  is  the  convent 
of  Sta.  Marta  (now  an  orphan  asylum),  whose 
simple  facade  is  due  to  II  Tozzo  (1535).  The 
cloister  contains  remains  of  monochrome  frescoes 
by  a  pupil  of  the  Lorenzetti,  and  the  church 
a  fine  though  damaged  fresco  of  the  Funeral 
of  the  Virgin,  by  a  near  pupil  of  Simone 
Martini  (^).       We    may    return    from    the    Porta 

(1)   The  lace-work  made  by  the  orphans  of  this  institution  may  be  of 
interest  to  lady  visitors. 

—   274   — 

wS.  ]\Iarco  by  the  quiet  and  pleasant  Via  delle 
vSperandie  (').  At  the  end  of  that  street  is  the 
church  of  Sta.  Lucia,  which  claims  to  contain 
the  original  of  Simone  Alartini's  fresco  over  the 
outer  gate  of  Camollia — the  fresco  of  the  Virgin 
before  which  S.  Bernardino  paid  daily  homage. 
The  work  here  shown  (over  altar  to  R)  appears 
to  be  executed  on  paper  or  parchment,  and  to 
have  been  originally  b}',  or  an  old  copy  of,  Lippo 
Memmi.  In  its  present  condition,  rendered  the 
more  questionable  by  retouching,  it  defies  con- 
clusive criticism.  Looked  at  from  a  distance,  it 
is,  however,  wonderfully  effective  and  expres- 
sive. Above  the  high-altar  stands  a  fine  statue  of 
vSt.  Lucy,  ruined  by  the  restorations  of  recent 
years,  and  in  the  sacristy  a  companion  piece,  a 
Bishop,  which  is  far  more  pleasing  in  its  origi- 
nal colour — both  by  Giacomo  Cozzarelli. 

Returning  to  the  Palazzo  Celsi,  we  ascend 
the  Via  S.  Quirico,  which,  together  with  the  Via 
di  Castelveccliio,  leads  over  the  highest  and 
most  ancient  part  of  Siena  (').  The  tower  next  the 
ancient  and  picturesque  church  of  Sant'  Ansano 
in  Castel  Veccliio  served,  according  to  tradition, 
as  the  prison  of  St.  Ansanus  before  his  execution. 
To  enter  the  church,  one  must  pass  through  the 

(')  The  road  passes  beneath  the  entrance  to  the  Renaissance  church 
of  S.  Paolo. 

("-)  This  district  contains  many  old  and  picturesque  buildings. 

—   275   — 

neighbouring  convent — a  school  for  girls.  On 
the  L  wall  is  a  fresco  of  the  Qicattrocejito,  rep- 
resenting the  Epiphany,  and  a  charming  figure 
of  St.  Ansanus  with  a  kneeling  donor — an  earlier 
work.  Above  the  door  is  an  interesting  old 
glass  window.  In  a  chapel  to  the  R  is  a  Sei- 
cento  copy  of  Sodoma's  vSt.  Sebastian,  possibly 
by  a  Bolognese  master.  Further  on  in  the  Via 
S.  Quirico  stands  the  church  of  that  saint,  with 
the  remains  of  a  Romanesque  portal  (^).  There 
is  a  fine  view  from  the  priest's  garden.  On 
the  R  of  the  Via  delle  Murella  (Tommaso  Pen- 
dola)  is  the  former  Convent  of  Sta.  Margherita, 
now  occupied  by  an  Institute  for  Deaf-AIutes. 
The  old  refectory  contains  interesting  frescoes 
by  Fungai — the  Last  Supper,  Gethsemane,  the 
Betrayal,  the  Crucifixion — all  of  which  shoAv 
decided  Umbrian  influences.  In  the  church  of 
Sta.  Margherita  is  a  modernized,  but  still  beau- 
tiful, statue  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  by  a  fol- 
lower of  Quercia.  At  the  end  of  the  street,  on 
the  L,  remain  vestiges  of  Roman  brick  con- 
struction. Turning  into  the  Via  di  S.  Pietro,  we 
pass,  on  the  R,  the  Via  de'  Maestri  (Tito  Sar- 
rocchi),  in  which  (No.  13)  is  a  house  once  occupied 

(')  It  maj-  be  of  interest  to  note  that  the  name  of  S.  Quirico  (al- 
though perhaps  referring  rather  to  a  castello  which  included  the  church  of 
that  name  than  to  the  church  itself)  occurs  in  a  deed  of  gift  of  1079,  when 
Count  Raineri  and  his  spouse  Berta  gave  to  the  Sienese  church,  for  the 
good  of  their  souls,  half  of  the  curtis  (corte)  of  S.  Quirico. 

-   276   - 

by  Beccafumi.  In  the  Palazzo  Bargagli,  to  the 
L  of  the  arch,  is  a  passage-way  with  remarkable 
arabesque  decorations,  possibly  by  Giovanni  da 
Udine — attributed  to  Peruzzi.  Beyond  the  arch, 
in  the  Via  delle  Cerchia,  Xo.  3,  is  the  Renais- 
sance Palazzo  Finetti. 

In  the  square  (^)  stands  the  church  of  S.  Ago- 
stino,  entirely  rebuilt  in  the  i8th  century,  al- 
though the  apse  still  bears  traces  of  earlier  15th 
century  reconstruction.  Over  the  2nd  altar  R 
is  a  large  Crucifixion  (covered),  a  late  work  of 
Perugino.  Despite  heavy  restorations  the  paint- 
ing preserves  much  of  its  original  beauty  ;  the 
quiet  airy  landscape,  with  a  view  of  Lake  Tra- 
simene,  is  particularly  lovely.  The  Chapel  of  the 
Sacrament  contains  a  Massacre  of  the  Innocents 
by  Matteo  di  Giovanni,  on  the  w^hole  the  most 
successful  of  his  representations  of  this  subject. 
One  can  forget  the  realistic  horror  of  the  picture 
in  the  enjoyment  of  the  beautiful  colour,  the  fine 
flow  of  line,  and  the  decorative  effect  of  the 
whole.  To  turn  from  such  a  tonic  work  of  art 
to  Sodoma's  ambitious  altar-piece  of  the  Adora- 
tion of  the  Magi  (*)  (covered)  requires  a  sensible 
effort.      How^ever,  the  picture  is  not  altogether 

(')  Not  content  with  changing  the  name  of  the  Piazza,  the  municipal 
authorities  have  lately  taken  to  "  improving  "  it  as  the\-  have  other  parts 
of  the  city,  and  with  similar  results. 

(*)  Originally  painted  for  the  Arduini  family,  it  later  became  the 
property  of  the  Piccolomini,  to  whom  the  chapel  belongs. 

—  277  — 
unpleasing,  although  the  inharmonious  colour  of 
the  foreground,  the  visible  defects  in  draughts- 
manship, the  coarse  figure  of  St.  Joseph,  and  the 
sentimental  young  king,  detract  from  the  pleas- 
ure we  might  otherwise  receive  from  the  fan- 
tastic and  carefully  painted  landscape.  In  the 
choir  hangs  a  fine  picture  representing  the  Bless- 
ed Agostino  Novello,  by  Simone  Martini,  gen- 
erally attributed  to  Lippo  Memmi.  The  ac- 
companying scenes  of  his  miracles  are  full  of 
movement  and  vivacity.  The  coloured  statue  of 
the  Virgin  and  Child,  in  the  apse,  belongs  to  the 
early  years  of  the  Quattrocento.  In  the  L  tran- 
sept is  a  statue  of  St.  Nicholas  of  Tolentino  by 
Cozzarelli.  The  picture  of  the  Temptation  of 
St.  Anthony,  in  the  adjoining  chapel,  shown  as 
a  vSpagnoletto,  is  probably  by  the  Sienese  Ru- 
tilio  Manetti  (^).  Outside  the  church,  within  the 
door  to  the  R  of  the  main  entrance  of  the  present 
Collegio  Tolomei,  are  fragments  of  ceiling  fres- 
coes by  Pietro  Lorenzetti,  among  which  is  a 
noble  half-figure  of  St.  Catherine. 

Opposite  S.  Agostino  stands  the  small  church 
of  S.  Mustiola,  with  a  picturesque  belfry,  and 
containing  a  quaint  picture  by  Andrea  di  Nic- 
colo  (1510)  of  the  Madonna  between  the  saints 
of   the  Shoemakers'  Guild — Crispin  and  Crispin- 

(1)  The  last  chapel  of  the  R  transept  contains    some    beautiful  tiles 
of  the   i6th  century.     See  p.   195  supra. 

ian.  The  Via  dei  Tufi  leads  to  the  gate  of  that 
name,  designed  by  Angelo  di  Ventura  in  1325. 
Descending  the  Via  S.  Agata  from  S.  Agostino, 
we  obtain  a  fine  view  of  the  Torre  del  Alangia 
through  the  arch.  The  Via  Giovanni  Dupre  leads 
down  to  the  Piazza  del  Mercato.  The  church 
of  S.  Giuseppe  offers  nothing  beyond  its  archi- 
tecture, and  an  interesting  arched  ceiling  in  the 
basement.  The  Via  di  Fontanella  is  a  pleasant 
road  leading  to  the  Porta  Tufi.  In  the  suppress- 
ed chapel  of  Sta.  Croce,  beneath  S.  Agostino 
(now  used  as  a  gymnasium),  are  remains  of  fres- 
coes by  Sodoma. 

Retracing  our  steps  through  the  Arco  di 
S.  Agostino,  we  may  reach  the  Piazza  del  Campo 
bv  the  narrow  and  quiet,  but  once  fashionable (^), 
Via  del  Casato,  with  its  steep  and  picturesque 
side-streets.  It  still  contains  several  buildings 
of  interest,  such  as:  51,  a  small  Gothic  palace; 
34,  atypical  private  dwelling  (restored);  on  the 
corner  of  the  Costa  Larga,  a  Renaissance  palace 
with  graffito  decorations  of  the  Labours  of  Her- 
cules ;  19,  the  Renaissance  Palazzo  Ugurgieri. 
In  the  courtyard  of  Xo.  9  is  a  fine  hidden  stair- 
case of  the  Diigento,  and,  at  the  back  of  the 
palace,  a  loggia  by  some  provincial  imitator  of 

')   See  Bargagli,  Xovella  V. 


AT  the  eastern  corner  of  the  Piazza  del  Campo 
commences  the  Via  S.  Martino,  which  opens 
almost  immediately  before  the  church  of  the 
same  name,  rebuilt  over  an  older  edifice,  in  the 
middle  of  the  Cinqiiecento,  from  the  designs  of 
Peruzzi's  pupil,  G.  B.  Pelori.  The  fagade  dates 
from  the  beginning*  of  the  century  following, 
and,  for  the  period,  is  exceptionally  dignified 
and  sober.  Within  the  entrance,  to  the  R,  is  a 
picture  by  Lorenzo  Cini,  painted  in  commemora- 
tion of  the  victory  of  Camollia  (^).  Over  the  ist 
altar  is  a  tabernacle  containing  a  small  T?'ece7ifo 
Madonna  (covered),  probably  by  Bartolommeo 
di  Nutino  (?).  Above  the  next  altar  is  a  large 
picture  of  the  Circumcision,  by  Guido  Reni.  The 
3rd  altar  supports  a  ruined  picture  by  Guercino, 
in  a  marble  frame  of  the  Seicento  erroneously 
attributed  to  Marrina.  By  that  master  himself, 
however,  is  the  handsome  marble  frame  opposite, 
enclosing  one  of  Beccafumi's  best  pictures — the 
Nativity  of  Christ — highly  imaginative  in  con- 
ception but  unfortunately  much  darkened.     The 

(')  For  some  account  of  this  battle  see  Lan-gtox  Dol'GLAS,  History 
of  Siena,  p.  217  ;  E.  G.  Gardner,  The  Story  of  Siena  etc.,  pp.  213-215  ; 
W.  Heywood,  a  Pictorial  chronicle  of  Siena,   pp.  82-86. 

—   28o  — 

composition  of  this  work,  apart  from  the  weird, 
ring  of  circling  angels,  seems  a  free  transcription 
of  Francesco  di  Giorgio's  painting  of  the  same 
subject  in  S.  Domenico.  Above  the  choir  is  a 
fine  glass  window  of  the  1 5th  century — St.  Martin 
dividing  his  cloak  with  the  beggar.  The  wooden 
statues  of  the  Madonna,  the  Baptist,  and  three 
Apostles,  are  remarkable  works  by  a  close  but 
unknown  follower  of  Querela.  The  beautiful 
statue  of  the  Virgin,  more  especially,  comes  par- 
ticularly near  to  Jacopo  in  style.  In  the  old 
campanile  are  remnants  of  Trecento  frescoes,  re- 
cently uncovered. 

The  adjoining  church  of  the  Misericordia, 
Xo.  2^  formerly  part  of  a  hospital  for  pilgrims, 
contains :  a  restored  statue  of  its  patron,  S.  An- 
tonio Abate,  possibly  by  Cozzarelli  ;  two  Quat- 
trocento statues  of  the  Virgin  and  the  Angel 
Gabriel  ;  and  a  pleasing  picture  of  the  Virgin 
and  Child  (covered ;  by  Pacchia.  In  the  meet- 
ing-room of  the  society  are  two  panels  by  Pac- 
chiarotto — St.  Anthony  Abbot  and  St.  Paul;  four 
bier-heads  by  Beccafumi,  interesting  work  show- 
ing the  influence  of  Sodoma;  and  two  other  dam- 
aged bier-heads  by  Cozzarelli.  At  the  bottom 
of  the  stairs  is  a  view  of  the  adjoining  cloisters 
and  the  brick  campanile  of  S.  ^lartino. 

Nearly  opposite  the  ]\Iisericordia,  under  the 
entrance  arch  to  the  former  quarter  of  the  Jews 
(the  Via  del  Rialto),  hangs  a  fine  old  iron  lamp. 

—    2bl     — 

We  follow  the  Via  S.  Martino.  Over  No.  7  are 
the  arms  of  the  Piccolomini  ;  No.  9  is  another 
of  Siena's  most  ancient  palaces,  still  adorned 
with  lions'  heads ;  within  No.  1 1  is  a  typical 
Trecento  staircase,  and  next  to  the  well  still 
remains  the  stone  on  which  the  waterpot  was 
placed  ;  No.  33,  once  a  Gothic  palace,  has  later 
Renaissance  additions;  No.  42  is  a  well  restored 
Gothic  palace.  On  the  way  we  pass  the  Piazza 
S.  Giusto,  with  a  column  (1428)  bearing  an  iron 
cage  which  was  used  to  hold  torches  or  fuel  for 
illumination  (^).  The  church  of  5.  Giusto  contains 
a  repainted  picture  by  Sano  di  Pietro.  In  the 
picturesque  Via  di  Salicotto,  now  one  of  the 
poorer  parts  of  wSiena,  is  S.  Ciacomo,  the  contrada- 
church  of  the  Torre,  built  in  1531  and  contain- 
ing, in  the  sacrist3^  a  picture  of  Christ  bearing 
the  Cross,  wrongly  attributed  to  Sodoma.  In  the 
end  of  the  street,  facing  the  Palazzo  Pubblico, 
are  remains  of  fine  early  Gothic  palaces. 

The  Via  S.  Martino  leads  to  the  church  and 
convent  of  S.  Girolamo  (ring  at  door  to  L;  fee). 
Within  a  niche  in  the  cloister  is  Fungai's  master- 
piece— a  panel  of  the  Assumption  of  the  Virgin, 
damaged,  but  particularly  pleasing  in  colour.  The 

(')  There  exists  a  tradition  that  the  lantern  served  to  hold  exposed 
the  heads  of  those  decapitated.  Another  belief  of  the  people  is  that  the 
column  was  the  pedestal  for  an  image  venerated  by  the  Romans,  and  that 
the  Sienese  when  converted  turned  the  column  up  side  down  and  buried 
the  idol  beneath  it.  Misc.  Stor.  Sen.  vol.  I,  p.  219. 


lateral  frescoes  are  by  a  follower  of  Ghirlandaio. 
In  the  church,  to  the  L,  2nd  altar,  is  an  interest- 
ing St.  Jerome  in  his  Study,  by  Pacchia,  the 
side  saints  being  also  by  that  master.  The  next 
altar  supports  a  fresco  by  the  same  artist  who 
painted  the  sides  of  the  niche  in  the  cloister  (^), 
enclosed  in  a  marble  frame  by  Marrina.  In  the 
aisle  is  the  marble  tomb  of  a  bishop.  The 
sacristy  contains  a  Coronation  of  the  Virgin 
by  Sano  (1465).  The  Via  del  Sole  is  another 
picturesque  street,  leading  down  to  the  Piazza 
del  Mercato  (^). 

The  Via  dei  Servi  leads  to  the  splendidly 
situated  church  of  the  Servi  di  Maria  (SS.  Con- 
cezione)  rebuilt,  in  part,  from  147 1  to  1528.  The 
pierced  campanile  is  very  effective,  as  is  also 
the  spacious  Gothic-Renaissance  interior.  At 
the  base  of  the  tower  is  a  quaint  fresco  of  the 
Virgin  rescuing  souls  from  the  flames  of  Pur- 
gatory. Over  the  ist  altar  R  is  the  majestic 
"  Madonna  del  Bordone  ",  by  the  little-known 
Coppo  di  Marcovaldo  (1261) — a  work  which, 
despite    later    changes  f),    certainly    entitles    its 

(')  This  charming  fresco,  now  shown  as  a  ^Matteo,  is  attributed  bj' 
the  Giiida  Artistica — upon  uncertain  grounds — to  a  Fra  Giuliano  da  Firenze. 

{'^)  It  was  here,  back  of  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  that  state  executions 
took  place  until  the  end  of  the  14th  centurj-.  The  governors  of  the  Republic 
then  finding  the  cries  of  the  tortured  too  insistent  fer  their  happiness,  ordered 
that  from  henceforth  the  condemned  should  suffer  death  elsewhere. 

(■•)  The  heads  and  flesh  parts  of  both  figures  were  renewed  by  a 
painter  of  the  school  of  Duccio. 

-   283   - 

author  to  a  place  beside  "  Cimabue  "  and  Guido 
da  Siena.  Above  the  last  altar  is  a  late  version 
by  Matteo  di  Giovanni  of  his  favoured  subject 
of  the  Massacre  of  the  Innocents,  painted,  ac- 
cording to  the  inscription,  in  1491.  Although 
containing  details  of  great  beauty,  this  work  is 
less  satisfactory  as  a  composition,  and  less  suc- 
cessful in  its  presentation  of  movement,  than  is 
the  picture  in  S.  Agostino.  The  Madonna  with 
donors,  in  the  lunette,  is  also  by  Matteo.  High 
up  above  is  a  small  Nativity  by  Taddeo  Bartoli. 
Over  the  entrance  to  the  sacristy,  R  transept, 
is  the  "  Madonna  del  Popolo  ",  by  Lippo  Memmi 
— a  work  exquisite  alike  in  sentiment  and  ex- 
ecution. The  beautiful  old  frame,  with  its  reliefs 
of  singing  and  playing  angels,  is  worthy  of  the 
picture  it  encloses.  Still  another  much  vener- 
ated picture  is  within  the  sacristy — the  "  Ma- 
donna del  Manto  ",  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo,  with 
a  repainted  signature  changed  to  Giovanni  di 
Pietro.  Here  is  also  a  Virgin  and  Child  of  the 
school  of  Duccio.  In  a  chapel  to  the  R  of  the 
choir,  Pietro  Lorenzetti  painted  a  large  fresco 
(under  whitewash  until  recent  years)  of  the  Mas- 
sacre of  the  Innocents — a  magnificent  composi- 
tion, showing  to  the  fullest  extent  the  master's 
power  over  movement  and  modelling.  The  cor- 
responding chapel  to  the  L  contains  two  frescoes 
of  the  school  of  Pietro  (possibly  by  the  master 
himself),  representing  Salome  before  Herod  and 

—    2b4    — 

the  Assumption  of  St.  John — free  copies  of  Giot- 
to's frescoes  in  Sta.  Croce  at  Florence — both 
utterly  ruined  by  time  and  restoration.  Opposite 
this  chapel  hangs  a  large  and  carefully  mod- 
elled Ducciesque  Crucifix,  wrongly  attributed  to 
Sassetta.  On  the  high-altar  stands  a  Coronation 
of  the  Virgin  by  Fungai,  which,  although  well 
composed,  is  hard  in  colour,  and  has  suffered 
by  regilding  and  restoration.  Above  the  2nd 
altar  in  the  L  aisle  is  the  lovely  "  ^ladonna  del 
Belvedere ",  by  ^lino  del  Pellicciaio,  and,  on 
either  side  of  it,  figures  of  the  IMagdalen  and 
St.  Joseph  by  Fungai  (^). 

Behind  the  wServi  is  the  small  church  of  the 
Confraternity  of  the  SS.  Trinita  (^),  whose  walls 
are  entirely  covered  with  paintings  by  late  Sien- 
ese  artists.  The  building  contains,  however,  two 
pictures  of  artistic  interest — a  ^ladonna  with 
Saints,  by  Sano  (in  the  side  chapel,  covered), 
and  a  Madonna  with  St.  Michael  and  the  Bap- 
tist, by  Xeroccio  (in  the  sacristy  above).  The 
latter,  althoug-h  hardly  one  of  the  best  of  Xe- 
roccio's  works,  is  a  picture  of  great  charm,  and 
its  effect  is  enhanced  by  the  fine  old  frame,  with 
its  predella  of  delightful  pidti.  Descending  the 
steps  and  turning  to  the  R,  we  follow  the  Via 
Romana  which  leads  to  the  gate,  past  the  former 

(*)  The  handsome  holy-water  basin  is  worth}-  of  notice. 
\^)  Custodian  at  Via  delle  Can  tine  5. 

—   2b5   — 

monastery  of  S.  Niccold,  now  rebuilt  as  an  In- 
sane Asylum.  The  church  contains  four  medal- 
lions of  the  della  Robbia  school,  a  very  fine 
Italo-Byzantine  Crucifix  of  the  13th  century,  and 
one  of  the  loveliest  of  vSano's  early  Madonnas. 
Above  the  Porta  Romana  (^) — a  splendid  example 
of  a  double  fortified  gate — is  the  wreck  of  a 
large  fresco  which  has  been  the  work  of  several 
hands.  Commenced  by  Taddeo  Bartoli,  continu- 
ed by  Sassetta  (who  is  said  to  have  caught  his 
death  by  cold  while  working  here),  it  was  fin- 
ished by  Sano — and  modern  restorers  have  done 
the  rest.  A  short  distance  beyond  the  gate  is 
the  former  convent  and  church  of  Sta.  Maria 
degli  Angeli  f),  rebuilt  in  the  15th  century.  The 
interesting  portal  shows  a  combination  of  Gothic 
and  Renaissance  motifs.  Inside  is  a  signed  and 
dated  picture  (1502)  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with 
Saints,  by  the  Florentine  Raffaello  di  Carlo,  en- 
closed in  a  frame  carved  by  Antonio  Barili. 
The  Chiesa  di  Valle  contains  a  picture  by  Sano 
(in  the  priest's  house).  Some  distance  further, 
on  the  Roman  road,  is  the  Lombard  church  of 
Sta.  Maria  di  Betlem  ("'),  containing  an  impressive 
Italo-Byzantine  Madonna. 

(')  As  to  its  construction,  see  p.  162  supra.  A  description  of  the 
Roman  tablet  on  the  wall  is  given  at  p.   150. 

(■-)  Sacristan  at  blacksmith's  shop  at  bend  of  road,  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  further  on. 

(3)  See  pp.   156-157  supra. 

2bD     — 

We  return  by  the  Via  Romana  to  the  church 
of  S.  Galgano  (^),  attached  to  the  brick  convent 
of  the  Santuccio,  still  occupied  by  Augustinian 
nuns.  The  church  contains  an  interesting  Na- 
tivity by  a  Flemish  painter  under  the  influence 
of  Piero  di  Cosimo,  two  beautiful  statues— the 
Angel  Gabriel  and  the  Virgin  Annunciate — by  a 
follower  of  Jacopo  della  Querela,  and  a  superb 
Gothic  reliquary  containing  the  head  of  S.  Gal- 
gano— one  of  the  most  splendid  works  of  its  kind. 
Continuing  up  the  Via  Romana,  we  pass  the 
garden  of  the  Bianchi  palace,  on  the  wall  of 
which  is  a  fine  marble  tabernacle  (1477),  possibly 
by  Giovanni  di  Stefano.  The  street  opposite 
leads  to  the  Ritiro  del  Refugio  (")  (Via  di  Fiera 
Vecchia  11).  The  church  contains  one  of  the 
loveliest  pictures  in  Siena— the  half  figure  of  a 
life-size  Madonna  praying.  This  mysterious  and 
deeply  impressive  work  is  ascribed  by  Mr.  Ber- 
enson,  and  with  good  reason,  to  Pier  Fran- 
cesco Fiorentino.  In  the  rooms  of  the  school 
are  a  Virgin  and  Child  by  Fungai  and  a 
Madonna  and  a  repainted  Crucifixion  by  Sano  ; 
and    in    the    director's    room,  in    the  Palazzo  di 

(' )  Custodian  at  Via  Romana  20,  fee.  In  order  to  see  the  reliquary 
— shown  through  a  grating — permission  must  be  asked,  by  the  custodian,  of 
the  Mother  Superior.  The  most  convenient  hours  are  8-10,  12-2,  3-5.  The 
sisters  expect  a  franc  or  more  as  a  donation  to  charity. 

(2)  Permission  to  visit  the  church  is  sometimes  courteously  granted 
on  the  presentation  of  a  visiting  card  ;  fee  to  serv'ant. 

-  287  - 

S.  Galgano,  another  and  delightful  Sano,  in  its 
original    frame.       This   Palazzo    di   S.  Calgano, 

which  faces  on  the  main  street,  if  not  by  Giu- 
liano  di  Maiano,  the  architect  of  the  Palazzo 
Spannocchi,  certainly  shows  the  influence  of  that 
master.  At  the  end  of  the  Via  Romana,  which 
leads  into  the  Via  Ricasoli,  stands  another  of 
the  columns  bearing  a  wolf,  placed  there  in  1470. 
To  the  L  are  portions  of  the  older  wall  of  the 
city  with  picturesque  hanging  gardens.  The  Via 
deir  Oliviera,  on  the  R,  leads  past  the  Lombard 
church  of  Sta.  Chiara  (')  to  the  Porta  Pispini — 
a  gate  rivalling  the  Porta  Romana,  and  above 
which  are  the  remains  of  a  fresco  by  Sodoma, 
in  great  part  recently  repainted.  At  an  angle 
of  the  city  wall,  to  the  L,  stands  the  only  re- 
maining bastion  of  the  seven  designed  by  Pe- 
ruzzi  f ).  A  quarter  of  a  mile  beyond  the  gate, 
on  the  upper  road,  is  the  church  of  S.  Eugenia, 
containing  a  charming  picture  by  Matteo  di 
Giovanni  (covered). 

Passing  beneath  the  ancient  Porta  S.  Mauri- 
zio,  we  notice,  in  an  opening  to  the  R  of  the  Via 
Ricasoli,  a  fine  coat-of-arms  of  the  Piccolomini, 
still  retaining  its  original  colour.  No.  47  was 
once  a  Gothic  palace  with  an  ornate  brick  fa9ade. 

(1)  See  p.   157  supra. 

(■^)  Permission  to  view  the  interior  of  this  much  restored  work  may 
sometimes  be  obtained  of  the  chief  of  the  Military  Magazines  of  Sta.  Chiara, 
who  courteously  allows  visitors  to  enter. 


The  Via  dei  Pispini  leads  to  the  church  of  S.  Spi- 
rito,  whose  cupola  was  probably  designed  by 
Cozzarelli.  The  main  portal  may  possibly  have 
been  erected  from  a  design  of  Peruzzi.  Within 
the  I  St  chapel  L  is  the  masterpiece  of  Matteo 
Balducci — the  Virgin  in  glory  worshipped  by 
Saints — clearly  showing  his  derivation  from  Pac- 
chiarotto,  despite  its  general  outward  Umbrian 
feeling.  The  2nd  chapel  and  that  opposite  con- 
tain statues  by  Cozzarelli,  of  St.  Vincenzo  Fer- 
reri  and  St.  Catherine  of  vSiena.  Over  the  3rd 
altar  is  an  early  work  of  Pacchia,  the  Coronation 
of  the  Virgin,  far  more  interesting  than  many 
of  his  later  efforts.  On  the  side  wall  of  the  last 
chapel  hangs  a  damaged  but  pleasing  Virgin 
and  Child  with  kneeling  donor,  by  an  artist  of 
the  Trecento.  The  sacristy  contains  a  frescoed 
Crucifixion  with  a  view  of  Pistoia  in  the  back- 
ground, by  Fra  Paolino,  the  somewhat  heavy 
follower  of  Fra  Bartolommeo,  and  a  Coronation 
of  the  Virgin  by  Beccafumi.  In  the  Cappella 
degli  Spagnuoli,  to  the  R  of  the  entrance,  are 
frescoes  by  Sodoma  (1530):  SS.  Anthony  and 
Sebastian — careless  in  execution  ;  and  St.  James 
of  Campostello  riding  down  the  Saracens— coarse 
in  conception.  The  poor  figures  of  St.  Nicholas 
of  Tolentino  and  St.  ]\Iichael  may  possibly  be 
by  vSodoma  himself.  The  figure  of  St.  Lucy 
redeems  the  lunette  of  the  Virgin  investing 
St.   Alphonso.      The    Nativity    in    terra-cotta    is 

—   289  — 

attributed  to  Ambrogio  della  Robbia  (1504^ 
Above  the  door  is  a  large  Crucifix  by  Sano  di 

We  return  to  the  Via  Ricasoli.  On  the 
corner  of  the  Via  di  Follonica  is  a  cleverly  re- 
stored stone  tower.  The  road  itself  leads  down 
through  the  fields  to  the  poetic  Fonte  di  Follonica. 
The  not  entirely  successful  facade  of  the  church 
of  S.  Giovanni  della  Staffa  (in  Pantaneto)  (^)  was 
designed  (1563)  by  Pelori.  In  the  atrium  is  a 
good  terra-cotta  statue  of  the  Precursor,  by  Fe- 
derighi.  The  walls  of  the  church  are  covered 
with  pictures  by  late  Sienese  artists.  Over  the 
hig-h-altar  (covered)  is  a  small  and  repainted 
Madonna  of  the  14th  century.  On  the  ceiling 
of  the  sacristy  is  an  interesting*  little  fresco  by 
Beccafumi.  In  the  Via  Ricasoli  are  several 
coats-of-arms  on  different  palaces,  including  one 
of  Julius  II  (Rovere)  and  one  of  Paul  II  (Barbo). 
The  Loggia  del  Papa,  designed  by  Federighi  for 
Pius  II,  in  1462,  is  a  veritable  summing*  up  of 
Sienese  grace  and  refinement.  Delicacy  and 
lightness,  however,  have  been  purchased  at  a  sac- 

(1)  The  name  "  Pantaueto — the  slough  ",  may  perhaps  help  us  to  an 
idea  of  the  normal  condition  of  even  the  principal  Sienese  thoroughfares 
before  the  citizens  resolved  to  fare  mattonare  le  strade,  that  is  to  say,  to 
cause  them  to  be  "  paued  with  bricks  set  vp  edgeway  ",  as  our  old  friend 
Richard  Lessels  describes  the  operation.  In  the  13th  century  there  were 
plenty  of  other  streets  besides  the  Pantaneto  with  equally  ill-boding  titles  ; 
for  example  :  Malfango,  Malborghetio,  MalCucinato — Compare  Zdekauer, 
La  vita  pubblica  &c.,  op.  cit.  pp.  33-37. 

— ■   290  — 

rifice  of  the  appearance  of  solidity  and  strength. 
The  carved  stone  work  and  the  elegant  capitals, 
very  worthy  of  attention,  are  by  Federighi  and 
his  pupils.  Beyond  the  Loggia,  on  the  R,  is 
the  Palazzo  Piccolomini-Clementini,  with  a  row 
of  monochrome  heads  of  the  15th  century  be- 
tween the  corbels  of  the  parapet.  Obliquely 
across  the  way  stands  the  imposing  Palazzo  Pic- 
colomini  (del  Governo)  with  its  grandly  simple 
facade  and  massive  cornice.  Commenced  in  1469 
by  Porrina  and  others,  from  the  designs  of  Ber- 
nardo Rossellino,  it  is  not  only  the  most  magnif- 
icent Renaissance  building  of  Siena,  but  one  of 
the  most  important  in  all  Tuscany — a  worthy 
rival  of  its  sisters  in  Florence  and  Pienza.  The 
beautiful  capitals  of  the  columns  within  the 
courtyard,  and  other  parts  of  the  stone  work, 
were  carved  by  Alarrina.  The  interior  of  the 
palace  is  now  used,  in  part,  as  the  repository 
of  the  R.  Archivio  di  Stato — -one  of  the  best  kept 
collections  of  Archives  in  existence.  To  visit 
them  we  ascend  by  the  further  stairs  on  the  L. 
The  custodian  (fee)  conducts  the  visitor  through 
many  rooms,  containing  shelves  on  shelves  of 
volumes,  commencing  with  the  simple  roll  of 
parchment  (the  earliest  document  is  of  736)  which 
later  gave  place  to  the  bound  leaves  of  the  same 
material,  for  which  paper  was  in  part  substitut- 
ed as  early  as  1248.  Many  curious  and  rare 
bindings    are    here    to    be    seen,    from    those    of 

—    291    — 

simple  wooden  boards  to  those  of.  richly  tooled 
leather,  among  them  being  the  unique  book- 
covers  known  as  the  Tavolette  dipmte  della  Bic- 
cherna  e  della  Gabella — that  is,  the  painted  covers 
of  the  books  of  the  Biccherna  (in  which  office 
were  received  and  disbursed  the  revenues  of  the 
Republic),  and  those  of  the  Gabella  (the  oflfi.ce 
charged  with  the  collection  of  taxes).  The  books 
of  these  important  magistracies  were  at  first 
bound  in  boards,  fastened  with  leather  thongs, 
whose  plain  surfaces  soon  gave  place  to  a  series 
of  painted  decorations,  the  earliest  of  which 
consisted  merely  of  the  coats-of-arms  of  the  mem- 
bers of  Biccherna  or  of  Gabella  (^),  or  a  portrait 
of  either  chief  officer.  Succeeding  centuries 
added  scenes  of  allegorical  significance  or  those 
connected  with  the  history  of  the  the  city.  It 
Avill  thus  be  seen  that  the  Tavolette  possess 
not  only  an  artistic  interest  but  one  of  great 
historical  importance  as  well.  Space  forbids 
more  than  a  mention  of  those  of  particular 
artistic  value,  and  I  recommend  the  visitor  to 
Mr.  Heywood's  Pictoi'ial  Chro7iicle  of  Siena  for 
a  highly  interesting  account  of  their  historical 
and  political  significance  and  of  the  oflfices  for 
which   these   books   were    adorned.     The  Tavo- 

(M  The  officers  of  Biccherna  consisted  of  a  Camarlingo  and  four 
Provveditori,  while  those  of  Gabella  were  a  Camarlingo  and  three,  later 
four,  Esecutori. 

letta  of  1258,  painted  by  Gilio  di  Pietro  (?),  is 
earliest  in  date,  and  represents  Frate  Ugo  seated 
at  his  desk  as  Camarlingo.  This  and  others 
that  follow,  by  predecessors  and  contemporaries 
of  Duccio,  rank  among  the  earliest  attempts  at 
individual  portraiture  in  the  history  of  Italian 
art,  properly  so  called.  A  Tavoletta  of  1320, 
S.  Galgano  plunging  his  sword  into  the  rock, 
shows  the  influence  of  the  real  Sienese  school 
— of  Simone.  Another  of  1334,  the  Nativity, 
goes  back  to  earlier  models.  The  panel  of  the 
seated  figure  of  Good  Government,  1344,  is  by 
Ambrogio  Lorenzetti,  and  that  of  the  Circumsion, 
1357,  of  his  school.  Pope  Eugenius  IV  crown- 
ing Sigismond  as  emperor,  1433,  and  the  St. 
Jerome  in  the  Desert,  1436,  are  by  Giovanni 
di  Paolo^the  latter  a  realistically  delightful 
composition,  evidently  influenced  by  vSassetta. 
A  Tavoletta  of  1440,  S.  Pietro  Alessandrino 
between  two  Angels,  is  by  another  follower  of 
Sassetta,  as  is  also  the  decorative  St.  ]\Iichael 
fighting  the  Dragon,  1444.  The  portrait  of 
Ghino  di  Pietro  Bellanti,  Camarlingo  in  1451,  is 
by  Sano,  the  two  Beati  following  being  likewise 
from  his  hand,  1457.  Pope  Pius  II  being  crown- 
ed, with  the  Virgin  above,  is  an  interesting  work 
of  Vecchietta,  1460,  and  is  probably  an  authentic 
portrait.  Francesco  di  Giorgio,  in  the  same  year, 
painted  the  Pope  as  bestowing  the  Cardinal's 
hat  upon  his  nephew,  Francesco  Todeschini ;  and 

by  the  same  master  is  the  panel  representing" 
Siena  as  under  the  protection  of  the  Madonna 
during  an  earthquake,  1467.  A  characteristic 
Tavoletta  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  1468,  re- 
presents Peace  and  War — on  one  side  a  group 
of  citizens  receive  money  and  Peace  hovers  over- 
head, on  the  other,  soldiers  of  fortune  receive 
their  pay  from  the  Camarlingo,  while  above  them 
hovers  War.  An  allegorical  panel,  147 1,  the 
"Wisdom  which  emanates  from  God",  is  by  Sano, 
as  is  also  the  charming  picture,  of  1473,  portray- 
ing the  Marriage  of  Lucrezia  d'  Agnolo  Mala- 
volti  and  Robert  of  Sanseverino,  the  famous 
condottiere.  Another  allegory  of  the  Govern- 
ment of  Siena,  1474,  is  by  Benvenuto.  A  Ta- 
voletta of  1479  records  the  entrance  into  CoUe 
di  Val  d'  Elsa  of  the  allied  vSienese,  Papal  and 
Neapolitan  troops.(^) — an  interesting  composition, 
delicate  in  colour.  The  quaint  and  beautiful 
picture  of  the  Virgin  recommending  to  God  her 
favoured  Siena,  is  by  Neroccio  di  Landi,  1480^). 
On  the  opposite  wall  is  a  panel  showing  the 
interior  of  the  Cathedral,  with  statues  against 
the  columns  of  the  nave  and  Duccio's  "Majestas" 
still  above  the  high-altar — the  scene  represents 
a  dedication  of  the  city  to  the  Virgin  in  1483. 
A  Tavoletta   of   the    following   year,  by    Cozza- 

(^)   See  p.   104  sKpra. 

('■)  See  p.  210,  note,  supra. 


—   294   — 

relli,  depicts  the  Presentation  of  the  A'irgin.  The 
panel  of  the  Madonna  guiding  into  port  the  ship 
of  the  Sienese  Commune,  1487,  is  by  Fungai. 
One  of  1489,  the  Esecutori,  garbed  as  penitents, 
entreating  the  Aladonna  to  enter  Siena,  is  by 
Cozzarelli.  In  the  following  room  are  a  few 
covers  of  books  of  various  offices.  A  Biccherna 
of  1 42 1,  the  figure  of  a  Avoman  in  blue,  is  a  de- 
licate work  of  the  school  of  Taddeo.  ^The  cover 
of  a  book  which  contained  notices  of  Sienese 
ambassadors  from  1429  to  1439  bears  a  represen- 
tation of  two  ambassadors  on  horseback,  by 
Sano  di  Pietro.  On  the  cover  of  an  inventory 
of  1458,.  of  the  Opera  di  Sta.  Maria  (the  Duo- 
mo),  are  the  arms  of  that  body,  supported  by 
two  angels — a  work  of  Vecchietta.  The  further 
rooms  contain  books  of  the  Hospital  with  painted 
covers  (one  of  them  showing  the  Duomo  as  it 
was  before  the  lengthening  of  the  nave),  and 
books  with  miniatures :  by  Xiccolo  di  ser  vSozzo 
Tegliacci  (1334);  by  another  follower  of  Simone 
and  the  Lorenzetti  (1361);  by  Sano  di  Pietro 
(1472);  and,  in  another  room,  an  outline  portrait 
of  Gregory  XII,  of  the  school  of  Taddeo,  and  a 
parchment  with  a  miniature  by  Cozzarelli  (^).     In 

(')  Among  these  miniatures,  the  most  beautiful  of  all  is  that  of  the 
Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  in  the  celebrated  Caleflfo  dell'  Assunta  (See  page 
181,  note,  stipta).  This  Caleffo,  the  second  of  the  five  Instrtimentarii  of 
the  Republic  (See  pages  lo  and  136  supia),  is  a  magnificent  parchment 
codex,  written  throughout  bj-  one  hand,  in  very  beautiful  characters,  and  was 
compiled  between  1334  and  1336. 

the  Sala  della  Mostra  are  exposed  all  manner  of 
interesting-  documents,  each  bearing  an  explana- 
tory label.  They  include  Diplomas  of  many  of 
the  Holy  Roman  Emperors,  Papal  Bulls,  docu- 
ments— often  bearing  an  autograph  signature — 
connected  with  reigning  princes,  illustrious  men 
and  women  (including  saints,  artists,  famous 
condottieri)  ;  and  others  bearing  on  the  Divina 
Coinniedia.  In  this  room  is  also  preserved  the 
Testamento  of  Giovanni  Boccaccio. 

Opposite  the  Palazzo  Piccolomini  is  the 
University,  in  the  courtyard  of  which  is  an  in- 
teresting tomb  of  the  14th  century — of  the  cel- 
ebrated professor  Niccolo  Arringhieri  (').  We 
return  to  the  Croce  del  Travaglio  by  the  Via 
Ricasoli,  noticing  on  the  way  the  splendid  stone 
tower  on  the  corner  of  the  Via  delle  Donzelle, 
and,  again,  that  on  the  L,  at  the  end  of  the  street. 

(')  See  p.  168  supra.  This  bas-relief  forms  a  remarkable  illustration 
to  the  method  pursued  bj-  the  humanists  in  the  instruction  of  their  classes,  as 
described  by  J.  A.  Symonds,  Renaissance  in  Italy.  The  Revival  of  Learn- 
iyig  (London,  1877),  pp.   124-126. 

—  296  — 

FROM  the  Croce  del  Travaglio  the  Via  Cavour 
soon  leads  to  the  Piazza  Tolomei  (^).  The 
severely  splendid  Palazzo  Tolomei,  with  its  lion- 
guarded  doors,  is  all  that  stands  intact  of  the 
great  houses  of  that  ancient  family,  which  for- 
merly surrounded  the  entire  square,  including 
the  church  of  S.  Cristoforo.  It  once  constituted 
what  Avas  known  as  the  Rocchetta,  or  that  por- 
tion of  the  Casa  Tolomei  which  served  as  the 
principal  point  of  defence.  In  the  Via  del  Re 
and  the  Via  Calzoleria  are  yet  standing,  however, 
remains  of  massive  Gothic  structures  which  pos- 
sibly formed  a  part  of  the  family  dwellings  of 
the  Tolomei.  The  column  and  wolf  in  the 
Piazza  are  modern  reproductions,  still  bearing 
the  arms  of  the  family  to  whom  they  formerly 
belonged.  The  church  of  S.  Cristoforo  (entirely 
rebuilt)  contains  a  large  altar-piece — the  Virgin 
and  Child  enthroned,  with  St.  Luke  and  the  Bless- 

(1)  The  Piazza  Tolomei  is  full  of  memories.  In  the  old  days,  before 
the  building  of  the  Palazzo  Pubblico,  the  Magistrates  of  the  Republic 
were  wont  to  hold  their  sessions  in  S.  Cristoforo  ;  while  the  parliament  as- 
sembled in  the  square  without.  It  was  in  S.  Cristoforo  that  the  Tiuenly- 
four  were  sitting  when  they  received  the  Florentine  ambassadors  before  the 
Battle  of  Montaperto,  and  it  was  thither  that  Salimbene  de'  Salimbeni 
brought  from  his  palace  the  hundred  and  eighteen  thousand  florins  of  gold 
which  he  lent  to  the  Commune  to  pay  the  German  mercenaries.  In  this 
piazza,  too,  at  a  later  date,  Charles  IV  made  his  last  stand  (See  p.  81  supra). 

—   297   — 

ed  Raimondo — by  Girolamo  Pacchia  (altar  to 
L,  covered),  which  narrowly  escapes  being'  that 
painter's  masterpiece.  It  shows  the  direct  influ- 
ence of  Fra  Bartolommeo  and  is  remarkable  for 
its  warm  colouring.  A  small  St.  Christopher  in 
the  R  transept,  is  by  an  artist  of  the  early  15th 
century.  Above  the  sacristy  door  stands  a  terra- 
cotta figure  of  S.  Galgano,  by  a  follower  of 
Federighi.  Within  hangs  a  dimmed  but  finely 
decorative  panel  of  St.  George  and  the  Dragon, 
belonging  to  the  early  Quattrocento. 

In  the  Via  del  Re,  opposite  the  Albergo  To- 
scana,  stands  a  tower  which  formerly  belonged 
to  the  Angiolieri,  bearing  an  inscription  to  that 
effect  (^).  An  alley  further  on  to  the  L,  the 
Vicolo  del  Castellare,  admits  us  to  a  group  of 
buildings  w^hich  once  formed  the  stronghold  of 
the  powerful  Ugurgieri  family— the  only  remain- 
ing castellare  in  Siena  i^^).  Straight  ahead,  on  the 
Via  Sallustio  Bandini,  stands  the  Casa  Sallustio 
Bandini,  a  pleasing  and  refined  example  of  a 
Renaissance  dwelling  house,  very  doubtfully  at- 
tributed to  Francesco  di  Giorgio.     Near  by,  op- 

(*)  Hanc  donium  cepit  hedificare  Angeleiius  Solafiche  quando  erat 
campsor  domini pp.  Gregorii  Vllllin  a.  d.  MCCXXXIII.  The  inscription 
is  extremely  interesting  as  carrying  us  back  to  the  period  when  the  Sienese 
bankers  had  almost  a  complete  monopoly  of  the  papal  business  jSee  pp.  40- 
41  supra).  The  Angiolieri  of  the  inscription  was  either  the  father,  or  more 
probably  the  grandfather,  of  the  poet.     (See  p.   130  supra). 

C^)  For  account  of  how  the  Potesta  was  here  besieged  for  two  days 
by  the  Salimbeni,  see  pp.  43-44. 

—  298  — 

posite  the  large  Palazzo  Bandini  Piccolomini, 
is  the  remnant  of  an  old  wall  Avith  projecting" 
Romanesque  lions'  heads  (^).  Turning  to  the  L, 
we  notice  the  partly  rebuilt  exteriors  of  the 
Ugurgieri  palaces  (-).  The  Baroque  church  of 
Sta.  Maria  di  Provenzano  {"■),  erected  in  1594,  by 
Flaminio  del  Turco,  on  the  desig-ns  of  Dom. 
Schifardini,  has  a  spacious  and  well  proportion- 
ed interior.  The  street  to  the  L  of  the  church 
leads  to  the  Via  dei  Rossi,  which  in  turn  leads 
through  an  arch  to  the  Piazza  di  S.Francesco,  with 
a  fine  view  of  the  Chianti  hills.  Over  the  arch 
itself  are  three  statuettes — the  Madonna  and  the 
great  Franciscan  Saints,  Francis  and  Clara— fine 
works  of  the  school  of  the  Pisani. 

The  site  of  the  church  and  convent  of 
S.  Francesco  was  occupied  by  the  Franciscan 
friars  as  early  as  1236,  and  the  present  church 
was  erected  early  in  the  14th  century.  The 
building  has  passed  through  many  vicissitudes, 
the  disastrous  fire  of  1655  having  destroyed 
most  of  the  famous  monuments  which  once  ren- 
dered it  a  second  Sta.  Croce,  and  the  subsequent 

(1)  To  the  L,  over  an  entrance  to  the  Casa  degli  Esercizi,  is  a  fresco 
of  the  Madonna  wiih  Saints,  of  the  late  Trecento.  The  chapel  of  that  in- 
stitution contains  a  St.  Catherine,  by  Girolamo  di  Benvenuto,  and  a  ^Ma- 
donna  of  the  school  of  Francesco  di  Giorgio. 

(2)  By  climbing  the  staircase  of  No.  2  a  good  view  of  the  castellare 
may  be  obtained. 

(^;  For  some  account  of  the  district  of  Provenzano,  and  of  the  ISIa- 
donna  for  whom  the  church  was  built,  see  Mr.  Heywood's  Our  Lady  of 
Aui^nst.  chapter  V. 

—  299  — 
Baroque  reparations  having  completed  the  ruin. 
Some  twenty  years  ago  restorations  were  under- 
taken on  the  original  lines,  and,  owing  to  the 
generosity  of  Siena's  citizens,  have  been  carried 
out,  on  the  whole,  not  unsuccessfully.  Although 
the  bad  modern  glass  does  not  add  to  the  beauty 
of  the  interior,  the  visitor  may  form  an  excel- 
lent idea  of  the  original  appearance  of  the  great 
churches  of  the  preaching  orders^ — with  their 
grandly  simple  proportions  and  spacious  in- 
teriors (^).  The  facade  of  the  church  was,  as 
usual,  left  uncompleted.  Over  the  Renaissance 
doorway  is  a  statue  of  St.  Francis,  attributed 
to  Ramo  di  Paganello,  but  certainly  a  work  of 
much  later  date.  On  the  entrance  wall  are  frag- 
ments of  Gothic  sculptures.  On  the  R  wall  is 
a  repainted  fresco  of  the  Visitation,  by  a  con- 
temporary of  Taddeo  Bartoli  ;  further  on  is  an 
altar  niche  with  frescoes  by  a  late  Trecento  art- 
ist, entirely  renewed.  On  the  opposite  wall  are 
fragments  of  charming  bas-reliefs  of  the  1 5th  cen- 
tury— St.  Francis  preaching  to  the  Birds  ('),  and 
the  Vision  of  the  Pope.  The  ist  chapel  to  the 
R  of  the  choir  contains  a  mysterious  and  hierat- 
ic Virgin  (unfortunately  much  darkened)  of  the 
school  of  the  Lorenzetti,  wrongly   attributed  to 

(1)   The  broad  wall  surface  were,  of  course,  originally  covered  with 

(•2)   See  /  Fiorettl  di  San  Francesco  cap.  XVI. 

—  300  — 

Pietro  himself.  In  the  adjoining  chapel  is  Ur- 
bano  da  Cortona's  masterpiece — the  handsome 
tomb  of  Cristoforo  Felici  (i486) — clearly  showing 
the  influence  of  his  master  Donatello.  On  the 
L  wall  of  the  choir  are  marble  busts  of  Silvio 
Piccolomini  and  Yittoria  Forteguerri — all  that 
remain  of  the  monument  erected  to  his  parents 
by  Pius  11.  The  ist  chapel  to  the  L  contains 
a  fine  but  damaged  fresco  of  the  Crucifixion,  by 
Pietro  Lorenzetti,  showing  markedly  the  influ- 
ence of  Giotto  ;  and  the  2nd  chapel  two  frescoes 
by  his  brother — the  Martyrdom  of  the  Francis- 
cans sent  to  convert  the  Sultan,  and  St.  Francis 
before  Honorius  III.  The  last-named  splendid 
work  shows  remarkable  powers  of  individualiza- 
tion which  restorations  have  by  no  means  des- 
troyed. In  the  last  chapel  is  an  entirely  repaint- 
ed Virgin  enthroned,  of  the  latter  half  of  the 
14th  century.  A  chapel  opposite  contains  a  much 
restored  graffito  pavement,  originally  by  Marrina. 
The  handsome  furniture  of  the  sacristy  (R  tran- 
sept) is  noteworthy.  Here  is  also  the  fragment 
of  a  fresco  by  Sodoma. 

Above  the  altar  of  the  adjoining  oratory 
of  the  Seminario  (opened  by  sacristan)  is  a  very 
beautiful  Aladonna  nursing  the  Christ-Child,  one 
of  the  loveliest  panels  of  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti. 
The  heavily  repainted  fresco  in  the  form  of  a 
polyptych  was  probably  once  a  work  of  Pietro 
Lorenzetti.       In  the  corridor  beyond  is  a  noble 

Alinari  photo. 

Madonna  and  Child 


—  30I   — 

relief  of  the  Madonna,  of  the  school  of  Federi- 
ghi,  erroneouly  attributed  to  Cozzarelli.  The 
refectory  (opened  by  doorkeeper)  contains  rem- 
nants of  frescoes  by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti — the 
Risen  Christ  being  a  work  of  singular  impres- 
siveness.  In  the  reception  room  is  an  interest- 
ing Virgin  and  Child  by  Segna  di  Bonaventura  (^). 
We  leave  the  church  by  the  graceful  cloister, 
rebuilt  in  1518.  On  the  R  stands  a  Gothic  portal 
of  1336,  which  once  g'ave  access  to  the  tomb  of 
the  Petroni.  Here  are  also,  embedded  in  the 
walls,  various  fragments  of  sculptures  and  some 
very  fine  tiles,  saved  from  the  wreck  of  the 
former  church. 

To  the  L  of  S.  Francesco  stands  the  chapel 
of  the  Confraternity  of  S.  Cherardo  (custodian, 
Via  delle  Vergini  i).  Within  the  cloister  is  a 
repainted  frescoed  Crucifixion  of  the  end  of  the 
1 5th  century,  and  in  the  meeting  room  an  attrac- 
tive small  half-figure  of  St.  Louis,  by  Taddeo 
Bartoli — a  fragment  of  an  altar-piece— very  pleas- 
ing in  colour.  On  the  landing  of  the  stairs  are 
some  fine  old  tiles,  bearing  the  crescents  of 
the  Piccolomini.     The  Oratorio  di  S.  Bernardino 

(M  The  Rector's  private  room  contains  :  a  Madonna  with  St.  Jerome 
and  the  Baptist,  bj-  a  follower  of  Francesco  di  Giorgio  ;  an  entirely  repainted 
predella  of  Judith,  Delilah,  and  Esther,  of  the  school  of  Sassetta  ;  Christ 
bearing  the  Cross,  by  Beccafumi,  enclosed  in  a  handsome  frame  carved  by 
the  Barili  (?),  and  small  remnants  of  frescoes  by  Paolo  di  Neri  (?)  from  the 
monaster)'  of  Lecceto. 


(custodian  at  Xo.  6)  contains  a  number  of  works 
by  Sodoma  and  by  the  Sienese  eclectics.  The 
panel  of  the  Virgin  and  ^Saints,  above  the  altar 
opposite  the  entrance,  is  a  poor  work  of  Bre- 
scianino.  In  a  small  room  at  the  top  of  the  stairs 
is  a  marble  relief  by  Giovanni  d'  Agostino,  and, 
on  the  altar,  a  Madonna  by  Sano.  The  over-rated 
paintings  of  the  oratory  itself  are  far  from  satis- 
factory as  decorations,  the  compositions  in  many 
of  them  being  too  crowded  and  the  scale  of  the 
figures  too  large.  The  scenes  illustrate  the  life  of 
the  Virgin.  They  commence  on  the  L  wall  with 
her  Nativity,  by  Girolamo  del  Pacchia,  a  work 
clearly  showing  the  influence  of  Andrea  del  Sar- 
to.  Then  follow  the  Presentation  in  the  Temple, 
by  Sodoma;  the  Marriag-e  of  the  Virgin,  by  Bec- 
cafumi ;  and  a  S.  Bernardino,  by  Pacchia.  On 
either  side  of  the  altar  is  the  Annunciation — a 
fine  work  of  the  same  master.  The  St.  Anthony 
of  Padua  is  also  by  him.  The  next  fresco,  of 
the  Visitation,  is  a  poor  production  of  Sodoma. 
The  Death  of  the  Virgin,  by  Beccafumi,  also, 
adds  little  to  that  master's  credit.  The  Assump- 
tion, on  the  other  hand,  is  one  of  the  best  paint- 
ings that  Sodoma  has  left  us  in  Siena,  the  com- 
position, remarkable  to  say,  being  here  an  excel- 
lent one,  and  the  technical  execution  equal,  and 
even  conscientious,  throughout.  On  the  end  Avail 
is  the  same  master's  Coronation  of  the  Virgin. 
The  figure  of  the  Virgin  herself  is  here  pleasing. 

but  the  fresco  as  a  whole  is  far  inferior  to  its 
predecessor.  SS.  Francis  and  Louis,  on  either 
side,  are  likewise  by  Sodoma.  The  painting 
above  the  altar  is  by  Beccafumi.  The  hand- 
some ceiling  was  ordered  of  Giuliano  Turapilli 
in    1496. 

From  the  Via  del  Rossi,  the  Via  del  Comune 
leads  down  to  the  Porta  Ovile.  The  contrada 
church  of  the  Bi'uco,  half  way  down  the  slope, 
contains  a  picture  of  the  Trecento.  In  a  hollow 
just  outside  the  gate  is  the  picturesque  Fonte 
Ovile.  Over  the  gate  itself  hangs  an  old  painted 
Crucifix,  and  to  the  L  (covered)  is  an  attractive 
fresco,  by  Sano  di  Pietro,  of  the  Madonna  with 
vSS.  Bernardino  and  Ansano — the  fragment  of  a 
once  much  larger  work.  On  the  Via  di  Valle- 
rozzi,  opposite  the  church  of  S.  Rocco,  is  a  tab- 
ernacle containing  a  Madonna  by  Fungai  (?). 
The  church  itself,  used  as  the  oratory  of  the 
contrada  delta  Liipa,  contains  late  Sienese  paint- 
ings and  a  colossal  statue  of  its  patron  saint. 
Near  by  is  the  large  Gothic  Fonte  Nuova. 

From  the  Via  dei  Rossi,  the  Via  S.  Pietro 
Ovile  opens  before  the  church  of  S.  Pietro  Ovile. 
Within,  on  the  R,  is  a  beautiful  early  copy  of 
Simone  Martini's  Annunciation,  now  in  the  Uf- 
fizi,  by  an  artist  of  the  latter  half  of  the  Trecento. 
The  pinnacles  above  are  by  Matteo  di  Giovanni, 
as  are  also  the  two  side  saints  of  the  picture 
opposite — S.  Bernardino  and  the  Baptist.      The 

—  304  — 
central  panel  of  this  latter  work,  representing- 
the  Virgin  enthroned,  is  a  genuine  work  of  Pietro 
Lorenzetti.  Above  the  door  hangs  a  Crucifix 
by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.  The  pedestals  of  the  two 
holy-water  basins  are  worthy  of  notice.  In  the 
sacristy  is  a  panel  of  St.  Peter,  of  the  14th  cen- 
tury; and,  in  a  room  of  the  priest's  house,  a  pleas- 
ing Madonna  by  an  early  contemporary  of  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli. 

Returning  to  the  Via  dei  Rossi,  we  notice 
No.  20,  with  interesting  terra-cotta  work  about 
the  Gothic  arches,  and  another  square-set  me- 
diaeval staircase  within. 

The  Via  dell'  Abbadia  leads  to  the  piazza 
of  that  name  and  to  the  church  of  S.  Donato,  once 
the  property  of  the  Salimbeni.  It  contains  a 
picture  by  Pacchia  (over  an  altar  to  the  L),  and, 
in  the  adjoining  chapel  of  the  SS.  Chiodi,  a  dig- 
nified Virgin  and  Child,  by  Andrea  Vanni.  In  a 
corridor  of  the  priest's  house  is  a  damaged  Ma- 
donna of  the  Trecento.  The  piazza  affords  us 
the  best  view  of  the  fortress-like  Palazzo  Salim- 
beni. We  return  to  the  Via  Cavour,  passing 
beneath  what  was  once  an  interesting  Renais- 
sance loggia. 

To  the  L  is  the  Palazzo  Bichi,  enlarged  in 
1520.  Obliquely  opposite  stands  the  small  I^e- 
naissance  Palazzo  Donati.  No.  14  is  a  fine  large 
Gothic  palace.  The  handsome  Palazzo  Spannoc- 
chi,  which  is  now  occupied  by  the  Post  and  Tele- 

—  305  — 
graph  offices,  was  built  for  Ambrogio  Spannoc- 
chi,  the  treasurer  of  Pius  II,  from  the  plans  of 
Giuliano  da  Maiano,  in  1470.  The  old  facade 
faces  the  Via  Cavour,  whereas  that  on  the  piazza 
is  a  modern  restoration.  The  adjoining*  Palazzo 
Salimbeni  has  been  virtually  rebuilt,  on  the  old 
lines,  and,  together  with  the  later  Palazzo  Tan- 
tucci,  is  now  occupied  by  the  Alonte  dei  Paschi. 
In  a  room  on  the  upper  floor  of  the  latter  is  a 
beautiful  fresco  of  the  Virgin  of  Mercy,  in  fine 
preservation,  by  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni,  painted 
in  1 48 1.  The  saints  to  either  side  are  mediocre 
works  of  a  later  and  unknown  artist,  and  the 
wolf  and  twins  at  each  end,  with  the  Lion  and 
Balzana  above,  are  evidently  by  Balducci. 

Passing  between  two  ancient  towers,  in  the 
sides  of  which  are  remnants  of  what  once  formed 
the  Northern  Gate  of  Roman  Siena  (^),  we  reach, 
on  the  L,  the  little  church  of  Sta.  Maria  della  Neve, 
whose  graceful  facade,  commenced  in  1471,  may 
possibly  have  been  due  to  Francesco  di  Giorgio, 
to  whom  it  is  generally  attributed,  but  is  more 
probably  a  work  of  Antonio  Federighi.  Over 
the  altar  (key  at  barber's  shop  opposite)  (^)  is  one 
of  Matteo  di  Giovanni's   masterpieces — the  Ma- 

(')  See  pp.   135-156. 

(2)  On  the  other  side  of  the  road,  to  the  right  of  the  shoe-maker's 
shop,  may  be  seen  one  of  the  old  bolts  which  were  used  to  support  the 
chains  with  which  the  streets  were  formerly  barricaded  in  times  of  tumult 
— see  page  65  supra,  and  note. 

—   3o6  — 

donna  of  the  Snows  (1477).  The  scenes  of  the 
beautiful  predella  illustrate  the  legend  of  the 
foundation  of  Sta.  Maria  Maggiore  in  Rome. 
Nearly  opposite  the  church  is  another  sturdy 
tower.  We  follow  the  Via  Cavour.  The  Pa- 
lazzo Costantini  with  its  simple  fagade  and  hand- 
some portal,  has  been  attributed  to  Francesco 
di  Giorgio,  but  is  probably  due  to  one  of  that 
master's  followers.  The  iron  torch-holders  are 
noticeable.  The  church  of  Sant'Andrea  contains, 
in  the  sacristy,  a  dismembered  altar-piece  by 
Giovanni  di  Paolo.  At  the  end  of  the  Via  Ga- 
ribaldi a  few  steps  to  the  L  of  the  Barriera 
vS.  Lorenzo,  stands  the  famous  Cas^a  della  Con- 
suma,  now  quite  prosaic  in  appearance,  but 
during  the  13th  century  the  scene  of  the  wildest 
extravagance,  when  it  was  the  meeting  place  of 
twelve  youths  who,  in  three  months,  succeeded 
in  spending  over  four  million  lire  (').  The  church 
of  the  Confraternity  of  St.  Sebastian,  with  an 
interesting  Renaissance  facade,  once  contained 
a  famous  banner  painted  by  Sodoma — now  in 
the  Uffizi. 

The  Via  Cavour  becomes  the  Via  di  Camol- 
lia.  The  Via  Campansi  leads  to  the  ex-convent 
of  the  Campansi,  now  occupied  as  a  poor-house. 
It  still  contains    several  frescoes  (shown   by  at- 

(1)  See  Inferno  XXIX.   125-132  and  W.  Heywood.      The  "  Ensai 
pies"  of  Fia  Filippo,  op.  cit.,  pages  59-63. 

—  307  — 
tendant ;  fee).  In  the  first  cloister  is  a  large 
and  interesting  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  the 
choirs  of  Prophets  and  of  Angels  having  been 
painted  by  Pietro  di  Domenico,  and  the  remain- 
der of  the  fresco  by  Balducci.  On  the  second 
floor  is  a  repainted  work  of  Beccafumi — the 
Virgin  and  Child  with  St.  Anna,  St.  Ursula  and 
the  Magdalen.  In  the  adjoining  dormitory  is 
shown  an  Annunciation  by  Sano  di  Pietro,  and 
a  room  of  the  officials  contains  a  striking  "  Noli 
me  Tang'ere  " — preserved  in  its  original  brilliant 
colouring — by  Girolamo  di  Benvenuto.  On  the 
R  of  the  Via  Cavour  are  two  houses  with  ef- 
fective, though,  in  one  case,  misapplied,  brick 
fagades.  Further  on,  to  the  L,  is  the  church  of 
S.  Bartolomtneo  (SS.  Vincenzo  and  Anastasio) 
with  a  charming  belfry  (seen  only  with  difficulty 
from  the  opposite  side  of  the  street)  dating  from 
the  'end  of  the  14th  century.  The  fresco  of 
Christ  on  the  outer  wall  was  one  of  the  oldest 
in  Siena,  and  was  ruined  by  unnecessary  res- 
torations of  a  year  ago.  The  church,  now  used 
as  the  chapel  of  the  Contrada  dell'  Istrice,  con- 
tains a  few  pictures  and  the  grave  of  Pintoric- 
chio.  In  the  sacristy  is  a  banner  with  SS.  Vin- 
cenzo and  Anastasio  next  the  Madonna,  pos- 
sibly by  Fungai ;  in  the  church  itself  a  charm- 
ing Virgin  and  Child  with  Angels,  attributed 
by  Mr.  Berenson  to  Vecchietta  ;  a  triptych  of 
the  school  of  Bartolo  di  Fredi;  and,  over  the  L 
altar,  a  repainted  picture  by  Sano  (covered). 

—  3o8   — 

An  alley  to  the  L  leads,  beneath  an  arch, 
to  the  church  of  Fontegiusta,  built  in  1484  by 
Francesco  Fedeli  and  Giacomo  di  Giovanni,  both 
of  Como  (custodian,  house  at  R).  The  relief 
above  the  entrance — the  Virgin  and  Angels — is 
certainly  not  by  Neroccio,  to  whom  it  is  usually 
attributed,  but  appears  rather  to  be  by  Urbano 
da  Cortona.  The  beautiful  marble  altar  within, 
the  masterpiece  of  Marrina  (i 517),  is  as  remark- 
able for  the  excessive  delicacy  of  its  detail  and 
execution  as  it  is  for  its  fine  architectural  pro- 
portions. Above  it  is  a  fresco  by  Girolamo  di 
Benvenuto,  of  the  Virgin  surrounded  by  many 
Angels — a  late  and  somewhat  heavy  work  of 
that  master.  The  small  bronze  holy-water  basin 
was  cast  in  1430  by  Giovanni  delle  Bombarde, 
the  father  of  Pacchia.  On  the  R  of  the  church, 
2nd  altar,  is  a  Coronation  of  the  Virgin — a  quiet 
and  meditative  picture,  and  a  most  characteristic 
work  of  Fungai.  The  fine  bronze  tabernacle  is 
by  Alarrina.  On  the  opposite  wall  is  a  repainted 
fresco  of  the  Sybil  announcing  the  Nativity  to 
Augustus,  by  Peruzzi.  Exag'geration  of  form 
and  gesture  are  the  principal  characteristics  of 
this  academical  composition,  which  has  received, 
from  some  writers,  the  most  excessive  praise. 
The  stained-glass  window  above  the  entrance — 
a  Madonna  with  SS.  Catherine  and  Bernardino 
— is  of  the  late  15th  century.  For  the  sake  of 
the  curious  traveller,  we  mav  mention  the  shield 

—  309  — 
and  whalebones,  traditionally  said  to  have  been 
presented  to  this  church  by  Christopher  Co- 
lumbus. Before  reaching  the  Porta  Camollia, 
we  pass  a  small  church  with  a  Gothic  portal, 
S.  Pietro  alia  Magione  ('),  once  occupied  by  the 
Knights  Templar.  The  adjoining  chapel  is  a 
well-proportioned  work  of  the  early  i6th  century. 
In  the  attic  of  the  priest's  house  are  remnants 
of  frescoes  by  a  direct  pupil  of  the  Lorenzetti. 
To  the  L  of  the  church,  embedded  in  the  wall 
near  No.  77,  is  a  Quattrocento  bust  of  St.  Peter. 
The  present  Porta  Camollia  was  built  in 
1604  f).  Beyond  is  the  Piazza  d'  Armi,  and  the 
column  which  marks  the  spot  where  the  Em- 
peror Frederick  III  met  his  bride  Leonora  of 
Portugal  (^).  The  Antiporto,  rebuilt  during  the 
late  Seicento,  was  first  erected  in  1259  as  a  spe- 
cial defence  at  a  weak  point  in  the  city's  for- 
tifications. Above  this  gate  stood  a  famous 
fresco  of  the  Assumption  said  to  have  been 
begun  by  Simone  Martini  and  finished  by  Lippo 
Memmi,  which  was  long  the  special  object  of 
S.  Bernardino's  veneration  (*).  In  the  valley  to 
the  West  of  the  gate  lies  the  Gothic  Fonte  Pe- 

(')   For  an  historical  association,  see  page  ^}^  supra. 

(-)   The  first  public  promenade  stretched  from  this  gate  to  the  Anti- 
porto (1309).     Misc.  Sior.  Sen.  vol.  IV.  p.  46. 

(•')   The  column  appears  in  Pintoricchio's  fresco  of  the  event,  in  the 
Libreria  del  Duomo. 

['^}  See  p.  274  supra. 


scaia.  Half  a  mile  beyond  the  Antiporto  stands 
the  brick  Palazzo  dei  Diavoli  (dei  Turchi)  with 
a  remarkable  round  tower  adorned  with  medal- 
lions containing  fantastic  half-figures.  The  ad- 
jacent chapel  is  an  elegant  work  of  Federighi, 
the  delicate  yet  vigorous  terra-cotta  frieze  being 
especially  worthy  of  note.  A  terra-cotta  relief 
of  the  Assumption,  within,  is  doubtfully  attrib- 
uted to  Francesco  di  Giorgio. 

Retracing  our  steps,  we  leave  the  Via  di 
Camollia  by  the  Via  Gazzani  which  opens  upon 
the  Passeggio  della  Lizza,  the  modern  prome- 
nade of  vSiena  (^).  Beyond  it  we  enter  the 
fortress  of  Duke  Cosimo  I,  whence  we  enjoy  a 
view — particularly  fine  at  sundown — of  Siena 
with  her  towers  and  Cathedral,  and  of  the  rolling 
country  bounded  by  a  horizon  of  undulating  hill- 
tops. The  little  church  near  the  Park,  S.  Stefano 
contains  a  fine  and  characteristic  polyptych  by 
Andrea  Vanni — on  either  side  of  the  Virgin  and 
Child  are  St.  vStephen  and  vSt.  James,  the  Baptist 
and  St.  Bartholomew  ;  the  predella  is  a  later 
adjunct  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.  On  the  corner 
of  the  Via  Malavolti  stands  the  interesting  Pa- 

li) The  present  authorities  are  rapidh-  turning  the  Fortezza  and  the 
Lizza  into  a  monument  to  their  own  bad  taste.  It  is  time  that  those  citizens 
who  have  the  citj's  beauty  at  heart — and  of  these  there  are  many — should 
make  a  strenuous  effort  against  this  spirit  of  vandalism. 

Even  while  I  am  writing,  many  of  the  noblest  trees  have  been  ruth- 
lessly and  unnecessarily  cut  down,  the  old  turf  has  been  cut  up  into  gravel 
walks,  and  imitation  rockeries  are  filling  the  former  grassy  corners. 

—  311   — 

lazzo  Mocenni,  erected  by  a  pupil  of  Peruzzi. 
The  Via  Cavallerizzo  leads  to  the  Piazza  Piani- 
giani  and  the  small  church  of  S.  Caterina  (the 
oratory  of  the  Contrada  del  Drago)  which  con- 
tains a  bust  of  St.  Catherine,  executed  by  Mar- 
rina  in  151 7.  The  Via  Paradiso  leads  to  the 
Camporegio  and  the  great  brick  church  of  S.  Do- 
menico.  The  severe  yet  majestic  building  dates 
in  its  present  form  from  the  late  Quattrocento , 
being  an  enlargement  of  an  earlier  church  which 
had  belonged  to  the  Dominicans  since  1225. 
The  present  campanile  has  been  considerably 
lowered  since  it  reached  its  full  height  in  1490. 
The  original  simplicity  of  the  interior,  marred 
by  the  usual  17th  century  additions,  once  re- 
sembled that  of  S.  Francesco.  Over  the  2nd 
altar  R  is  a  repainted  picture  by  Sano  di  Pie- 
tro.  Further  on  hangs  a  panel  of  the  B.  Cate- 
rina de'  Lenzi,  probably  by  Giovanni  di  Paolo. 
The  Chapel  of  St.  Catherine  remains,  to  the  ma- 
jority of  visitors,  the  most  interesting  part  of 
this  church.  Its  walls  are  covered  by  frescoes 
relating  to  her  life,  and  the  marble  tabernacle 
encloses  her  very  head — shown  publicly  on  the 
occasion  of  some  pertinent  feast.  The  beautiful 
tabernacle  itself  is  probably  by  Giovanni  di  Ste- 
fano.  On  either  side  of  it  are  famous  frescoes 
by  Sodoma  (1526),  relating  to  St.  Catherine's 
vision  of  Christ  and  her  miraculous  Communion. 
The  group  of  the  swooning  Saint  supported  by 


her  companions  Alessia  and  Francesca,  in  the 
first  of  these  two  painting's,  is  worthy  of  much  of 
the  excessive  praise  that  has  been  bestowed  upon 
it,  and  shows  what  Sodoma  w^as  capable  of  when 
pressed  to  really  exert  his  natural  powers.  How 
rarely  this  was  the  case,  however,  the  remain- 
ing- frescoes  in  the  chapel  go  far  to  show\  Even 
this  would-be  masterpiece  is  not  without  its  ob- 
vious defects.  The  rich  gilding  and  elaborate 
decoration  of  the  pilaster  behind  the  principal 
group  is  a  grave  artistic  fault,  and  detracts  in 
no  small  measure  from  the  effect  of  the  whole. 
The  same  charge  may  be  laid  against  the  pilaster 
to  the  L.  The  figure  of  Christ  in  the  upper 
part  of  the  painting  is  weak  and  defective.  The 
fresco  of  St.  Catherine's  Communion  is  much  infe- 
rior to  its  companion  piece.  That  on  the  L  wall, 
representing  the  execution  of  Xiccolo  di  Tuldo, 
shows  Sodoma  at  his  worst.  The  painting  op- 
posite, by  his  pupil  Francesco  Vanni,  represent- 
ing a  miracle  of  the  Saint,  requires  no  special 
mention.  The  Prophets  and  Angels  on  the  arch 
are  by  Sodoma,  and  the  figures  of  the  Blessed 
Raimondo  da  Capua  and  the  Blessed  Tommaso 
Xacci — biographers  of  St.  Catherine— are  by 
Vanni.  The  graffito  pavement,  representing 
^sculapius  (?)  seated  among  wild  beasts,  was 
executed  by  a  follower  of  Beccafumi  (^). 

(';  See  Mr.  Cl'st's  Pavement  Masters  of  Siena,  pp.   147-149. 

Besides  the  head  of  St.  Catherine,  S.  Do- 
menico  possesses  several  less  important  relics 
(preserved  in  the  sacristy)  such  as:  her  portable 
altar-stone;  the  dispensation  from  Pope  Gregory 
to  have  Mass  said  on  it  wherever  she  went ;  the 
sacramental  cloths  she  herself  made  for  it;  her 
discipline ;  and  one  of  her  fingers.  Here  is  also 
a  banner,  of  the  Assumption,  painted  by  So- 

On  the  last  altar  on  the  R  of  the  nave  stands 
a  very  beautiful  picture  of  the  Nativity,  by  Fran- 
cesco di  Giorgio — perhaps  the  most  Florentine 
in  feeling  of  all  truly  Sienese  paintings.  The  fine 
lunette  of  the  Pieta  is  by  Matteo  di  Giovanni. 
The  predella,  representing  a  Vision  of  St.  Cathe- 
rine, the  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian,  the  Mas- 
sacre of  the  Innocents,  St.  Dominic  preaching, 
St.  Mary  Magdalen,  is  undoubtedly  by  Bernar- 
dino Fungai.  The  ist  chapel  to  the  R  of  the 
choir  contains  a  small  late  14th  century  Madonna, 
let  into  a  picture  by  Sodoma.  In  the  2nd  chap- 
el are  the  tombs  of  German  students  who  died 
while  studying  at  the  University  of  Siena.  The 
high-altar  is  crowned  by  a  graceful  marble  Ci- 
borium,  flanked  by  two  light-bearing  angels — 
works  of  the  Florentine  Benedetto  da  Maiano. 
A  fine  view  of  the  Duomo  is  to  be  had  from  a 
window  back  of  the  altar.  The  2nd  chapel  to 
the  L  contains  one  of  the  masterpieces  of  ]\Iat- 
teo   di   Giovanni    (1479) — the   exquisite  panel  of 

—  314  — 
St.  Barbara  enthroned  between  the  Magdalen 
and  St.  Catherine  of  Alexandria.  The  rich  col- 
ouring and  careful  execution,  the  lovely  heads 
of  the  saints,  and  the  delicacy  of  sentiment, 
render  this  picture  an  everlasting  source  of  pleas- 
ure to  all  who  know  it.  The  lunette  above,  rep- 
resenting the  Adoration  of  the  Magi,  is  also  by 
^latteo.  Opposite  is  a  painting  by  Benvenuto 
di  Giovanni  (1483)  of  the  ^Madonna  enthroned 
with  Saints  and  Angels,  and,  in  the  lunette,  a 
Pieti.  Brilliant,  if  somewhat  hard,  in  colour, 
and  dignified  and  quiet  in  types,  this  picture 
shows  the  master  to  great  advantage.  The  dis- 
membered altar-piece  in  the  next  chapel,  the 
Virgin  and  Child  with  Angels,  St.  Jerome  and 
the  Baptist,  is  an  interesting  work  by  Alatteo 
(unfortunately  much  darkened),  with  a  remark- 
able landscape. 

Close  to  the  entrance  to  the  church  is  a 
chapel  peculiarly  sacred  to  St.  Catherine- -the 
Cappella  delle  Volte.  In  her  day  it  was  not  sep- 
arated from  the  body  of  the  church,  as  at 
present,  and  was  alwa3"s  her  favourite  place  of 
prayer.  The  original  steps  by  which  she  entered 
are  carefully  preserved  beneath  a  g-rating,  and 
in  the  centre  of  the  floor  is  still  a  piece  of  the 
original  pavement.  Against  one  of  the  pillars 
hangs  an  old  inscription  recording  the  various 
visions  which  here  befel  her.  But  most  interest- 
ing, in  this  chapel  of  memories  of  the  great  Saint, 

—    0^0    — 

is  her  portrait,  above  the  altar,  painted  by  her 
friend  and  disciple  Andrea  Vanni.  Apart  from 
its  interest  as  an  authentic,  if  somewhat  gener- 
alized, portrait,  this  work  possesses  no  small 
artistic  value,  and  is  remarkable  for  its  decor- 
ative feeling.  Over  the  entrance  to  the  chapel 
hangs  a  large  Crucifix  by  Sano  di  Pietro. 

In  a  hallway  of  the  adjoining  school— once 
a  cloister  of  the  convent — are  fragments  of  a 
beautiful  fresco  doubtfully  attributed  to  Lippo 
Vanni,  a  pupil  of  Simone  Martini — a  Virgin 
enthroned  with  Angels  offering  roses,  and  SS.  Pe- 
ter and  Paul.  The  head  of  the  Virgin  is  ex- 
quisite in  conception  and  technique.  Near  by 
are  the  remnants  of  an  Annunciation,  and  a  head 
of  St.  Dominic. 

A  steep  and  rough  path  leads  down  beloAV 
the  apse  and  massive  sub-structures  of  S.  Dome- 
nico — the  latter  now  occupied  as  cavalry  bar- 
racks— to  the  quarter  of  the  city  known  as 
Fontebranda,  the  home  of  vSt.  Catherine,  then  as 
now  permeated  by  the  odour  of  tanning  and 
dyeing.  As  we  descend,  we  pass  on  one  side 
the  modern  swimming  bath  and  on  the  other 
the  picturesque  structure  w^here  the  women  gos- 
sip as  they  wash  their  clothes.  To  our  L  rises 
the  celebrated  Fonte  Branda,  whose  delicious 
waters  preserve  their  icy  coolness  throughout 
the  hottest  w^eather.  Although  mentioned  as 
early  as   1081,    the    fountain    was    probably  first 

covered  only  in  1 198,  by  Bellamino,  whose  name, 
together  with  the  date,  are  recorded  on  an  an- 
cient tablet  now  inserted  in  the  wall  of  the  foun- 
tain. His  work  was  replaced  some  fifty  years 
after  its  erection  by  the  massive  Gothic  structure 
still  standing-,  the  event  being  recorded  by 
another  inscription,   dated   1246. 

Beyond  the  fountain  the  Via  Benincasa  leads 
up  into  the  city.  Half  way  up  the  street  once 
stood  the  house  where  St.  Catherine  was  born 
and  spent  the  greater  part  of  her  life.  On  the 
site  of  her  father's  workshop — he  was  a  dyer — 
an  oratory  was  built  in  1473,  and  in  later  years 
chapels  were  added  where  had  been  the  kitchen, 
the  famil}^  room,  and  the  garden.  The  first 
chapel,  which  opens  on  the  Via  Benincasa,  is 
now  the  Oratorio  della  Contrada  dell'  Oca.  Its 
architect  was  possibly  Francesco  di  Duccio  del 
Guasta.  Over  the  entrance  are  the  arms  of  the 
city  and  those  of  the  contrada — a  Goose.  The 
relief  of  St.  Catherine  with  Angels  is  by  Urbano 
da  Cortona.  Over  the  adjoining  entrance  to  the 
R  is  a  bust  of  the  Saint  by  Giacomo  Cozzarelli, 
to  whom  is  also  ascribed  the  double  loggia 
above.  Over  the  altar  of  the  chapel  stands  a 
wonderfully  beautiful  and  dignified  statue  of  the 
Saint,  by  Neroccio.  The  fresco  of  St.  Catherine 
receiving  the  Stigmata  is  possibly  by  Girolamo 
del  Pacchia(^).  On  the  R  wall  are  two  other  scenes 

(')  The  accompanying  putti  b}-  Sodoma. 

Al;i!::ri    '  I.<.t< 

Cathsrino  of  Siena 
Andiika   Van'm 

from  her  life,  by  the  same  master :  she  rescues 
Dominican  friars  who  are  assailed  by  robbers  ; 
she  is  at  the  funeral  of  St.  Agnes  of  Montepul- 
ciano,  whose  foot  moves  when  she  stoops  to  kiss 
it.  The  fresco  opposite,  representing-  her  healing- 
of  the  Rector  of  the  Hospital  of  the  Misericordia 
when  striken  with  the  plague,  is  also  by  Pacchia. 
That  next  to  it,  of  St.  Catherine  assailed  by 
Florentine  soldiers,  is  a  later  and  less  interest- 
ing work,  by  Salimbeni.  Ascending  the  stairs 
we  enter  a  second  Oratory,  the  walls  of  which 
are  covered  with  modern  frescoes,  by  Franchi, 
again  concerned  with  the  JSaint's  life.  Here  is 
shown  the  little  cell  she  occupied,  and  the  window 
from  which  she  gave  bread  to  the  poor.  On  the 
floor,  beneath  an  iron  grating,  is  her  pillow  of 
bricks,  and  in  a  case  are  preserved  her  scent- 
bottle  for  the  sick,  her  lantern  for  visiting  the 
Hospital  at  night,  the  head  of  her  staff,  a  piece 
of  her  hair  shirt  and  her  veil,  and  the  sack  in 
Avhich  her  head  was  brought  from  Rome.  Above 
the  altar  is  a  panel  of  the  Stigmatization,  prob- 
ably by  Guidoccio  Cozzarelli.  Leaving  this 
chapel  we  reach  a  graceful  little  logg'ia  general- 
ly attributed  to  Peruzzi,  but  apparently  the  work 
of  one  of  his  pupils.  On  the  L  w^e  are  admit- 
ted to  a  third  chapel,  of  the  Confraternita  di 
S.  Caterina,  the  decorations  of  which,  by  late 
Sienese  painters,  are  illustrative  of  further  scenes 
of  St.  Catherine's  life.       The  picture  above  the 

-   3i8  - 

altar,  representing  her  Stig'matization,  in  a  fine 
architectural  frame,  is  an  attractive  work  of 
Fung'ai.  The  Saints  at  the  sides  are  by  the 
same  master.  The  ceiling,  and  the  beautiful 
tiles  which  pave  the  chapel  (covered),  are  of  the 
late  1 6th  century.  The  simple  stalls  are  also 
worthy  of  notice.  Still  higher  up,  on  the  other 
side  of  the  court,  is  the  Oratorio  del  SS.  Croci- 
fisso,  built  in  1533,  by  G.  B.  Pelori  (?).  Above 
the  altar,  enclosed  behind  wooden  doors,  is  a 
remarkably  impressive  Crucifix  of  the  school  of 
Giunta  Pisano— once  in  the  church  of  Sta.  Cri- 
stina  at  Pisa — before  which  ISt.  Catherine  is  said 
to  have  received  the  Stigmata. 

To  the  R  of  the  Via  Benincasa  rises  the 
sheer  Via  della  Calluzza;  one  of  the  most  pict- 
uresque streets  in  Siena,  still  spanned  by  many 
arches,  some  of  them  supported  by  stone  columns 
with  old  Romanesque  capitals.  The  steep  Costa 
Sant'  Antonio  leads  up  to  the  Via  delle  Belle 
Arti.  Near  by  on  the  right  is  the  Blblloteca 
Comunale,  founded  in  1663.  Here  are  ex- 
posed various  manuscripts,  and  some  good  il- 
luminated breviaries,  missals,  etc.,  among  which 
is  one  by  a  Flemish  artist  of  the  15th  century, 
another  by  Sano  di  Pietro,  and  others,  again,  by 
Giovanni  di  Paolo.  The  chief  treasure,  however, 
is  a  volume  of  the  Greek  Gospels,  of  the  nth 
century,  magnificently  bound  in  covers  of  silver 
gilt  with  raised  figures  in   enamel,  probably  of 

—  319  — 
a  later  date.  In  the  same  case  is  a  handsome 
Franciscan  breviary  of  the  15th  century.  The 
Library  also  possesses  valuable  sketch-books  of 
Peruzzi,  Giuliano  di  San  Gallo  and  Francesco  di 

Beyond  the  Library  is  situated  the  Calleria 
delle  Belle  Art!,  the  civic  picture  gallery  of  vSiena, 
composed  almost  entirely  of  paintings  of  the 
Sienese  masters,  and  forming  one  of  the  most 
satisfactory  collections  of  a  single  school  in  ex- 
istence (open,  with  the  exception  of  Sundays, 
from  10  to  3  and  g  to  4  ;  admission  i  franc). 
The  pictures  are  arranged  in  great  part  chrono- 
logically. For  reasons  of  space,  mention  is  here 
made  only  of  the  more  important  works.  The 
numbering  followed  is  the  new  one,  in  red  let- 
ters (^).  The  visitor  will  do  well  to  commence 
with  Stanza  I,  which  is  devoted  to  the  work  of 
Duccio  and  his  immediate  followers,  and  to  the 
Italo-Byzantine  painting  which  preceded  the 
coming  of  that  master.  I .  An  altar-piece  repre- 
senting Christ,  surrounded  by  Scenes  from  His 
Passion,  painted  on  a  surface  of  raised  gesso. 
A  good  example  of  the  crude  Italian  work  of  the 
early  13th  century  (dated  12 15).  2.  An  effigy  of 
St.  Francis,  from  the  workshop  of  Margaritone 
of  Arezzo — one  of  the  many  similar  figures  turned 

\')  I  have  to  thank  the  director  of  the  Gallery  and  his  assistants  for 
their  Icindness  in  hastening  the  renumbering  of  the  pictures,  that  I  might 
adopt  the  new  enumeration  in  this  Guide. 

—    320  — 

out  bv  that  craftsman  and  his  school  durino-  the 
middle  of  the  Diigento.  14.  Panel  with  a  fig-ure 
of  St.  John  Baptist  enthroned  in  royal  garments, 
surrounded  by  scenes  from  his  life — the  most 
markedly  Byzantine  of  all  these  early  works,  pe- 
culiarly oriental  in  colour  and  in  types.  15.  A 
somewhat  similar  panel,  with  St.  Peter  as  the 
central  subject.  Of  the  accompanying  scenes, 
that  of  the  Annunciation  is  particularly  note- 
worthy for  its  successful  representation  of  move- 
ment. Opposite,  hung  here  for  convenience, 
is  a  large  Crucifix,  56.,  by  Taddeo  Bartoli. 
16.  Colossal  Virgin  and  Child,  probably  by  the 
artist  known  as  Guido  da  Siena,  at  any  rate 
typical  of  the  work  which  he  represents.  This 
picture  gives  a  far  better  idea  than  does  the 
repainted  ]\Iadonna  in  the  Palazzo  Pubblico  of 
what  the  painting  of  Guido  reall}^  was.  18.  Ma- 
donna—  clearly  not  by  Gilio  di  Pietro,  who  lived 
in  the  middle  of  the  13th  century,  but  by  a  post- 
Ducciesque  master.  20.  Tiny  Virgin  and  Child 
with  Angels  and  worshipping  Monks,  by  Diiccio 
— one  of  the  master's  earlier  works,  showing,  at 
once,  the  immense  superiority  of  his  art  over  that 
of  his  Tuscan  predecessors.  Nothing-  could  be 
more  delicate  than  the  colour  and  execution  of 
this  damaged  little  panel,  nothing,  again,  more 
truly  Byzantine  in  its  feeling.  The  figure  of  the 
Virgin  is  particularly  graceful,  and  the  flow  of 
her    drapery    exquisite.     21.  A  Crucifix    of    the 

—   321   - 

school  of  Duccio.  23.  Small  and  damaged  panel 
of  the  Magdalen,  by  Duccio.  22.  The  Baptist  and 
St.  Peter  with  Angels  above,  by  Duccio.  28.  Al- 
tar-piece with  the  Virgin  and  Child,  SvS.  Paul 
and  Augustine,  SS.  Peter  and  Dominic;  above, 
Christ  blessing,  and  Ang-els  with  sceptres —  a 
mature  work  of  Duccio.  29.  vSt.  Peter,  30.  St.  An- 
thony Abbot,  31.  St.  Augustine,  32.  St.  Paul— all 
by  a  pupil  of  Duccio.  33.  Altar-piece,  a  good 
school  work.  35.  Small  triptych  with  Scenes 
from  the  Life  of  Christ,  by  Duccio.  This  deli- 
cately coloured  panel  is  one  of  the  most  beau- 
tiful of  the  master's  remaining  works.  36.  A  fine- 
ly modelled  Crucifix,  by  a  direct  pupil  of  Duc- 
cio, doubtfully  attributed  to  Massarello  di  Gilio. 
40.  Madonna  with  vSt.  Paul,  the  Evangelist  and 
vSt.  Bernard,  a  signed  work  by  Segna  di  Bona- 
ventura,  one  of  the  closest  of  Duccio's  followers. 
42.  St.  Ansanus,  43.  St.  Galganus,  also  by  Segna 
— showing  a  slight  diverg*ence  from  Duccio's 
manner  and  that  of  Seg-na's  earlier  works. 
46.  Large  Crucifix — a  somewhat  heavy  work  by 
Niccolb,  the  son  of  vSegna  (1345).  47.  Polyptych 
of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with  Saints,  Prophets 
and  Angels,  a  grand  but  sadly  damaged  work 
of  Duccio.  Especially  noticeable  are  the  lovely 
St.  Agnes,  the  Prophet  Daniel,  and  the  x\ngels 
in  the  pinnacles.  48.  vSt.  Francis,  49.  St.  Louis — 
by  a  follower  of  wSimone  Martini.  50.  Polyptych, 
by  a  pupil  of  Pietro  Lorenzetti.    51.  Large  altar- 

piece,  by  a  follower  of  Lippo  IMemmi  and  the 
Lorenzetti,  wrongly  attributed  to  Lippo  himself. 
52.  St.  Paul,  53.  The  Baptist^ — strongly  charac- 
terized panels  by  a  near  pupil  of  Ambrogio  Lo- 
renzetti, if  not  by  that  master  himself. 

Stanza  II  contains  some  works  belonging  to 
the  grandest  period  of  vSienese  art,  although  the 
most  characteristic  of  Siena's  painters,  Simone 
Martini,  is  here  conspicuous  by  his  absence. 
6 1 .  Assumption  of  the  Virgin  (considerably  dam- 
aged), by  Pietro  Lorenzetti — reminiscent  of  Si- 
mone. To  judge  of  the  splendid  decorative  effect 
of  this  hieratic  picture,  we  should  regard  it  from 
a  distance.  One  of  the  earliest  representations 
of  this  subject,  which  remained,  throughout  the 
the  history  of  Sienese  painting,  a  favourite  one 
with  her  artists.  59.  A  fine  St.  Gregory,  of  the 
school  of  Pietro  Lorenzetti.  60.  Small  triptych 
of  the  Virgin  enthroned,  with  interesting  side- 
scenes,  attributed  to  Bernardo  Daddi,  a  direct 
pupil  of  Giotto  (1336) — an  important  little  pict- 
ure, healthy  in  colour  and  careful  in  execution. 
65.  vSmall  panel  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  sur- 
rounded by  Angels,  SwS.  Catherine  and  Dorothy, 
and  the  four  adoring  Doctors  of  the  Church,  by 
Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.  This  work  is  one  of  the 
most  precious  treasures  of  the  Gallery,  shoAving, 
as  it  does,  all  that  is  greatest  and  best  in  Am- 
brogio's  art.  The  perfect  composition  in  reced- 
ing planes,  the  subtle  modelling  of  the  figures. 

the  lovely  colour — all  go  towards  making  this 
little  painting  a  masterpiece  of  the  highest  qual- 
ity. 67.  Triptych  (exceptionally  well  preserved) 
of  St.  Michael  with  vSt.  Anthony  Abbot  and  the 
Baptist^ — a  somewhat  heavy,  but  not  uninterest- 
ing, work  of  a  pupil  of  Lippo  Memmi,  erroneously 
attributed  to  that  master  himself.  77.  Polyptych 
of  the  Madonna,  the  Magdalen  and  St.  Dorothy, 
the  Evangelist  and  the  Baptist,  and,  below,  the 
Deposition — a  noble  work  of  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti. 
The  worshipping  figure  of  the  Magdalen  and  the 
hauntingly  beautiful  St.  Dorothy  are  two  of  the 
finest  of  Ambrogio's  creations.  The  damaged 
but  effective  panel  of  the  Deposition,  evidently 
a  composition  original  with  this  master,  was 
extensively  copied  by  his  followers  and  imitators, 
there  being  no  less  than  three  versions  of  it  in 
this  same  room.  74.  vSt.  Peter,  72.  St.  Paul — by 
a  close  follower  of  Lippo  ]\Iemmi.  70.  and  71. 
Two  naively  realistic  seascapes,  by  Pietro  Loren- 
zetti (f).  73.  Centre  of  a  triptych,  Madonna  with 
Saints  and  Angels,  attributed  to  Bernaj-do  Daddi. 
80.  Virgin  and  Child  enthroned,  surrounded  by 
beautiful  Angels,  by  Pietro  Lorenzetti — a  charac- 
teristic work  still  plainly  showing  the  influence 
of  Duccio.  76.  Madonna  with  two  Angels,  by  a 
pupil  of  Pietro,  closely  resembling  the  preced- 
ing picture.  79.  The  Baptist,  81.  vSt.  Cecilia, 
82.  St.  Bartholomew — also  by  a  pupil  of  Pietro. 
92.  Allegory  of  Sin,  from  the  Fall  of  Adam  to 

—  324  — 
the  Redemption,  a  darkened  and  heavily  var- 
nished panel  by  Pictro  Lorenzetti — especiall}^  re- 
markable for  its  landscape.  88. The  Annunciation, 
by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti  (painted  in  1344).  A  very 
wonderful  work  of  this  master,  intensely  pas- 
sionate in  feeling,  and  sumptuous  in  its  golden 
colour.  89.  St.  Anthony  Abbot,  91.  St.  Maximin, 
by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.  87.  and  95.  Two  Prophets* 
by  a  follower  of  Lippo  Memmi.  85.  The  Baptist, 
86.  St.  Catherine,  93.  St.  Paul,  94.  The  Evan- 
gelist— delicately  painted  works  of  an  artist  very 
near  to  vSimone  Martini  in  technique  and  in  style. 
83.  and  84.  Parts  of  a  predella  which  probably 
belonged  to  a  picture  executed  for  the  church 
of  the  Carmine,  in  1329,  by  Pietro  Lorenzetti. 
100.  Four  scenes  from  the  Life  of  the  Virg-in, 
which,  together  with  the  surrounding  paintings 
—  101.  the  Assumption,  99.  Predella,  97.  and  102. 
Pilasters  ornamented  with  figures  of  Saints — 
formed  part  of  a  large  polyptych  painted  for 
the  church  of  vS.  Francesco  in  oMontalcino,  by 
Bartolo  di  F^'edi,  in  1388.  Pleasing  works,  quiet 
in  sentiment  and  gay  in  colour.  98.  and  1 03.  are 
Predelle  by  the  same  master.  104.  Adoration  of 
the  Magi,  again  by  Baj-tolo  di  Fredi — a  mannered 
work,  showing  all  the  artist's  defects  and  few 
of  his  merits.  1 08.  SS.  Anthony  Abbot  and 
Onofrio,  especially  attractive  little  panels,  also 
by  Bartolo  di  Fredi.  107.  ^ladonna  enthroned 
(signed,  and  dated  1355) — a  characteristic  work 

Lombardi  photo. 

The  Virgin  appearing  to  Calixtus  III 
Sano  di  Pietro 

of  Taddeo  Gaddi,  in  his  better  style,  despite  its 
roughness  of  execution.  Plainly  showing  its 
derivation  from  Giotto's  altar-piece  in  the  Acad- 
emy at  Florence.  108.  Marriage  of  St.  Cathe- 
rine, a  beautiful  panel  by  an  unknown  follower 
of  Simone  and  Pietro  Lorenzetti.  Opposite, 
145.  Triptych,  by  Giacomo  di  Mino  del  Pellicciaio 
— coarsely  repainted.  The  faces,  however,  are  in 
great  part  untouched  and  retain  their  softness 
of  type.  As  to  style  this  picture  has  little  in 
common  with  that  by  the  same  master  in  the 
vServi.  109.  Polyptych  of  St.  Anna  with  the 
Virgin  and  Child,  wSt.  Catherine  and  the  Baptist, 
wSt.  Anthony  and  another  Saint,  by  Liica  di  Tomme 
(signed,  1367).  A  pleasing  picture,  and  one  of 
the  few  authenticated  w^orks  of  this  artist.  I  14. 
Tabernacle,  possibly  a  fragment  of  a  larger  paint- 
ing— a  genuine  but  poor  work  of  Andrea  Vanni. 
Ml.  Crucifixion  and  Predella  (on  linen),  by  a 
pupil  of  Bartolo  di  Fredi.  I  15.  Altar-piece  by 
Bartolommeo  di  Nutino  (f).  116.  Large  panel  of 
the  Birth  of  the  Virgin,  with  SS.  James  and 
Catherine,  Bartholomew  and  Elizabeth,  by  Paolo 
di  Giovanni  Fei — a  naturalistic  treatment  of  a 
subject  much  in  vogue  among  the  Sienese  paint- 
ers. 126.  Three  vSaints,  also  by  Paolo  di  Giovanni 
Fei.  I  19.  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,  125.  Death 
of  the  Virgin,  by  Spinello  Ai'etino — pleasing  in 
colour  and  executed  with  that  artist's  usual 
roug-h  security  of  hand.     Here  follows  a  series 


-   3^6  - 

of  pictures  by  Taddeo  Bartoli :  131.  Large  panel 
of  the  Annunciation  (darkened  by  smoke  and 
dirt),  a  free  transcription  of  Simone's  picture  in 
the  Uffizi — much  below  the  average  of  Taddeo' s 
work  in  merit  ;  1 28.  A  small  and  enamel-like 
triptych  of  the  Madonna  enthroned  with  SS.  An- 
thony and  Catherine,  Nicholas  and  Jerome,  show- 
ing Taddeo  in  his  most  pleasing  phase;  127.  An 
Adoration  of  the  Magi;  132.  A  Nativity;  134. 
]\Iartyrdom  of  SS.  Cosmo  and  Damian,  remark- 
able for  energy  of  action — a  point  in  the  suc- 
cessful carrying  out  of  which  the  Sienese  were 
not  usually  over  proficient;  130.  St.  Agnes  (?)— a 
charming  little  figure  ;  1 35.  St.  Matthew  ;  1 44. 
and  143.  Annunciation — beautiful  but  sadly  dam- 
aged fragments.  78.  A  small  Beato,  hung  among- 
the  pictures  of  the  Lorenzetti,  is  also  a  work  of 

Stanza  III  contains  Avorks  of  the  earlier  half 
of  the  15th  century.  149.  Triumph  of  Death, 
150.  Triumph  of  Chastity,  151.  Triumph  of  Love, 
152.  Triumph  of  Fame.  Four  delightful  and 
much  questioned  panels,  attributed  by  Mr.  Ber- 
enson  to  Pier  Fi'ancesco  Fiorentino — certainly  not 
of  the  Sienese  school  to  which  they  have  usually 
been  ascribed.  154.  A  small  and  delicate  triptych, 
by  a  follower  of  Taddeo.  157.  Triptych  of  a 
seated  Madonna,  with  the  Baptist  and  St.  Nich- 
olas, wSt.  Augustine,  and  the  Annunciation — a 
lovely  little  work  of  the  school  of  Lorenzo  Mo- 

naco.  Opposite  are  two  panels  of  the  Madonna 
with  Saints — 220.  and  219. — characteristic  ex- 
amples of  Martino  di  Bartolommeo,  a  pupil  of 
Taddeo  Bartoli.  164.  Seated  Madonna  surround- 
ed by  music-making  Angels,  by  Domenico  di 
Bartolo  (signed,  1433) — an  interesting  picture, 
inspired  by  a  study  of  Florentine  painting,  and 
illustrating  the  artist's  power,  or  desire  of  it,  to 
express  values  of  modelling.  166.  A  fine  little 
Temptation  of  St.  Anthony,  by  Sassetta.  1 67.  The 
Last  vSupper,  also  by  Sassetta,  has  all  the  pleas- 
ing colouring  of  this  master,  the  careful  ex- 
ecution, and  individual  expression.  168.  The  four 
patron  Saints  of  wSiena,  Ansanus,  Victor,  Savinus 
and  Crescentius,  and  169.,  the  Four  Fathers  of 
the  Church — quiet  and  dignified  figures — again 
by  Sassetta.  171.  Marriage  of  St.  Catherine  of 
Alexandria,  signed  Micheliniis.  This  curious  and 
interesting  panel  is  the  work  of  a  painter,  pos- 
sibly North  Italian,  under  the  direct  influence 
of  the  school  of  Cologne.  Then  follows  a  group 
of  pictures  by  the  highly  original  and  ever 
changeful  Giovanni  di  Paolo,  showing  the  varied 
influences  under  which  this  master  worked. 
173.  An  imposing  polyptych,  with  a  hieratic 
figure  of  St.  Nicholas,  and  attendant  Saints  (signed 
1453).  172.  Predella  of  the  Last  Judgment — the 
Paradise  containing  many  details  of  naive  charm 
and  grace.  191.  Smaller  polyptych  of  the  Virgin 
with  Saints— very  careful  in  execution.  1 78.  Small 

-    32«   - 

triptych  of  the  ]\Iadonna  with  Saints  and  Angels. 
174.  Presentation,  175.  Crucifixion,  176.  Journey 
into  Egypt — pleasing-  early  works.  (93.  and  197. 
P\ill-length  figures  of  the  Baptist  and  St.  Dominic, 
clearly  showing"  the  influence  of  the  art  of  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli.  195.  St.  Alark,  showing  the  influence 
of  Bartolo  di  Fredi.  199.  St.  Galganus  and  the 
Magdalen,  and  201.  St.  Bernard  and  St.  Romuald 
— divisions  of  a  larg'e  polyptych  of  which  the 
interesting  Predella,  198.,  relating  to  the  lives 
of  the  above-mentioned  vSaints,  once  formed  a 
part.  200.  The  Crucifixion  (1440).  177.  A  small 
but  characteristic  triptych  by  Sassetta — the  St. 
Catherine  being  a  particularly  graceful  little  fi- 
gure. 185.  A  seated  Madonna,  by  a  close  pupil 
of  Sassetta.  184.  A  softly  colour  little  panel, 
mis-placed,  by  a  follower  of  the  Lorenzetti. 
On  the  opposite  wall  is  a  much  damag'ed,  but 
extremely  decorative,  cassone,  217.,  representing 
the  Triumph  of  David,  by  Neroccio  di  Landi. 
216.  and  218.  Predelle,  by  Pellegrino  di  JMariano, 
both  illustrating-  his  close  relationship  to  Sano 
di  Pietro.  Above  are  three  panels  by  Giovanni 
di  Paolo:  213.  St.  James,  214.  Kneeling  Bishop, 
215.  St.  Andrew.  203.  A  figure  of  St.  Bernar- 
dino, by  Pietro  di  Giovanni  (signed).  204.  The 
larg-e  front  of  a  press,  formerly  in  the  Hospital, 
decorated  by  Vecchietta  (in  1445)  witb  Sienese 
Saints  and  Beati,  the  four  patron  Saints  being 
on  the  extreme  right  and  left  ;    above,  the  An- 

—  329  — 
nunciation ;  on  the  reverse  of  the  doors,  scenes 
from  the  Passion — these  last  being-  rough  and 
hastily  executed,  and  narrowly  verging  on  cari- 
cature. 205.  St.  Bernardino,  by  the  same  master. 
206.  A  Virgin  and  Child  seated  in  the  open 
air,  with  a  quaintly  interesting  landscape  back- 
ground^an  early  and  delightful  work  of  Gio- 
vanni di  Paolo,  very  suggestive  of  vSassetta.  207. 
Madonna  with  Angels,  of  the  school  of  Domenico 
di  Bartolo.  211.  On  the  opposite  wall,  Circum- 
cision, by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.  A  literal  copy — 
with  Giovanni's  types — of  xVmbrogio  Lorenzetti's 
composition  now  in  the  iVcademy  at  Florence. 
210.  Grandiose  Virgin  and  Child  enthroned  with 
SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  a  signed  and  late  work  of 
Vecchietta,  unfortunately  ruined.  212.  AUeg'ory 
of  the  Redemption — a  strange  painting  by  Gio- 
vayini  di  Paolo.  208.  Christ  blessing,  by  the  same 
master — warm  in  colour.  209.  Adoration  of  the 
Christ-Child  by  the  Virgin,  vSS.  Francis  and  Do- 
minic. A  work  of  the  eclectic  Piei-  Francesco 
Fiorentino  (^),  painted  under  the  direct  inspiration 
of  Benozzo  Gozzoli. 

Stanza  IV  and  Stanza  Y  are  devoted  entirely 
to  paintings  of  Sano  di  Pietro  and  his  assistants. 
The  visitor  may  here  be  left  to  his  own  enjoy- 
ment of  this  loveable  artist,  and  particular  men- 
tion need  be  made  only  of  the  following  works, 

(')  It  is  almost  unnecessary  to  say  that  this  painter  is  not  to  be  con- 
founded   with    the    great    Piero    dei    Franceschi,    although    such  an  absurd 

mistake  has  frequently  been  made  by  some  would-be  "art  students". 

—  330  — 
as  being  the  finest  of  the  collection.  226.  Po- 
Ivptych — noticeable  for  the  figure  of  St.  Benedict. 
228.  Madonna  with  Angels  and  Saints,  in  the 
original  frame.  227.  Small  and  decorative  As- 
sumption of  the  Virgin — rich  in  colour.  23 1 . 
Polyptych,  of  which  the  central  panel  of  the 
Virgin  and  Child  is  especially  delicate  and  win- 
ning. 233.  A  lovely  triptych  of  the  Madonna 
surrounded  by  Angels,  SS.  Cosmo  and  Damian, 
and  a  beautiful  predella  of  scenes  from  their 
lives,  with  SS.  Catherine  and  Bernardino  at 
either  end — probably  the  finest  of  all  vSano's 
larger  panels.  235.  St.  Ansanus.  238.  St.  Bernar- 
dino. 241.  The  Virgin  commending  her  city  of 
vSiena  to  Callistus  III — -interesting"  for  the  sub- 
ject apart  from  its  artistic  charm.  260.  (Next 
room)  Polyptych  of  the  Assumption,  with  dig- 
nified Saints.  259.  Fine  predella.  265.  vSmall 
panel  of  St.  Jerome  in  the  Desert.  255.  Another 
predella.  254.  Madonna  with  four  vSaints  and  two 

The  badly  lighted  Stanza  VI  contains  paint- 
ings by  three  of  the  best  Sienese  artists  of  the 
late  15th  century — Francesco  di  Giorgio,  Matteo 
di  Giovanni,  and  Neroccio  di  Landi,  the  latter 
being  particularly  well  represented.  B_v  this 
great  and  insufficiently  appreciated  master  there 
are  no  less  than  seven  panels,  -every  one  of 
which  should  be  carefully  and  reverently  studied. 
281.  An  early  and  exquisite  picture  of  the  Ma- 

donna  with  SS.  Bernardino  and  Jerome.  282. 
Triptych  of  the  Virgin  and  Child,  St.  Michael 
and  vSt.  Bernardino  (signed,  1476)— the  central 
panel  being  one  of  the  supremely  lovely  crea- 
tions of  the  Sienese  Quattrocento.  285.  Virgin  with 
Child  standing  erect,  and  SS.  Catherine  and  Ber- 
nardino. 287.  Madonna  with  four  Saints,  having 
much  in  common  with  the  work  of  Neroccio's 
contemporary  and  partner,  Francesco  di  Giorgio, 
with  whom  the  master  is  often  confounded  even 
by  intelligent  critics.  295.  Madonna  with  the 
Baptist  and  another  vSaint.  294.  Madonna  with 
vSt.  John  and  wSt.  Andrew.  278.  Virgin  and  Child 
enthroned,  with  six  Saints,  a  large  work  of  the 
master's  later  years,  signed,  and  dated  1492. 
By  Francesco  di  Giorgio  are  :  three  small  and 
curious  predelle,  274.,  275.,  276.,  representing 
Potiphar's  wife,  Susanna,  and  Joseph  sold  by 
his  Brethren;  277.  The  Annunciation — a  fascinat- 
ing' little  picture,  very  graceful  in  movement 
and  in  line ;  288.  Virgin  and  Child  with  a  beau- 
tiful Angel,  in  a  landscape ;  and  293.  Madonna 
with  two  Saints — a  later  work.  286.  A  Virgin 
and  Child  enthroned,  with  four  delightful  Angels, 
is  the  earliest  signed  work  (1470)  which  we 
possess  from  the  brush  of  Matteo  di  Giovanni. 
280.  Madonna  with  St.  John,  vSt.  James,  and  two 
Angels — a  particularly  Sanesque  picture  by  the 
same  master  (still  in  its  old  frame).  283.  Another, 
and  very   beautiful,  Madonna,   in    a  rocky  land- 

scape,  also  by  Matteo.  284.  Panel  of  the  school 
of  Francesco  di  Giorgio,  wrong'ly  attributed  to 
Matteo.  279.  Adoration  of  the  Shepherds,  an 
interesting  work,  with  a  peculiarly  Umbrian 
landscape,  by  Pietro  di  Domenico.  At  the  oppo- 
site end  of  the  room  are  two  pictures  by  Coz- 
zarelli — 296.,  St.  Sebastian,  and  297..  an  alleg'orical 
representation  of  the  Virgin  (?)  298.  Enthroned 
]\Iadonna  Avith  four  Saints  (signed,  1500),  by 
Andrea  di  Niccolb,  a  much  damaged  but  character- 
istic example  of  his  style.  299.  Small  Nativity, 
with  a  remarkably  spacious  landscape,  by  Suor 
Barbera  Ragnoni,  possibh^  a  copy  of  a  work  of 
the  school  of  Pacchiarotto. 

In  Stanza  VII  are  hung  damaged  and  frag- 
mentary paintings.  325.,  next  the  entrance,  a 
dimmed  and  blackened  Virgin  and  Child,  was 
once  a  beautiful  and  highly  characteristic  work 
of  Sassetta.  Next  to  it,  324.,  hangs  an  Assump- 
tion by  Giovanni  di  Paolo.  323.  A  ruined  Aladonna 
by  Sajio  di  Pietro.  313.  A  remarkable  Italo-By- 
zantine picture  of  St.  Francis,  surrounded  by 
scenes  from  his  life  (much  damaged  by  restora- 
tion). 306.  Charming  Virgin  of  the  Annunciation, 
by  Francesco  di  Giorgio — a  mere  fragment.  On 
the  entrance  wall,  a  polyptych  by  Paolo  di  Gio- 
vanni Fei.     The  engravings  are  unimportant. 

In  the  passage-way  is  the  wreck  of  a  large 
Assumption,  once  an  ambitious  work  of  Pacchia- 
rotto,  and  in  the  hall  hangs  a  polyptych  by  Gio- 


Lombardi  photo. 

The  Virgin  and  Child 

000      ■" 

vanni  di  Paolo.  Of  chief  interest  to  the  majority 
of  visitors  in  Stanza  VIII  is  Sodojua's  fresco 
of  Christ  bound  to  the  Column — once  in  the 
church  of  vS.  Francesco — an  extravagantly  over- 
lauded  work,  realistically  conceived,  but  lacking- 
in  real  refinement.  The  surface  modelling  of  the 
flesh  is  here  admirable  and  careful,  although,  as 
is  almost  invariably  the  case  with  Sodoma,  the 
figure  conveys  but  a  poor  idea  of  structural 
strength.  333.,  Ransom  of  Prisoners,  and  334., 
Escape  of  ^Eneas  from  Troy,  are  frescoes  orig- 
inally painted  for  the  palace  of  Pandolfo  Pe- 
trucci,  by  Girolamo  Genga,  showing  the  direct 
influence  of  Signorelli.  342.  A  fine  but  darkened 
little  panel  of  the  Nativity,  by  Gii'olamo  di  Ben- 
vemdo.  346.  An  Angel,  by  Balducci.  354.  Judith, 
a  pleasing  work  of  Sodoma.  359.  Madonna  with 
SS.  Francis  and  Catherine,  by  Balducci.  360.,  361 ., 
326.,  327.,  four  bierheads,  are  wrongly  attributed 
to  Sodoma  himself.  The  six  delicately  carved 
wooden  pilasters,  by  Antonio  Barili,  once  formed 
a  part  of  the  decorations  of  the  Palazzo  del  Ma- 

Stanza  IX  is  devoted  to  the  compositions  of 
the  vSienese  eclectics  of  the  early  Cinqiiecento. 
363.  A  characteristic  Madonna  by  Fuiigai.  365. 
Nativity  with  adoring  Saints  (on  linen),  by  An- 
drea di  Niccolb,  clearly  showing  the  influence  of 
Francesco  di  Giorgio.  366.  Five  small  wSaints, 
by    Pacchiarotto.     367.  Madonna  enthroned,  with 

St.  Jerome  and  the  Blessed  Giovanni  Colombini 
(1482),  by  Cozzai'elli.  368.  The  Crucifixion  and 
Saints  (1502),  by  Andrea  di  Niccolb.  369.  Deposi- 
tion, a  late  and  remarkable  work  of  Girolamo 
di  Benveiiido.  370.  Four  Saints,  372.  Nativity  of 
the  Virgin,  and  373.  Dead  Christ  supported  by  An- 
gels, are  by  Girolamo  di  Bcnvenuto.  Three  panels 
of  the  Madonna  with  Saints,  374.,  375.,  376.,  are 
exceptionally  pleasing  works  by  Fungai,  the 
last-named  showing  the  marked  influence  of 
Francesco  di  Giorgio.  Above,  and  on  the  op- 
posite wall,  hang  four  little  paintings  by  Bal- 
ducci ;  Zll.  Faith,  379.  Charity,  381.  Fortitude, 
393.  Justice.  384.  Triptych  of  the  Trinity  and 
four  Saints  (15 12),  an  early  work  of  Beccafiimi. 
383.  Small  Assumption,  by  Girolamo  di  Benvemdo. 
382.,  above,  Madonna  with  St.  Jerome  and  St. 
Bartholomew,  is  by  Pietro  di  Domeynco.  386.,  Ado- 
ration of  the  Magi,  and  391.,  Madonna  with 
St.  Jerome  and  St.  Francis,  are  by  Baldiicci.  390. 
and  397.  Two  panels  by  Pietro  di  Domenico,  rep- 
resenting the  Nativity,  and  the  ^ladonna  with 
wSS.  Jerome  and  Anthony  of  Padua.  395.  Pleas- 
ing little  Virg-in  and  Child,  by  Girolamo  di  Ben- 
vemdo (fragment).  398.  and  364.  Four  Saints,  crude 
works,  possibly  by  Balducci.  Four  pilasters, 
similar  to  those  in  Stanza  VIII,  by  Barili. 

Stanza  X  contains  large,  although  not  al- 
ways the  most  important,  works  of  the  Sienese 
Renaissance.     To  the  L  of  the  entrance  are  two 


small  panels  by  Cozzarelli :  445.  St.  Catherine 
giving  her  heart  to  Christ,  446.  Madonna  with 
Saints.  441.  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  one  of 
Fungai's  poorer  pictures.  440.  Coronation  of  the 
Virgin  (147 1).  A  remarkable  and  very  charac- 
teristic work,  by  Francesco  di  Gioi^gio,  somewhat 
hard  in  colour,  but  full  of  interesting'  details. 
The  principal  group  is  the  most  beautiful  portion 
of  the  picture.  437.  Nativity  with  SS.  Bernar- 
dino and  Ambrose  (1475),  by  the  same  master 
— a  prelude  to  his  Nativity  in  S.  Domenico. 
436.  Polyptych  of  the  Virgin  and  Child  with 
attendant  Angels,  St.  Michael  and  St.  Catherine, 
a  Bishop  and  St.  Lucy,  and  a  beautiful  predella 
of  scenes  from  the  Life  of  the  Virgin  (1475) — 
a  splendid  work  of  Bcnvemito  di  Giovanni,  con- 
trasting strangely  with  the  master's  later  pict- 
ure of  the  Ascension,  434.,  hanging-  next  to  it. 
This  severe  and  imposing  altar-piece,  painted 
in  1 49 1,  is  an  example  of  the  striking'  change 
which  came  over  Benvenuto  during  the  -latter 
part  of  his  career.  432.  ]\Iadonna  enthroned  with 
SS.  Cosmo  and  Damian,  SS.  Sebastian  and  Gal- 
ganus,  probably  designed  by  Matteo,  but  exe- 
cuted by  Cozzaj-elli,  433.  Round  picture  of  the 
Madonna  with  two  Saints,  by  Girolamo  Genga. 
431.  Enthroned  Virgin  and  Child  with  Saints 
and  Angels  (15 12),  by  Fnngai,  in  one  of  that 
master's  favourite  landscapes.  428.  Calvary — of 
the  school  of  Francesco  di  Giorgio.    427.  Christ 

-  336  - 
descending  into  Limbo,  the  Penitent  Thief  behind 
Him,  an  academic  but  not  uninteresting  paint- 
ing, by  Beccafiimi.  On  the  end  wall  are  two  al- 
tar-pieces by  Pacchiarotto  :  426.  A  charming-  but 
weak  Visitation,  with  vSt.  ^lichael  and  St.  Fran- 
cis ;  424.  Madonna  enthroned,  with  dignified  fig- 
ures of  vSt.  Onofrio  and  St.  Bartholomew.  423. 
Fall  of  Lucifer,  a  riotous  and  chaotic  work  of 
Beccafumi.  422.  Ascension  of  Christ,  by  Pacchia- 
rotto. 421.  Pleasing'  predella  by  the  same  master, 
of  three  scenes  from  the  Life  of  Christ  and  two 
from  that  of  St.  Catherine.  420.  St.  Catherine 
receiving  the  vStigmata,  one  of  the  best  works 
of  Beccafumi,  obviously  painted  while  under  the 
sway  of  the  Florentine  school,  and  especially 
that  of  Fra  Bartolommeo.  This  latter  influence 
is  particularlv  noticeable  in  the  landscape,  with 
its  wonderful  atmospheric  effects.  4!  7.  418.  419. 
Predella  of  scenes  from  the  Life  of  St.  Catherine, 
by  the  same  artist.  414.  Virgin  and  Child  en- 
throned, with  four  Saints,  and  Angels  carrying- 
snow-balls  (signed,  1508),  by  Girolamo  di  Benve- 
?iHto- -the  colour  much  darkened.  The  fine  head 
of  St.  Catherine  of  Alexandria  is  evidently  a 
portrait.  The  lunette  of  the  Nativity  is  by  Mat- 
teo  di  Giovanni.  413.  Descent  from  the  Cross,  one 
of  the  first  works  painted  by  Sodonia  after  his 
arrival  in  Siena — well  composed,  hard  and  dis- 
agreeable in  colour,  with  a  miniature-like  land- 
scape.    For  vSodoma,  the    picture    is    careful    in 

Alinari  photo. 

The  Virgin  and  Child  with  Angels 
Matteo  di  Giovanni 

00  J 

execution  and  fairly  correct  as  to  drawing-. 
410.  The  Annunciation,  and,  in  the  background, 
the  Visitation  (151 8),  a  poor  Pacchia.  409.  En- 
throned Virgin  and  Child  with  six  Saints,  by 
Andrea  Brescianino — well,  although  somewhat  ac- 
ademically, composed;  on  the  whole  this  artist's 
masterpiece.  The  softly  coloured  predella  is  by 
the  same  hand.  407.  The  Nativity,  obviously 
not  by  Pintoricchio,  to  whom  it  is  ascribed — 
given  by  ^Ir.  Berenson  to  Balducci.  406.,  a 
predella — full  of  open  air  effects — although  be- 
longing to  another  picture,  is  also  by  Balducci. 
405.  An  impressionistic  Nativity,  by  Beccafu^ni, 
suggesting  a  comparison  with  Sodoma's  picture 
of  the  same  subject,  in  the  Carmine,  to  which 
it  is  by  no  means  inferior.  404.  Drawing  by 
Vecchietta  for  his  tabernacle  in  the  Duomo.  40 1 . 
Gethsemane,  and  443.  Descent  into  Limbo — dam- 
aged frescoes  by  Sodoma,  once  in  the  oratory 
of  Sta.  Croce.  Were  it  not  for  its  poor  and 
overcrowded  composition,  the  latter,  more  par- 
ticularly, w^ould  rank  as  one  of  the  best  of  So- 
doma's works.  The  figure  of  Christ  deserves  a 
special  w^ord  of  praise — ^that  of  the  graceful  Eve 
is  too  well  known  to  need  comment.  399.  and 
400.,  two  small  panels  of  the  Madonna  with 
vSaints,  are  particularly  attractive  works  of  Mat- 
teo  di  Giovanni.  Hanging  above  the  pictures  are 
some  of  the  cartoons  for  the  pavement  in  the 
Duomo,  by  Beccafumi,  many  of  them  remarkable 

-   338    - 

for  their  bold  and  certain  drawing,  and  clearly 
showing,  in  this  respect,  the  master's  immeasur- 
able superiority  over  his  favoured  rival  Sodoma. 

In  Stanza  XI  is  a  miscellaneous  collection 
of  pictures  of  different  schools,  the  majority 
being  of  no  artistic  value.  451.  and  464.,  the 
Magdalen  and  St.  Catherine  (on  either  side  of 
the  entrance),  attributed  to  Fra  Bartolommeo, 
are  uninteresting  works  of  Albertinelli.  454.  A 
remarkable  portrait,  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  by  Ziic- 
caro,  probably  executed  in  England  while  that 
artist  was  Painter  to  the  Queen.  462.  and  488. 
Two  paintings  of  the  German  school,  by  Albrecht 
Altdof'fer.  495.  The  Holy  Family,  in  a  beautiful 
Umbrian  landscape — a  popular  work  of  Pintoric- 
chio.  503.  Virgin  and  Child  with  the  Baptist,  by 
Genga.  504.  A  fine  little  portrait  of  Charles  V, 
attributed  to  Amberger.  5 1 2.  Nativity,  with  an 
Angel  and  a  little  St.  John,  a  carefully  executed 
Sodoma,  showing  decided  Florentine  influence. 
537.  Lucretia — school  of  Lucas  Kranach.  544.  A 
picture  of  the  Annunciation,  with  splendid  space 
effects,  and  a  glorious  landscape  with  a  wonderful 
play  of  light  and  shade — a  much  neglected  mas- 
terpiece  of  Paris  Bordonc. 

Just  outside  the  entrance  to  Stanza  X  stands 
a  Winged  Victor3^  which  once  had  a  place  on 
the  Roman  Porta  Aurea  (^).     In  the  hall  be3^ond 

[}\    See  p.   156,  note  i  supra. 

Alinari  photo. 

The  Holy  Family  with  St.  Leonard 


are  remnants  of  Pisanesque  sculptures,  and  reliefs 
of  the  Apostles,  in  grey  stone,  by  Giovanni  Tu- 

On  the  corner  of  the  Via  delle  Belle  Arti 
and  the  Via  delle  Terme  stands  the  church  of 
S.  Pellegrino.  In  the  atrium  is  an  impressive  fig- 
ure of  the  Blessed  Andrea  Gallerani,  by  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli,  and  within  the  church  are  two 
Apostles— St.  Peter,  in  papal  attire,  and  St.  Paul 
— works  of  the  Trecento.  Over  No.  8  Via  delle 
Terme  is  a  fine  emblem  of  the  Guild  of  Masons. 
Further  on,  a  covered  shrine  contains  a  very 
lovely  and  decorative  Virgin  and  Child  by  Gio- 
vanni di  Paolo — one  of  that  master's  most  cap- 
tivating" pictures  (key  to  be  had  at  Vicolo  del  For- 
cone  I  ;  fee).  To  the  L  of  the  modern  Piazza 
deir  Indipendenza  rises  the  stone  Torre  del  Wli- 
gnanelli  where  formerly  were  hung  the  public 
bells.  We  return  to  the  Croce  del  Travaglio  by 
the   Via  Cavour. 


PERHAPS  even  more  beautiful  than  the  city 
itself  are  the  numberless  walks  and  drives 
about  Siena,  a  description  of  which  would  easily 
fill  a  lengthy  separate  volume.  Space  here  for- 
bids, however,  mention  of  any  save  the  more  im- 
portant points  in  the  immediate   vicinity.     The 

—   340   — 

rest  are  reserved  for  a  future  supplement  to  this 
present  Guide. 

About  a  mile  and  a  half  beyond  the  Porta 
Ovile  is  situated  the  convent  of  the  Osservanza. 
The  site  of  the  present  buildings  was  once  oc- 
cupied by  a  hermitage,  which  was  presented  to 
S.  Bernardino  in  1404.  Here  a  church  was 
raised  in  1423 — rebuilt  in  1485,  on  the  designs 
of  Cozzarelli.  It  still  contains  several  fine  pict- 
ures, and  other  objects  of  interest.  Over  the  ist 
altar  L  is  a  Madonna  by  Sano — two  of  the  angels 
above,  the  wrings  of  those  below,  and  the  mantle 
of  the  Aladonna,  being  17th  century  renovations. 
On  the  2nd  altar  stands  one  of  the  masterpieces 
—  in  sentiment,  in  colour  and  in  composition — 
of  Andrea  della  Robbia,  representing  the  Coro- 
nation of  the  Virgin,  with  music-Qiaking  Angels 
and  attendant  vSaints.  Over  the  3rd  altar  is 
another  picture  by  Sano,  the  predella  of  which 
has  been  misplaced  beneath  a  painting"  of  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli,  in  the  adjoining  chapel — a  polyp tych 
of  eight  Saints  (dated  14 13).  To  either  side  of 
the  high-altar  are  statues  of  the  Annunciation, 
of  the  school  of  Andrea  della  Robbia,  that  of 
the  Virgin  being  particularly  fine  in  attitude. 
Beneath  the  altar  are  preserved  relics  of  S.  Ber- 
nardino, in  a  reliquary  of  the  15th  century.  In 
the  choir  hangs  a  panel  of  St.  Catherine  with  a 
kneeling  female  pilgrim,  by  Girolamo  di  Ben- 
venuto,   and  a  signed   (1439)    picture  of   S.  Ber- 

--  341  — 
nardino,  by  Pietro  di  Giovanni.  The  sacristy 
contains:  a  terra-cotta  Pieta,  by  Cozzarelli,  in 
which  feeling  for  grace  of  expression  predom- 
inates over  that  for  realistic  presentation  ;  the 
tomb-stone  of  Pandolfo  Petrucci ;  and  inlaid  pres_ 
ses  of  the  early  Cinqiieceiito.  The  4th  altar  on  the 
R  of  the  nave  supports  a  splendid  triptych  by 
Sassetta,  representing  the  Virgin  and  Child,  wSt. 
Ambrose  and  St.  Jerome,  and  above,  half-figures 
of  Christ,  SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  and  an  exquisite 
little  Annunciation.  The  statue  of  St.  Anthony 
of  Padua,  in  the  ist  chapel,  is  by  Cozzarelli.  In 
the  crypt  is  preserved  the  cell  once  inhabited 
by  S.  Bernardino.  The  Certosa  of  Pontignano,  a 
few  miles  beyond  the  Osservanza  is  a  ruined 
but  picturesque  abbey  of  the    14th  century. 

About  a  mile  to  the  sonthwest  of  the 
Porta  S.  Marco  lies  the  former  monastery  of 
vSant'  Eugenio  (^),  now  modernized  and  occupied 
as  a  private  residence,  and  known  simply  as 
Monistero.  In  the  chapel  are  two  large  frescoes — 
the  Resurrection  and  the  Crucifixion — late  and 
remarkable  works  of  Benvenuto  di  Giovanni. 
Over  an  altar  to  the  R  is  a  pleasing  Virgin 
and  Child  with  two  Angels,  by  Francesco  di 
Giorgio,  and  over  that  to  the  L,  a  very  beautiful 
Madonna  by  Ambrogio  Lorenzetti.  The  sacristy 
contains    a  Virgin    and    Child    of    the  school  of 

\}]  See  p.  21  supra. 


—  342   — 
Duccio— restored,  as,  indeed,  are  all  the  pictures 
here—  and  a  St.  Ansanus  and  a  Bishop,  by  Tad- 
deo  Bartoli  (^). 

Three  miles  be3^ond  the  Porta  Fontebranda 
is  situated  the  Villa  of  Belcaro  (visitors  are  usual- 
ly admitted,  here  as  at  the  Monastero,  by  a  care- 
taker, who  expects  a  fee).  From  the  ramparts 
we  enjoy  a  superb  and  boundless  view  of  Siena 
and  the  surrounding-  country.  The  small  room 
opening  on  one  end  of  this  airy  promenade 
contains  a  Madonna  with  two  Saints,  by  Matteo, 
and  two  small  panels  of  the  Trecento.  On  the 
ground  floor  is  a  ceiling  fresco,  the  Judgment 
of  Paris,  by  Peruzzi,  and  in  the  church  and  green- 
house, other  frescoes,  quite  modernized  in  the 
latter  instance,  by  the   same  master. 

Some  three  miles  beyond  Belcaro  lies  the 
Augustinian  abbey  of  Lecceto,  now  belonging  to 
the  Seminario  in  Siena — occupied  only  by  a  con- 
tadino,  save  when  students  from  the  Seminary 
make  it  their  summer  residence.  Always  a  spot 
of  absolute  tranquillity  and  great  natural  beauty, 
the  inmates  of  the  convent  were  famous  for  their 
piety  and  gentle  deeds  f).  For  their  edification 
were  depicted,  in  one  of  their  cloisters,  a  series 

(<)  Matteo's  great  Assumption  of  the  Virgin,  now  in  the  National 
Gallery  at  London,  once  stood  upon  the  high-altar  of  this  church. 

r^)  yir.  Heywood's  Ensamples  of  Fra  Filippo  gives  a  graphic  ac- 
count of  that  friar's  writings  concerning  the  monaster}-  and  its  legends. 

of  scenes  which  set  forth  the  life  of  the  convent 
and  the  life  of  the  world — highl}^  interesting 
works,  of  which  the  detail  deserves  very  careful 
inspection — probably  painted  by  Paolo  di  Mae- 
stro Neri  (in  1343  ?),  a  pupil  of  Ambrogio  Lo- 
renzetti.  The  second  cloisters  contain  frescoes 
dating  from  the  early  Quattrocento,  some  of  them 
completely  restored,  representing  scenes  from  the 
life  of  St.  Augustine,  and  from  the  lives  of  the 
monks  themselves.  Over  the  entrance  to  the 
church  is  a  fresco  of  Christ,  also  by  Paolo  di 
Maestro  Neri  (?).  Within  the  church  are  rem- 
nants of  frescoes  of  the  Trecento,  and,  in  the 
floor,  a  tomb  of  a  knight  of  the  wSara^ini  family. 

The  ruined  hermitage  of  S.  Leonardo  al  Lago, 
charmingly  situated  on  the  plain,  a  few  miles 
beyond,  belonged  to  the  convent  of  Lecceto. 
The  church  alone  now  remains  intact.  In  the 
apse  are  remarkable  frescoes,  of  scenes  from  the 
life  of  the  Virgin,  and,  in  the  vaulting,  of  choirs 
of  singing  and  playing  Angels,  by  a  follower 
of  the  Lorenzetti.  The  visitor  may  return  to 
Siena  by  way  of  the  Villa  Sta.  Colomba  (^). 

Other  points  of  especial  interest,  which  may 
be  visited  by  carriage,  and  to  which  must  be 
devoted  an  entire  day,  are,  the  beautiful  Gothic 
ruin  of  S.  Calgano,  and  the  Monastery  of  Monte 

'j  See  p.   164  supra. 

—   344  — 
Oliveto  Maggiore,  where  are  famous  frescoes  by 
Signorelli  and  Sodoma.     Still  another  day's  ex- 
cursion can  be  made   to  San  Gimignano ;  but  as 

that  little  town  contains  many  beautiful  monu- 
ments, such  a  short  visit  is  both  unfair  and 



To  those  readers  who  do  not  understand 
Italian,  a  few  words  concerning  the  principal 
English  books  dealing  with  Siena  may,  perhaps, 
prove  useful. 

Of  course,  the  first  requisite  is  a  good 
HISTORY  history  ;  and  here  a  choice  may  be 
made  between  two  important  works, 
both  published  within  the  last  three  months,  by 
authors  already  well  known  to  the  public.  We 
refer  to  A  History  of  Siena  by  Langton  Douglas, 
and  The  Story  of  Siena  and  San  Giniignano  by 
Edmund  G.  Gardner. 

To  speak  first  of  the  slighter  work.  We 
recollect  that  Mr  Gardner's  Florence  was  ticketed 
by  a  leading  review  as  "a  glorified  guide-book". 
This  description  admirably  fits  his  Story  of  Siena 
and  San  Giniignano.  Judged  by  such  a  criterion 
the  book  leaves  little  to  be  desired;  and,  for  the 
tourist  who  merely  wishes  to  obtain  such  a 
general  idea  of  the  history  of  the  mediaeval  city 
as  will  enable  him  to  do  his  sight-seeing  intel- 
ligently, no  more  charming  volume  could  well 
be  imagined,  for  the  author  seldom  fails  to 
illuminate  the  dull  details  of  topography  by  the 

-  348  - 
associations  of  the  sites  described.  Chapter  X., 
Through  the  City  of  the  Virgin,  appears  to  us  to 
supply  a  long  felt  want,  while  the  points  of 
interest  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  toAvn  are 
duly  noted,  and  the  reader  is  carried  as  far  afield 
as  Lecceto,  ]\Ionte  Oliveto  and  S.  Galgano. 

Considered  as  a  serious  history,  the  book 
is  less  satisfactory.  The  account  of  the  early 
years  of  the  Commune,  almost  up  to  the  Battle 
of  Montaperti,  is  quite  inadequate — a  fact  which 
can  hardly  cause  surprise  when  we  seek  in  vain, 
in  the  "  Bibliographical  Appendix  ",  for  any 
mention  of  Professor  Zdekauer's  edition  of  the 
Constituto  del  Coinune  di  Siena  dell'  anno  1262  (^),  a 
work  of  the  utmost  importance  to  the  student 
of  the  political  history  of  Siena  during  the  Im- 
perial or  Ghibelline  period. 

From  the  closing  years  of  the  13th  century 
onward,  there  is,  it  is  true,  a  marked  improve- 
ment ;  though,  even  here,  the  narrative  never 
rises  much  above  the  level  of  a  chronicle.  The 
book,  as  a  whole,  gives  us  the  impression  of 
having  been  somewhat  hastily  written,  and,  were 
we    unacquainted    with    Mr  Gardner's   previous 

(')  In  the  English  Historical  Revieiv  of  January-,  1900,  will  be  found 
a  very  able  article  by  E.  Armstrong  dealing  with  these  statutes.  It  is,  in 
fact,  a  review  of  Professor  Zdekauer's  great  work,  and  for  those  who  do 
not  understand  Italian,  and  who  are  therefore  unable  to  read  the  preliminary 
dissertation,  it  will  unquestionably  form  an  invaluable  introduction  to  the 
Latin  text. 

—   349   — 

record,  we  should  constantly  find  ourselves  Avon- 
dering  whether  this  was  the  hurried  work  of  a 
very  able  man  who  had  neglected  to  properly 
assimilate  his  facts,  or  that  of  a  distinctly  second 
class  writer  who  could  do  no  better — the  pot- 
boiler of  a  master,  or  the  finished  effort  of  a 
tyro.  At  the  best  the  result  is  a  fine  impres- 
sionistic sketch.  For  the  serious  student  it  has 
comparatively  little  value. 

Professor  Douglas'  History  of  Siena,  on  the 
other  hand,  is  the  result  of  long  and  often  orig- 
inal research,  and  covers  the  whole  Sienese 
story,  political,  social  and  artistic.  Preeminently 
scholarly,  it  is  nevertheless  neither  dull  nor 
ponderous,  and  will,  we  doubt  not,  receive  as 
warm  a  welcome  from  the  g'eneral  reader  as 
from  the  student.  We  are  not  afraid  to  proph- 
esy that  it  is  destined  to  find  an  honoured  place 
among  the  very  limited  number  of  English  books 
which  can  seriously  be  regarded  as  valuable 
contributions  to  Italian  history. 

We  freely  admit  that  it  is  rather  hard  on 
Mr  Gardner  that  the  almost  simultaneous  pub- 
lication of  the  two  works  should  have  rendered 
the  drawing  of  a  comparison  between  them 
inevitable,  for  neither  in  accuracy,  scholarship, 
nor  grasp  of  subject,  is  his  book  able  to  stand 
the  test.  They  are  both  good  ;  both  may  be 
read  with  profit ;  but  the  superiority  of  the  one 
over  the  other  is  beyond  question. 


With  regard  to  the  social  life  of 

MANNERS  AND       the  old  vSienese,  their  manners, 

CUSTOMS  customs  and  beliefs,  the  reader 

may  consult  The  "  Ensamples  " 
of  Fra  Filippo.  A  Study  of  Mediccval  Siena,  by 
William  Heywood.  This  is,  as  far  as  we  are 
aware,  the  only  English  work  which  deals  at 
all  fully  with  these  important  subjects.  (See 
pages   144-145  supra). 

We  cannot  too  strongly  urge  upon  the 
ART      reader    that,    when    studying   whatsoever 

work  of  art,  he  use  his  own  eyes  rather 
than  those  of  others.  Yet  few  of  us  are  suflfici- 
ently  trained  to  be  able  to  see  for  ourselves. 
Naturally,  therefore,  in  most  cases,  our  taste  in 
art  is  formed  by  the  books  consulted.  We  sug- 
gest, as  useful  and  reliable,  the  following  works 
which  have  to  do  with  the  art  of  Siena. 

As  has  already  been  said,  the  two  most  impor- 
tant works  on  vSienese  painting  are  Crowe  and 
Cavalcaselle's  section  on  the  same,  in  their  monu- 
mental History  of  Painting  in  Italy  (the  Italian  edi- 
tion is  at  present  the  best)  (1),  and  Mr  Berenson's 

(*)  We  believe  that  a  new  English  edition  of  this  work  is  to  be  pub- 
lished by  Mr  Murray  during  this  coming  year  (1903),  which  is  to  contain 
much  new  material  collected  by  the  authors  since  the  publication  of  the 
first  edition,  and  some  of  which  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  Italian  version.  It  is 
also  to  contaion  notes  by  Professor  Langton  Douglas  and  Mr  S.  Arthur  Strong. 

—  351  - 
Central  Italian  Painters  of  the  Renaissance.  The  first 
serious  study  of  Sienese  painters  was  made  by 
Sig.  Cavalcaselle,  and  his  work  is  both  thorough 
and,  as  a  rule,  discriminating.  From  a  critical 
standpoint,  Mr  Berenson's  short  essay  on  the 
entire  school  is  at  once  more  general  and  more 
acute.  Both  these  works  are  not  only  useful 
but  absolutely  indispensable  to  those  who  would 
go  beneath  the  surface  (^). 

Burckhardt's  time-honoured  Cicerone  ifi^xvcv^xv 
and  French)  contains  interesting  notes  on  Ar- 
chitecture in  Siena.  Those  of  them  which  are 
due  to  C.  V.  Fabriczy  are  especially  valuable. 
For  excellent  notices  of  Renaissance  architects, 
and  particularly  of  Peruzzi,  see  W.  J.  Anderson's 
Architecture  of  the  Renaissance  in  Italy.  A  serious 
defect  of  this  book,  however,  is  that  no  mention 
is  made  either  of  Francesco  di  Giorgio  or  of 

C.  C.  Perkins'  books  on  Italian  Sculpture,  long 
the  standard  works  on  the  subject,  although  in  a 
measure  superseded  by  more  modern  writings, 
still  contain  much  valuable  criticism.  M.  Rey- 
mond's  La  Sculpture  Florentine  comprises  various 
notices  of  Sienese  sculpture,  that  concerning 
Jacopo  della  Querela  being  the  most  important. 

|i)  We  regret  not  being  able  to  include  in  the  present  notice  Mr  F. 
Mason  Perkins'  long-promised  but  yet  unpublished  work  on  Sienese  paint- 
ing, which  will  undoubtedly  form  a  valuable  addition  to  the  critical  litera- 
ture on  the  subject. 

An  interesting  monograph  on  Quercia,  by  Carl 
Cornelius  (German),  throws  much  light  upon  the 
Avork  of  that  great    artist. 

Of  the  books  which  treat  of  the  Art  of  Siena 
in  a  general  way,  Professor  Douglas'  above 
mentioned  History  of  Siena  constitutes  an  ambi- 
tious attempt  to  cover  the  entire  ground.  Al- 
though we  cannot  agree  with  much  of  his 
criticism  concerning  artistic  matters,  we  can  re- 
commend the  work  as  a  careful  study  of  the 
school.  His  notes  on  Architecture  are  of  es- 
pecial value.  Air  Gardner's  Story  of  Siena  and 
San  Gimignano  likewise  deals  with  Sienese  art 
in  its  various  branches,  but  in  a  more  general 
and  less  adequate  manner.  Mrs  Richter's  Siena 
(German)  is  an  interesting  and  well  illustrated 
volume,  but  is  uneven  in  the  attention  bestowed 
on  the  various  artists.  Frequent  and  critical 
mention  is  made  of  different  vSienese  artists  in 
]\I.  Eugene  IMiintz'  three  volumes,  Histoire  de 
r  Art  pendant  la  Renaissance. 

We  understand  that,  in  the  new  edition  of 
Mr.  Selwyn  Brinton's  Renaissance  of  Italian  Art, 
Siena  will  be  much  more  fully  dealt  with  than 
heretofore.  Judging  by  his  previous  work,  what 
he  will  have  to  tell  us  will  probably  be  well 
worth  reading. 

Of  works  on  special  subjects,  we  may 
SPECIAL      mention    Historical    Studies    of  Chiirch 

—  353  — 
SUBJECTS  Building  in  the  Middle  Ages,  by  E.  C. 
Norton.  At  least  a  third  of  the  book 
is  devoted  to  the  Sienese  Cathedral.  We  believe 
that  it  is  still  a  standard  authority  even  in  Italy. 
It  was,  we  remember,  favourably  reviewed  in 
the  "  Arch.  stor.   it.  ". 

In  The  Pavement  Masters  of  Siena,  by  R.  H, 
Hobart  Cust,  we  have  a  thoroughly  reliable  ac- 
count of  the  documentary  history  of  the  Pave- 
ment of  the  Duomo.  The  book  is  well  written 
and  adequately  illustrated. 

Of  the  "  Tavolette  dipinte  della  Biccherna 
e  della  Gabella "  Mr  Hey  wood  has  made  a 
special  study  in  his  Pictorial  Chronicle  of  Siena  ; 
while,  in  Our  Lady  of  August  and  the  Palio  of  Siena, 
the  same  w^riter  has  collected  almost  all  that  is 
known  about  the  great  annual  Sienese  festa  (See 
pages   145-147   supra). 

Among  books  relating  to  St. 
ST.  CATHERINE      Catherine,    I\Irs   J.  E.    Butler's 

Catherine  of  Siena.  A  Biography, 
is  still  probably  regarded  by  many  persons  as  the 
standard  authority;  but  there  is  much  to  be  said 
for  Mr  Gardner's  contention  that  Augusta  Theo- 
dosia  Drane  "  deserves  to  be  called  the  best  of 
Catherine's  modern  biographers  ".  Nevertheless, 
this  appreciation  would  have  been  sadly  mislead- 
ing had  he    neglected  to  qualify  his    statement 

—  354  — 
by  warning  us  against  "  her  historical  inac- 
curacies and  her  treatment  of  some  of  the  vSaint's 
political  letters  "  (^).  The  point  of  view  of  the 
writer  will  be  sufficiently  indicated  when  we 
state  that  her  History  of  St.  Catherine  of  Siena  and 
her  Companions  is  dated  from  St.  Dominic's  Con- 
vent, Stone,  and  has  received  the  imprimatur  of 
Cardinal  Vaughan. 

A  very  different  estimate  of  the  life  and 
character  of  Catherine  will  be  found  in  A  Decade 
of  Italian  Women,  by  Thomas  Adolphus  Trollope, 
who  has  also  contributed  the  article  on  St.  Cath- 
erine to  the  Encyclopoedia  Britannica. 

For  those  who  dislike  extreme  views  and 
prefer  a  smaller  book,  we  can  very  heartily  re- 
commend The  Story  of  Catherine  of  Siena  hx  Flor- 
ence Witts.  The  fact  that  it  is  published  by 
the  Sunday  School  Union  may  perhaps  deter 
some  from  buying  it.  In  this,  however,  the}^ 
would  be  ill  advised.  Though  not  absolutely 
free  from  blunders,  it  is  pleasant  reading;  it  tells 
the  story  of  St.  Catherine  clearly  and  sympathet- 
ically, and  only  costs  a  shilling. 

Still,  we  fancy  that,  for  most  visitors  to 
Siena,  Mr  Gardner's  two  chapters  (Chap.  II, 
Saint  Catherine  of  Siena;  Chap.  VIL  In  the  Foot- 
steps of  Saint  Cathej'ine)  will  supply  all  that  is 

E.  G.  Gardner,  op.  cit.  page  45,  note  i. 

0  00 

It  is  not  pleasant  to  turn  from  good  books 
to  bad,  and  we  would  very  willingly  leave  the 
task  of  pointing  out  their  deficiencies  to  others. 
Thus  Mr  Gilbert  Hastings'  slight  and  inadequate 
Siena,  its  Architecture  and  Art  may  be  safely  left 
to  find  its  own  level  without  any  help  from  us  (^). 

When,  however,  an  unreliable  work  is  not 
only  being  vigorously  pushed  and  widely  adver- 
tised, but  has  already  reached  a  second  edition, 
it  seems  absolutely  necessary  that  someone 
should  offer  a  word  of  warning. 

In  their  Italian  Cities  (almost  half  of  the  first 
volume  of  which  is  devoted  to  Siena)  Mr  and 
Mrs  Blashfield  have  endeavoured  to  tread  the 
same  paths  which  Mr  W.  D.  Howells  so  suc- 
cessfully followed  in  his  charming  Tuscan  Cities. 
To  lovers  of  accuracy  and  good  workmanship 
the  result  is  sufficiently  deplorable  f ).  The 
literary  style  is  bad ;  there  is  a  perpetual  strain- 
ing after  eff"ect  ;  an  unchastened  proclivity  to 
verbal  pyrotechnics.  For  instance  :  what  shall 
be  said  of  such  slipshod  metaphor  as  this  (the 
writers  are  trying"  to  describe  Siena): — "  To  close 

(')  A  review  of  the  book  will  be  found  in  the  Bullettino  Senese  di 
Storia  Patria,  Vol.  IX,  (1902)  pages  397-400. 

C^)  It  is,  perhaps,  only  fair  to  mention  that  the  following  criticisms 
have  reference  almost  exclusively  to  that  portion  of  the  book  which  treats 
of  Siena.  The  rest  may  be  of  higher  quality,  but  to  one,  at  any  rate,  of 
the  writers  of  this  notice,  the  prospect  of  reading  further  was  fraught  with 
too  many  terrors-  to  be  needlessly  faced. 

-  356  - 
the  eyes  is  still  to  see  the  narrow  ways  climbing- 
the  slopes  and  piercing*  brown  arches;  the  close- 
set  houses  sweeping  like  billows  now  downward, 
now  upward,  tossed  here  and  there  into  hig-her 
jet  of  palace  or  church,  breaking  into  a  spray 
of  towers,  till  all  are  crested  by  the  foam-like 
sculpture  of  the  Duomo  " !  It  is  perfectly  true 
that  Alfieri  has  spoken  of  "Siena...  ore  torreggia 
e  siede  " ;  but,  though  she  "  towers  ",  she  "  sits  ", 
and  sits  firm,  with  no  such  aguish  tremblings 
and  torture-twisted  writhings  as  are  here  de- 
scribed. "  Climbing  ",  "  piercing  ",  "  sweeping  ", 
"  tossed  into  a  jet  ",  "  breaking  into  spray  ", 
"  crested  with  foam  " — Ruskin  might  have  writ- 
ten something  after  that  sort  and  made  it  effect- 
ive, but  we  feel  sure  that  he  Avould  have  finally 
frozen  it  all.  As  it  stands,  it  is  one  of  the  most 
'  awful  examples '  in  the  way  of  fine  writing 
with  Avhich  we  are  acquainted;  and  the  book  is 
filled  with  just  such  passages.  Presumably, 
this  is  the  stuff  which  the  Atlantic  Monthly  calls 
"  literary  urbanity  ".  The  term,  we  admit,  has 
a  pleasanter  sound  than  that  which  we  should 
have  adopted,  and,  when  defined,  may  serve  as 

Sometimes  this  itch  for  fine  phrasing  results 
even  more  disastrously,  as  where  it  is  stated 
that  "  vSiena  like  a  true  daughter  of  Rome  is 
throned  superbly  upon  many  hills  ".  The  hills 
upon  which  Siena  is  throned  are  conventionally 

00/      ^^ 

three.  Possibly  it  might  be  more  strictly  ac- 
curate to  speak  of  three  ridges  of  one  hill. 

However,  there  are  mistakes  enough  in  the 
book  for  which  "  literary  urbanity  "  cannot  be 
held  responsible.  The  authors  have  read  a  good 
deal,  but  they  seem  to  have  trusted  entirely  to 
their  memories  in  utilizing  the  material  g"athered. 
For  them,  the  story  of  Siena  appears  to  be  a 
long  vague  vista  of  "miracles",  "ecstatic  nuns", 
"  socialistic  painters",  with  a  background  of  gore. 
When  they  endeavour  to  be  definite  they  too 
often  fall  into  error.  Characteristic  examples  of 
their  slovenly  methods  are  to  be  found  in  the 
phrase,  "  Ambrogio  di  Lorenzo's  battle  of  Tor- 
rita  ",  and  in  the  invention,  or  rather  resuscita- 
tion, of  the  Contrada  dell'  Orso  to  take  part  in 
a  modern  Palio  ! 

The  book,  as  we  have  hinted,  has  been 
extensively  "puffed".  For  instance,  it  has  been 
dubbed  "  the  sanest,  most  catholic,  and  most 
conclusive  art  criticism  of  recent  times  ".  To 
call  such  a  statement  a  gross  exaggeration  is 
hardly  strong  enough.  We,  of  course,  fully 
admit  that  ^Ir  and  ]Mrs  Blashfield  are  not  re- 
sponsible for  such  advertisements.  What  they 
are  responsible  for — and  it  utterly  mars  such 
small  merits  as  their  book  possesses — is  their 
insufferably  patronizing  style  of  criticism.  This 
is  noticeable  throughout,  and  particularly  so 
when    they    concern    themselves    with    the    old 


-   358  - 
Sienese  painters.      That  no  such  pose  is  justified. 
a  very  casual  inspection  of  their  work  will  suf- 
fice to  demonstrate. 

In  spite  of  all  this  it  is  possible  that  the 
volume  in  question  may  have  served  a  useful 
end.  It  has  had  a  wide  circulation  in  the  United 
States,  and  has  very  probably  aroused  an  interest 
in  Italian  Architecture  and  Italian  Art  among 
persons  who  previously  cared  nothing  at  all  for 
such  matters.  This  is  well  ;  but  we  solemnlv 
warn  the  visitor  to  Siena  not  to  trust  it  too 
implicitly.  In  a  word,  the  prudent  reader  will 
verify  all  the  statements  made  by  ]\Ir  and  ]\Irs 
Blashfield  before  mentally  docketting  them  as 

We  subjoin  a  list  of  Books  and  Authorities, 
containing  not  only  such  English  works  as  treat 
especially  of  Siena  but  also  works  of  a  more 
general  character  concerned  with  the  Second 
Part  of  this    Guide. 

Anderson,  AV.  J.     Architecture  of  the  Renaissance 

in  Italy.    London,  B.  T.  Batsford. 
Armstrong,  E.      The  Sienese  Statutes  of  1262.      In 

the  English  Historical  Reviezv.   Xo.  57,  vol.  XV. 

January,    1900.      London,  Longmans. 
Benrath,  Iv.     Bernai'dino  Ochino  of  Siena.    London, 


—  359  — 

Berenson,  B.  The  Central  Italiari  Paiyiters  of  the 
Renaissance.  New  York  and  London,  G.  P. 
Putnam's  Sons,    1897. 

Bevir,  J.  L.  Visitor's  Guide  to  Siena  ajid  Sa7i  Gi- 
viignano.     London,  Edward  Stamford,  1885, 

Blashfield,  E.  H.,  and  E.  W.  Italian  Cities.  New 
York,  Charles  Scribner's  Sons,  1900,  2  vols. 

Brinton,  Selwyn.  The  Republic  of  Siena,  being 
Part  I,  section  II,  of  the  Renaissance  of  Italian 
Art.   London,  Simpkin,  ]\Iarshall  and  Co.,  Ld. 

Burckhardt.  Cicerone.  Achte  Auflage,  bearbeitet 
von  Dr.  Bode.    Leipzig  &  Berlin. 

Butler,  J.  E.      Catherine  of  Siena.     A  Biography. 

Cornelius,  C.     facopo  delta  Querela.     Halle,    1896. 

Creighton,  M.  A  History  of  the  Papacy  from  the 
Great  Schism  to  the  Sack  of  Rome.  New  e- 
dition.     London,  Longmans,   1899,  6  vols. 

Crowe  and  Cavalcaselle.  A  New  History  of  Paint- 
ing in  Italy.     London,    1864,   3   vols. 

Cummings,  C.  A.  History  of  Italian  architecture 
from  Consta7itine  to  the  Renaissance.  New  York, 
Houghton,  Mifflin  &  Co.,   1901.   2   vols. 

Cust,  R.  H.  Hobart.  The  Pavem-ent  Masters  of 
Siena.      London,  Geo.  Bell  and  Sons,   1901. 

Day,  Lewis  F.,  The  IVofider  of  Siena.  Two  ar- 
ticles in  the  Magazine  of  Art.  Sept.  and 
Oct.,    1894. 

Douglas,  Langton.  The  Majolica  of  Siena  the 
Nineteenth    Century,    Sept.,    1900. 

Douglas,  Langton.  A  History  of  Siena.  London, 
John  Murray,   1902. 

—   36o  — 

Drane,  A.  T.  The  History  of  St.  Catherine  of  Siena 
and  her  Companions.  London,  Longmans, 
1899.      2   vols. 

Fenton,  Geoffrey.  Certaine  Tragicall  Discourses. 
In  the  "  Tudor  Translation  Series  ".  With 
an  Introduction  by  R.  Langton  Douglas. 
London,  D.  Xutt,    1897. 

Gardner,  E.  G.  The  Story  of  Siena  and  San  Gi- 
mignano.      London,  J.  ^I.  Dent  and  Co,  1902. 

Guida  Artistica  della  Citta  e  Contorni  di  Siena. 
Siena,  Lazzeri,   1883. 

Hastings,  G.  Siena,  its  Architecture  and  Art.  Lon- 
don.    The  De  La  Alore  Press,   1902. 

Hey  wood,  W.  The  "  Ens  ample  s  "  of  Fra  Filippo. 
A  Study  of  MedicBval  Siena.  Siena,  E.  Tor- 
rini,    1901. 

Hey  wood,  W.  Our  Lady  of  August  and  the  Palio 
of  Siena.     Siena,  E.  Torrini,    1899. 

Heywood.  AV.  A  Pictorial  Chronicle  of  Siena. 
Siena,  E.  Torrini,   1902. 

Ho  wells,  W.  D.  Tuscan  Cities.  Leipzig,  Heine- 
mann  &  Balestier,   1900. 

Layard-Kugler.  Italian  Schools  of  Painting.  Lon- 
don, John  ]\Iurray,    1900,   2   vols. 

Lindsay.      Christian  Art.      London,    1847,   -   vols. 

Miintz,  E.  Histoire  de  V  Art  pendant  la  Renaissance. 
Paris,  Hachette,   3   vols. 

Norton,  C.  E.  Historical  Studies  of  Church  Build- 
ing in  the  Middle  Ages.  Xew  York,  Harper, 

-  36i   - 

Pastor,  Ludwig.  History  of  the  Popes,  from  the 
End  of  the  Middle  Ages...  English  translation 
by  Father  Antrobus. 

Perkins,  C.  C.  Historical  Handbook  of  Italian  Sculp- 
ture.     New  York,   1883. 

Promis.  Vita  di  Francesco  di  Giorgio  Martini,  &c. 
Torino,   1841. 

Reymond,  ^I.  La  Sculpture  Floi'entine.  Flor- 
ence, Alinari  Freres.  4  vols. 

Richter,  L.  AI.  Siena.  Leipzig  &  Berlin,  See- 
mann,    1901. 

Rio.     De  r  Art   Chretien.     Paris. 

Symonds,  J.  A.  The  Renaissance  in  Italy.  Lon- 
don. Smith,  Elder  &  Co.,   7   vols. 

Trollope,  T.  A.  A  Decade  of  Italian  Women.  Lon- 
don, Chapman  and  Hall,    1859.   2   vols. 

Vasari.  Le  Vite.  Firenze,  Sansoni,  187 8-1 882. 
8  vols. 

Villari,  P.  The  Two  First  Centuries  of  Florenti7ie 
History  (English  translation).  London,  Fisher 
Unwin,   1901. 

Witts,  Florence,  The  Story  of  Catherine  of  Siena. 
London,  "  Splendid  Lives  Series  ". 

Note.  A  large  number  of  pamphlets  and 
articles,  bearing  on  art-historical  matters,  have 
been  published  at  different  periods  by  Sienese 
and  other  Italian  writers,  such  as  Lisini,  Lusini, 
Rossi,  Rocchi,  Pantanelli  &c. 



Grand  Hotel  Royal  de  Sienne,  Via  Cavour,   with 

its  back  to  the  Lizza.     (English  landlady). 
Grand  Hotel  Continental,  Via  Cavour,  opposite  the 

Post  Office. 
Aquila  Nera,  Via  Cavour,  No.  3. 
La  Toscana,  Via   del   Re,    No.    4   (unpretending 

but  good). 
Pensione  Santa  Caterina,    Via   delle  Belle  Arti, 

Xo.   31   (excellent  cuisine). 
Pensione  Chiusareili,  Viale  Curtatone. 
Pensione  Saccaro  (formerly  Tognazzi),    Via  Sal- 

lustio  Bandini, 
Pensione  Rigoni,  Piazza  Provenzano  Salvani. 
Pensione  Romualdi  (formerly  Pasqulni),  Via  delle 

Belle  Arti,  Xo.    19. 

-  363  - 

Caffe  Greco,  nearly  opposite  the  Circolo  degli 

Restaurants.  //  Sasso,  Via  Cavour,  No.  14.  La 
Scala,  Piazza  S.  Giovanni  and  Via  Diacceto, 
No.  10.  i5'^?^^/i2^^;  Croce  del  Travaglio.  Cen- 
trale,   Costarella. 

Confectioners.  Mosca  (formerly  Corradini)  Via 
Cavour,  No.  3  (afternoon  tea).  Riacci  e  Barb- 
laji,  Via  Cavour,  opposite  the  Via  dei  Ros- 
si. Vivi,  Via  Cavour,  No.  16,  next  door  to 
the  Post  Office. 

Beer  at  Bader-'s  in  the  Lizza,  and  at  the  Cafie 

Whiskey.  Scotch  and  American  Whiskeys  and 
imported  wines  at  Riacci  e  Ba^'blan,  Via  Ca- 
vour, opposite  the  Via  de'  Rossi. 

Tobacco.  Wills'  "  Capstan  Navy  Cut  "  at  the 
tobacconist's  in  the  Piazza  dell'  Indipen- 


Cabs  and  Carriages.  Natale  Turillazzi,  Via  Ca- 
vour, No.  25.  Anto7iio  Gracci,  Via  delle 
Terme,  No.  15.  Lorenzo  Frayici,  Via  Rica- 
soli,  No.   30. 

Bicycles.  Brizzi,  Via  delle  Belle  Arti,  Nos.  1 1 
&   13- 

-    364  - 

Physicians  and  Surgeons.  Beccarini,  Via  del  Ca- 
sato,  Xo.  22.  Boj-doni,  Via  di  Citta,(^)  Xo.  31.- 
Spediacci,   Via  delle  Belle  Arti,  Xo.   21. 

Dentist.  Cianchi,  Via  delle  Terme,  Xo.  17  (wStrong- 
ly  recommended). 

Chemists.  CoH,  Croce  del  Travaglio.  Parenti, 
Via  Cavour,  Xo.  7,  opposite  the  Libreria 
Torrini.  Sapori,  Via  Ricasoli  Xo.  9  (Pan- 
forte,   a  specialty  of  vSiena,  sold  by  all). 

Banlcer  and  Money  Changer.  V.  Crocini,  Via  Ca- 
vour, Xo.  12.  Banco  di  Roma,  Piazza  To- 

Notary  Public.  F.  Del  Puglia,  Via  di  Citta  (0, 
Xo.  7  nearly  opposite  the  Caffe  Greco  (on 
the  first  floor). 

Baths.  Hot  and  cold  Baths,  Mazzei,  Via  Gio- 
vanni Dupre,  Xo.  45.  vSwimming  Bath  in 

Hairdresser.     Consorti,   Via  Cavour,  Xo.  3. 

(•)  Recently  recbristened  Via  Umberto  I. 

This  is  onl}-  one  example  among  manj'  of  the  rapid  disappearance 
of  time-honoured  names  which  has  followed  the  unification  of  Itah-.  The 
result,  deplorable  in  any  case,  would  be  less  exasperating  to  the  student  if 
the  old  title  were  recorded  under  the  new,  as  has  been  done  in  the  Piazza, 
where  the  inscription  runs  "Piazza  Vittorio  Emanuele  gia  del  Campo  ". 

-   36o  - 

SHOPS,    &C. 

Bookseller.      Torrini,    (Old    and   new  books)    Via 

Cavour,  No.   8. 
Photographs.     Lombardi,    opposite  the  Costarella 

(Speaks    English).         Agency    for    Alinari'^ 

photographs,  Via  Cavour,  No.   7. 
Antiquities.      Torrini,  Via  Cavour,  No.  8.     Basetti, 

Via  Cavour,  No.   31. 
Wood-Carving.      Cambi,    Via  di  Citta  (^).      Corsini, 

Via  del  Capitano,  No.   5. 
Iron  WorlC.     Zalaffi,   Via  di  Citta  (^).     Franci,  Via 

Bool(binding.      Lessons   in    artistic   bookbinding, 

Torrini,   Via  delle  Terme,  No.    19. 
Picture   Frames    and    Gilding.       Corsi,   Via  delle 

Terme,  No.   2. 
Marlcet,  for  cattle.       First  Monday  each  month. 

General   market    held    daily    in    Piazza   del 


English  church  services.     See  page  6  siipra. 

(')  See  note  on  preceding  page. 


Abbadia  San  Salvatore,   loi. 

Abrami,  The,  46  n. 

Accademia  delle  Belle  Arti,  5. 

Accademia  de''  Fisiocritici,  6  142. 

Accarigi.  The,  46  n. 

Accattapane,  Arrigo,   134. 

Advocata  SenensiuDi  127  n.  139, 
236  n. 

^•Ilneas  Sylvius  Piccolomini,  See 
Pius  J  I. 

^Eneas  Piccolomini,  See  I  iccolomini 

^■Etieid  of  Virgil,  translated  into 
Italian,   136. 

vEsQp's  Fables,   136. 

Agazzari,  Fra  Filippo,   136,    144. 

Agnolo  d' Andrea,  87. 

Agnolo  di  Tura,  135. 

Agostino  di  Giovanni,   167. 

Albizi,  The,  46  n. 

Albizzeschi,  Bernardino.  See  Ber- 
nardino, San. 

Aldobrandeschi,  The,  31,  33. 

—  Ildobrandino,  115. 

—  Omberto,   115. 

Alessi,  The,  44,  45  n.  46  n. 
Alexander  III,  23,  215,  235. 
Alfonso  of  Calabria,   104. 
Aliotti,   167. 

Allegretto  AUegretti,  139. 
Ambassadors,    Sienese,    Picture    of, 

115  n. 
Amiata,  Monte,   loi,  217. 
Anconitani,  The,  46' n. 
Andrea  Bregiio  243. 
Andrea  del  Brescianino.      See  Bre- 

Andrea  Dei,   135. 

Andrea    di    Xiccolo,    189,  277,  332, 

?>i3^   334- 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  302. 
Angiolieri  Cecco,  130,  297  n. 
Anguillara,   Count  of,  115,  116. 
Ansano,  S.,  20,  235,  265  n.,  274. 
Antolini,  The,  46  n. 
Apollo,  44  n. 
Aquila,  99. 

Arbia,    The  river,  20,  21,  53. 
Archivio  di  Stato,  5,  142,  290-295. 
Architecture,   153  seq. 
Arco  di  S.  Agostino,  278. 
Arezzo,  20,  21,  35,  41,  89,  100,  167, 

Arms  of  the  Commune,  44  n.,  203  n. 
—  People,  30  31. 
Armstrong  Mr.   E,  348  n. 
Arringhieri,  Niccolo,  295. 
Arti,   The,  29,   107. 

Arte  delta  Lana,  41,  47,  84. 

Arte    de''  macellari.      See  But- 
chers,  Guild  of. 

Arte  de'  Mercanti,  46,  220  n. 

Arte  degli  Orafi,  135. 

Arte  de'  Maestri  di  Pietra,   166. 

Arte  de'  Pittori,   135,  176  n. 
Arzocchi,  The,  46  n.  48. 
Asciano,  Battle  of,  32. 
Assenipri,  The,  of  Fra  Filippo,   136, 

Assisi,   157  n.   181,   182. 
Asso,  The  river,  51. 
Augustus,   19,   156. 
Avignon,  85  n. 

Badia  a  Spugna,  37,  38. 
Baglioni,  The,  114. 


Baldassarre  Peruzzi.  192,  225,  237, 
243,  268,  271  n.,  273,  287,  288, 
308,  342. 

Balducci,  Matteo,  190,  225.  288,  305, 

307.  333'  334-  337- 
Bal'ia,  Collegia  della,  106,  115,  121. 
Ballo  tondo,  211  n. 
Balzana,  The,  44  n. 
Balzano,  Libra  delta  il,  91. 
Banchi,  Luciano,   143. 
Bandinelli,  The,  46  n. 
Bankers,    Sienese,    41,    42,    47,    49, 

297  n. 
Barbarossa.     See  Frederick  Barba- 

Barbotti,  The,  46  n. 
Bargagli,  Scipione,  140,  141,  278  n. 
Barili,  Antonio,  196,  246,  285. 
Barili,  Giovanni,   197,  239. 
Barker,  William,   119  n. 
Bama,  183,  270. 
Baroncelli,  The,  46  n. 
Bartoli,  Taddeo,  See  Taddea  di  Bar- 

Bartolo  di  Fredi,   184,  218,  269,  307, 

Bartolommeo  di  Xutino,  279,  323. 
Barzelletta    della    Cittd    di   Siena. 

117  n. 
Battifolle,  207  n. 
Bazzi,  Gianantonio,  See  Sodoiiia. 
Beccafumi,  Domenico,  174,  192,  217, 

223,   226,  238,  260,  266,  272,  276, 

279,  288,  301    n.,    302,  307,  334, 

Becchina,  130. 
Belcaro,  342. 
Bellarmati,  Antonio,   139. 
Bellarmati,  Girolamo,   164. 
Belmonti,  The,   30,  32. 
Benedict,  St.,  The  rule  of,   100. 
Benevento,  23. 
—  The  Battle  of,  34. 
Benincasa,    Catcrina,      See     Cathe- 
rine. .St. 

Bentivogli,  Comelio,   124. 
Bentivoglio,  Giovanni,  of    Bologna. 

108  n. 
Benvenuto    di    Giovanni,    186    seq., 

189  n.    264,   269,    271,    293,    303, 

3^4'  335'  34I- 
Benvoglienti,  Uberto,   140. 
Berenson,  ^Ir   Bernhard,    131,     132. 

187,   193  n.,  256,  326,  350. 
Bernardino,  S.,  97-99,  102,   103,   137, 

213,  239,  263  n.  et  passim. 
Bernardo  Daddi,  322,  323. 
Bernardo  Rossellino,   162,  217,  290. 
Bernini,  237. 

Bianco  da  Siena,  102,  133. 
Bibliateca  Caynunale,  3,  318.      * 
Biccherna,  The,  55,  56  n.  134,  291 

n.     See   Tavalette  dipinte. 
Bichi  Alessandro,   in. 
Bidelli,   Scipione,   112. 
Bishops,  Temporal  power  of  the,  21 

Black  Death.     See  Pestilence,  The. 
Blashfield,  Mr  &  Mrs.,  355-338. 
Boccaccio,  Will  of,  295. 
Bologna,  35,  61,  168,  169,  170. 
Bonda,  S.,  The  Convent  of,    loi. 
Bonichi,  Bindo,   130,   131-132. 
Bordone,  Paris,  338. 
Borgia,  The,  106. 
Borghesi,  Niccolo,   107. 
Borghesi,  Scipione,  142. 
Bostoli,  The,  46  n. 
Bottirii,  The,  3,   161. 
Bozzone,  The  River,  33. 
Brescianino,  193,  223,  224,  223,  302. 

Bretons,  The,  89. 
Brevi,   133. 
Brigandage  112  seq. 
Brinton,  Mr  Selwyn,  332. 
Bronze-casters  in  Siena,   170,  238  n. 
Brunelleschi,  278. 
Brutus,  221  n. 
Bulgarini,  The,  46  n. 


Buoncdnvento,  48,   54,   130. 
Buonsignori.  The,  46  n. 

—  Compagnia    de\      See     Compa- 
gnia  de'  Buonsignoii. 

—  Niccolo  de',  his  rebellion,  4q  seq. 
Buontalenti,  Bernardo,  228. 
Burckhardt.     See  Cicerone. 
Butchers,  Guild  of,  221. 

Butler,  Mrs  J.  E.  96,  353. 

Caleffi,  The,  10,  135,  294  n. 
Camaino  di  Crescentino,   161, 
Camarlingo  di  Bicchema,  56,  291  n. 
Camollia,  Battle  of,  236,  n.  279. 
Caraollia,  Porta,     See  Gates. 
Campagfnatico,  51,   115. 
Campaldino,  Battle  of,  41,  34. 
Campiglia  d'  Orcia,  31,  60. 
Campo,  II.     See  Piazza  del  Campo. 
Campsores  domini  papce,  42,  297  n. 
Caneschi,  The,  71,  72. 
Capitano  del  Popolo.     See   (  aptain 

of  the  People. 
Capriola,  97. 

Captain  of  the  Party  Guelf,  48,  58. 
Captain  of  the  People,  30,   59,   105. 
Carpellini,  C.  F.,   142. 
Carroccio,  The  Sienese,  241  n. 
Casa  delta  Consitma,  306. 
Casamari,   157  n. 
Casate,  The,  46  n. 
Casato,  The,  50,  278. 
Castel  di  Camollia,   44  n. 
Castellaccia,  The,  50. 
Castellare,  The,  297,  298  n. 
Castello  di  Val  di  Montone,  44  n. 
Castel  Senio,  44  n. 
Castel  Vecchio,  22,  44  n.,  229,  230, 

Cateau  Cambresis,    The    Treat}'    of, 

Caterina  di  Salicotto,   107. 
Cathedral,  The,  61.     See   Churches 

and  Convents. 
Catherine,  St.,  94-96,   136,  263  n.  et 

passim.    Her  house  316  seq.  Rel- 
ics of  the  Saint,  311  seq. 
Cauli,  The,  46  n. 

Cavalieri  ox  milites,  28  n.,  29  n.  56. 
Cavalieri    or    Knights,  58.  See 

Cecco  Angiolieri.       See  Angiolieri 

Cecco  di  Giorgio.       See  Francesco 

di  Giorgio. 
Ceccolini,  222  n. 
Cellino  di  Xese,   167. 
Celso  Cittadini,  39  n.,   140. 
Ceramics,   195-196 
Cerretani,  The,  46  n. 
Chains  of  the  City,  65  n.  305   n. 
Charlemagne,  203  n. 
Charles  of  Anjou,  35,  37,  40,  43,  200. 
Charles  of  Durazzo,  89. 
Charles  V,   iii,   117,   n8,   119,   121. 
Charles  of  Luxemburg,   62  seq.,   93. 
Chiusi,  21,   113. 
Chronicles,  Sienese,   135. 
Churches  and  Convents. 

Agostino,  S.,  188,   196,  276. 

Andrea,  S.,  74,  306. 

Ansano,  S.   156  n.  274. 

Baptistery'.      See  Giovanni  Bat- 
tista,   S. 

Bernardino,  S.,  Oratorio  di,  167, 

Bruco     (Chiesa    della    Contradai 

Campansi  306. 

Cappella  della  Piazza,  204. 

Carmine,  272. 

Caterina  S.,  della  Notte,  268. 

Caterina  S.,  in  Fontebranda,  164, 
173,   196,  316-318. 

Caterina,  S.  (Contrada  del  Dra- 
go)  311. 

Cathedral.     See  Duomo. 

Chiara,  S.,   157,  287. 

Chiodi,  SS.,  304. 

Cristoforo,  S.,  296. 

Croce,  S.,  278. 


Churches  and  Convents — contiiiued 
Domenico,  S.,  187,  192,  311-315. 
Donate,  S.,  304. 
Duomo,  The,    61,  159,  161,  173, 
195,   197,  229-252, 
Campanile,  231. 
Facade,  231. 
Interior,  233  seq. 
Cappella  del  Voto,  236. 
High  Altar,  237. 
Sacrist}',  239. 
Pulpit,  239. 

Cappella  di  S.  Ansano,  241. 
Cappella  di  S.  Giovanni,  241. 
Libreria,  244-247. 
The  Pavement,  247-251. 
Eugenia,  S.,  287. 
Fontegiusta,  174  n.,  308. 
Francesco,  S.,  183,   196,  298  seq. 
Gesuate,  Convent  of  the,  264. 
Giacomo,  S.  (Contrada  della  Tor- 
re; 281. 
Gherardo,   S.,  301. 
Giovanni  Battista,   S.,     161,   170, 

171,  230,  231,  260. 
Giovanni,  S.,  della  .Staffa,  289. 
Giuseppe,  S.,  (Contrada  dell'On- 

da)  278. 
Girolamo,  S.,  281. 
Giusto,  S.,  281. 
Lucia,  S.,   173,  196,  274. 
Madonna  sotto  le  volte  dello  Spe- 

dale,  269. 
Margherita,  S.,     (Contrada  della 

Pantera)   171  n.,  275. 
Maria  S.,  degli  Angeli  285. 
Maria  S.,  di  Betlem,  156,  285. 
Maria  S.,  delle  Nevi,   162,  305. 
Marta,  S.,   (Orfanotrofio)  273. 
Martino,  S.,  50,   156  n.,   165,   171 

n.,   279. 
Misericordia,  280. 
Monagnese,  173,  259. 
Mustiola,  S.,  277. 
Niccolo,  S.,  285. 

Churches  and  Convents — continued 

Paolo,  S.,  (Contrada  della  Chioc- 
ciola)  274  n. 

Pellegrino,  S.,  339. 

Pietro,  S.,  alia  Magione,  33,  309. 

Pietro,  S.,  a  Ovile,  303. 

Pietro,  S.,  alle  Scale  270. 

Provenzano,    S.    Maria    di,    165, 

Quirico,   S.,    156  n.,  275. 

Rocco,  S.,  303. 

Refugio,  286. 

Santuccio,  286. 

Sebastiano,  S.,    in    vallc    Piatta, 

Sebastian,  St.,    Confraternit)-  of, 

Servi,  dei,  183  n.,  282. 

Spirito,  S.,  288. 

Stefano,  S.,  310. 

Trinita,  SS.,  284. 

Vincenzo  ed  Anastasio,  SS.  (Con- 
trada deir  Istrice)  307. 
Church  services,  English,  5. 
Cicerone,  Der,   173  n.,  351. 
Cimabue,   178. 
Cino  di  Bartolo,   170, 
Cino  di  Pistoia,   168. 
Cistercians,   157. 
Cives  maiores,  mediocres  et  mino- 

res,  28. 
Civis  novus,  28. 
Clement  IV.,   157  n. 
Clement  VII.,   no. 
Codennacci,  The,  46  n. 
Colle  di  Val  d'  Elsa,  34,  i^,  43,  104, 

Colle,  The  Battle  of,  36  seq. 
Colombini,    Giovanni,    94,     100-102, 

^ih   137- 
Columbus,  Christopher,  309. 
Columns  in  Siena, 

presso  il  Palazzo  Pubblico,  203. 

sulla  piazza  di  Postierla,  228. 

sulla  piazza  di  S.  Giusto,  281. 

Colnmns  in  Siena — continued 

presso  la  fontana  del  Pontc,  287. 
sulla  piazza  Tolomei,  296. 
presso    r  Oratorio    di    S.   Rocco, 

Comtnentaries  of  Pius  II.,  68. 
Commesso  in  viaimo,   194,   197. 
Commission  appointed  by  Charles  IV 
to  reform  the  government,  66,  67. 
Compagnia     de^  Buonsignori,     41, 

49  n- 

Compagnia  del  Bruco,  84  seq. 

Compagnia  del  Cappello,  70,  208. 

Compagnie  per  la  Citta  delle  Con- 
trade,  25. 

Companies  of  Adventure,  69,  70,  89, 
91,  92. 

Consiglio  Generate  delta  Campana, 

24.  55- 

Consilium  Generate  Capitanei  et 
Populi,  30. 

Consoli  de'  Cavatieri,  56,  58. 

Consoli  de'  Mercanti,   56. 

Constitutuni  Comunis  Senarum, 
135,  348. 

Consuetudines  feudoruni,   28  n. 

Consules  ynititum.  See  Consoli  de' 

Consuls,  22  seq.,   73,   74. 

Co)itado,  Sienese,  21,  52  n. 

Conte,  Simone  di,  76, 

Contrade,  The,  4,  25,   145,  146. 

Convents.  See  Churches  and  Con- 

Coppo  di  Marcovaldo,  282. 

Cord  used  as  a  sjmbol  of  civic  con- 
cord, 210  n. 

Corradino,  36. 

Cortona,  92,   163. 

Cosimo  de'  ]Medici,  121,  122,  123, 

Costarella  de' Barbieri,  221. 

Council  of  the  Bell.  See  Consiglio 
Generate  delta  Campana. 

Count  Alberto  di  Mangone,  33. 

Counts,    Siena    ruled    by,     21    seq., 

271  n. 
Cozzarelli,  Giacomo,    163,  238,  254, 

259,  260,  266,  274,  280,  288,  316. 
Cozzarelli,  Guidoccio,  189,  215,  264, 

269,  293,  294,  317,  332,  334,   335, 

335.  341- 
Criminal-justice,  87,  282  n. 
Croce  di  Travagtio,  8x  n.,  198,  219 

et  passim. 
Crowe,  &  Cavalcaselle,    151,  350. 
Cust,    Mr    R.    H.    Hobart,    247    n., 

271  1-  353- 

Dante,    quoted    or    referred  to,  33, 

34.  il,  39.  40.  47  "•.  54  "•.   ii5. 

125,   158,  168,  200,  272  n.,  306  n. 
Dedications  of  Siena  to  the  Virgin, 

127  n.,   236  n. 
Dei,   Andrea,    135. 
Delia  Robbia,  285,  289,  340. 
Diana,  44  n. 
Diana,   The,  272. 
Died,  The  Magistracy    of    the,    90, 

Diego,  Don,  Hurtado  de  Mendoza, 

87  n.,   118-120. 
Diocese  of  Siena,  5. 
Dodici,  The,  67  seq.,   104. 
Dodicini.     See  Dodici. 
Dofana,  20. 
Domenico  di  Bartolo,   185,  266,  267, 

Domenico  di  Niccolo^  196,  214. 
Donate'lo,    169,    172,  223,  241,  242, 

261,  262. 
Donato,  Neri  di,   135. 
Douglas,  Professor  Langton,   108  n., 

138,    145,    195,   231  n.,  347,  350  n., 

Drane,  Augusta  Theodosia,  353. 
Duccio  di  Buoninsegna,  176,  179  seq., 

208,  225,  237,  255  seq.,  269,  271. 

283,  319,  320,  321. 


Einstein,  ilr  Lewis,  6o  n.,   iig  n. 
Elinora,  The  game  of,  45  n.,   147. 
Elsa,  The  River,  37. 
England,  Sienese  merchants  in,    60, 
60  n.:  Sienese  Architects  in,  164. 
Enguerran  de  Coucy,  89. 
Etruscans,  19,  155. 
Estimo.     See  Lira  or  Eslimo. 

Faruello,  87. 

Fabriczy,  Dr.  C.  von,  351. 

Federighi,  Antonio,  162,  171,  172, 
173,  227,  235,  237,  242,  253,  254, 
289,  290,  297,  301,  305,  310. 

Felici,  Cristoforo,  300. 

Ferrara,  Peace  of,  103. 

Feudal  Seigniors,  27-28,  29  n.,  31. 

Fioretti  The,  25,  299  n. 

Flanders,  60. 

Florence,  Climate  of,  compared  with 
that  of  Siena,  3  ;  Her  struggle 
with  Siena,  31  seq.  ;  defeated  at 
^Montaperto,  34  ;  Commercial  su- 
premacy of,  41-42  ;  Alliance  with 
Siena,  42  ;  Her  irritation  with 
the  Nove,  64  ;  She  mediates  be- 
tween the  Popolo  and  the  Gentil- 
uomiiii,  83  ;  She  gains  possession 
of  Arezzo,  90  ;  Her  bad  faith,  92, 
93  ;  War  with  Siena,  93  ;  De- 
clares against  Gregorj'  XII  103  ; 
Fresh  war  with  Siena,  103  ;  Her 
relations  with  Pandolfo  Petrucci, 
106  ;  Fall  of  the  Republic  of,  118  ; 
Cosirao  de'  Medici,  Grand  Duke 
of,   121. 

Fojano,    124,    125. 

Folcacchiero  Folcacchicri,   129. 

Fontebecci,   73. 

Fontegiusta,  Madonna  di,   119. 

Fortini,  Pietro,   140,   141. 

Fossanuova,   157  n. 

Fountains  of  Siena. 

Fonte  di  Follonica,  289. 
Fontebranda,  264,  315. 

Fountains  of  Siena — continued 
Fonte  Gaia,   170,  201-202,  233. 
Fonte  Nuova,   161,  303. 
Fonte  Ovile  303. 
Fonte  Pescaia  309-310. 

Fra  Angelico,   185,  216,  226. 

France  and  Siena,   120  seq. 

Francesco  di  Giorgio,  173,  186  seq., 
190,  238,  280,  292,  297,  298  n., 
305,  306,  310,  331,  332,  335,  341. 

Francis,  St.,  25. 

Fra  Paolino,  288. 

Frederick    Barbarossa,    22,    23,    93, 


Frederick  III,  309. 

Fungai,    Bernardino,    189,   190,  275, 

281,  284,  294,  303,  307,  308,  313, 

318,  333,  334,  335- 

Gabella.      See    Tavolette  dipintc. 

Gaddi,  Taddeo,  325. 

Galgano,  S.,    Abbey    of,    157,     158, 

234'  343- 
Gallerani,  The,  46  n. 
Galleria  dclle  Belle  Arii,  319-338. 
Gardner    Mr.  Edmund   G.,  347-349, 

352,  353.  354- 
Gcirzia  de  Toledo,  Don,   122. 
Gascons,  The,  89. 
Gastaldi,  21. 
Gates  of  Siena,  4,  39,   71. 

Barriera  S.  Lorenzo,  4,  306. 

Porta  all'  Arco,  30. 

Porta  Aurea,   136  n. 

Porta  CamoUia,   33,   37,  122,  133, 

Porta  Fontebranda,    156  n. 
Porta  Laterina,   271. 
Porta  S.  Marco,  273. 
Porta  Ovile,  84,  303. 
Porta  Pispini,  20,  287. 
Porta  S.  Prospero,  74. 
Porta    Romana,     120,     133,     137, 

Porta  Tufi,    162,  278. 

375  — 

Gates  of  'S'wnn— continued 

Porta  San  Viene,  20.     See  Porta 

Gavinana,  Battle  of,    1 26. 

Gazzanetti,  The,  46  n. 

Genga,  190,  224,  333,  338. 

General  Council.   See  Consiglio  Ge- 

Gentile  da  Fabriano,    186. 

Gentiluomini,  Order  of  Ma^^nati  or, 
24,  28,  29  n.,  104.  See  Monte 
rf<?'  Gentiluomini. 

Gentiluomini,  Consultative  College 
of,  67,  69.  They  expel  the  Dodici 
from  office,  73;  are  excluded  from 
office  by  the  Riformatori,  75, 
78  ;  Their  cruelty,  79  :  Are  re- 
admitted to  the  minor  offices,  83  ; 
Pius  II  uses  his  influence  on  their 
behalf,    104. 

Gerardini,  The,  46  n. 

German  mercenaries  in  the  employ 
of  the  Sienese,  37. 

Gesuati,  The.     See  Poveri  Gesiiati. 

Ghibellines.  See  GueJfs  and  Ghib- 
e  nines. 

Ghiberti,    169,  261 . 

Ghirlandaio,    1  76,   223. 

Giacomo  di  Bartolommeo.  See  Pac- 

Giacomo  di  Castello,    195,  239. 

Giacomo  di  Giovanni,  214. 

Giacomo  di  Mino  del  Pellicciaio, 

Gian  Galeazzo  Visconti,  93. 

Gigli  Girolamo,    I41. 

Giordano,  Count,  34. 

Giotto,    167,    176,    178,    180,    182. 

Giovanni  d'  Agostino,    167,  302. 

Giovanni  delle  Borabarde,  308. 

Giovanni  da  Imola,  237. 

Giovanni  di  Meo,  88. 

Giovanni  Misser,  di  Montepulciano, 

Giovanni    di    Paolo,     189,  224,  257, 

258,  270,  271,  283,  292,  304,  306, 

310,  311,  327,  328,  329,   332,  339. 
Giovanni  Pisani,    166,  231    n,,  265. 
Giovanni  di  Stefano,    1 73,  237,  242, 

Giovanni  da  Udine,  276. 
Giovanni  da  Verona,  Fra,  238. 
Girolamo    di    Benvenuto,    i88,    307, 

308,  333,  334.  ii(^^  340. 
Gioslre  del  Toppo,  54  n. 
Giuliano  da  Como,  237. 
Giuliano  di  Maiano,    162,  287,   305. 
Glass,  Stained,  in  Siena,    194-195. 
Goldsmiths,    194. 
Golli,  The,  46   n. 
Gonfalonieri  Maestri,   77,  85. 
Goro  di  Gregorio,    167. 
Gothic  Architecture,    153,    157  seq. 
Gottoli,  The,  46  n. 
Grande     Tavola.     See    Compagnia 

de'  Buonsignori. 
Grasselli,  The,  71,  72. 
Gregori,  The,  46  n. 
Gregorovius,   78. 
Gregory  XII,    ,03. 
Grosseto,    51,  60,   70,    117. 
Guastelloni,    The,  46  n. 
Guelfs  and  Ghibellines,  31  seq. 
Guercino,  279. 
Guglielmo  degli  Ubertini,   Bishop- of 

Arezzo,  41,  51,  52. 
Guido  da  Pisa,  136  n. 
Guido  Reni,  279. 

Guido  da  Siena,   178,  179,  208,  320. 
Guido  Novello,  The  Count,  34,   ^5, 

35  n.,  37,  38. 
Guldoriccio  da  Fogliano,   207. 
Guilds.     See  Arti. 

Hastings,  Mr  Gilbert,   185  n.,  355. 

Havre-de-Grace,    164. 

Henri  II,    164. 

Henry  III,  2!. 

Henry  VII,  54,  93,    167,    194. 

Hoby,  Sir,  Thomas,    119  n. 

-   376 

Houses.     See  Palaces. 

Ilario  del  Carretto,    169. 

Incontrati,  The,   46  n. 

Incontri.  The,    44,   45  n.,   46  n.,   48, 

Inla3ing  of  wood  and  marble,    194. 

Jacopo  della  Querela,  169,  170,  171, 
172,  201 ,  217,  253,  261,  280,  286. 

Jacopo  di  Mino  del  Pellicciajo  231, 
255,  260,  284. 

John  II,  Bishop  of  Siena,  2  1 . 

John  XXII,    100. 

Julius  III,    120. 

Knighthood  conferred  bj-  the  Com- 
mune, 28,  49. 

Lace-work,  273  n. 

Ladislas  of  Naples,    103. 

Lambertini,  Michele,  263. 

Lando  di  Pietro,  162,  194,  230,  252. 

Lauds.     See  Rime  Spiritnali. 

Lecceto,  ^lonasterj-  of,    144,    142. 

Leo  X,    I  10. 

Leonardo  da  Vinci,    163,    190. 

Liber  census  el  reddiluum,  29. 

Lippo  Memmi.     See  Memmi  Lippo. 

Lippo  di  Vanni.  See  V'atiui,  Lip- 
po di. 

Lira  o  EsUdio,  27. 

Lisini,  Cav.  A.    143,    152. 

Lizza,  Passeggio  della,  119,  155  n., 

Loggia  di  ^lercanzia.  See  Loggia 
de'  Xobili. 

Loggia  de'  Xobili,  171  n.,  219-221. 

Loggia  del  Papa,  154  n.,  289. 

Loggia  degli  Uniti.  See  Loggia 
de'  Xobili. 

Lombard-Romanesque,   156  seq. 

Lorenzetti  Ambrogio,  61,  182  seq., 
209,  217,  258,  292,  300,  301,  322, 
.123.  324-  341- 

Lorenzetti  Pietro,   181  seq.,  257,  258, 
269,  277,  283,  300,  304,  322,  323. 

Lorenzo  Cini.   279. 
Lorenzo  di  Maitano.     See  Maitano, 

Lorenzo  di. 
Lorenzo  di  Mariano.     See  Marri>ia. 
Lorenzo  de'  Medici,  108  n. 
Lorenzo  di  Pietro.    See  Vecchietta. 
Lorenzo,  Monaco,  186. 
Luca  di  Tomme,  325. 
Lucca,  35,  40,  52,  73,  123,  169,  171  n. 
Lucignano,   126. 
Lucius  III,  235. 

Macchiavelli,    106. 
Maconi,  The,  46  n. 
Madonna  del  Bordone,  282. 
Madonna    detta   del    Corvo,    at    the 

corner  of  Via    di    Castelvecchio, 

Madonna  di  Fontegiusta,  119. 
^Madonna  degli  Occhi  Grossi.       See 

Madonna  del  Voto. 
^ladonna  del  Voto,  236. 
Maestri  di  Pietra.        See  Arte  de' 

Maestri  di  Pietra. 
Magna  tabula.  The.      See  Compa- 

gnia  de''  Bnonsignori. 
Magnati.     See  Gentiluomini. 
Mainardi,  223. 
^lainetti.  The,   46  n. 
^laiolica.     See  Ceramics. 
Maitano,  Lorenzo  di,  161,  168,  230. 
Malatesta  da  Rimini,  73,  76,  80,  82. 
Malavolti,  The,  46  n. 

—  lacomo  de',  85  n. 

—  Orlando,   139. 
Malborghetto,  31,  289  n. 
;Manciano,   112. 
Manfred,  y^,,  34. 

^langia.      See    Toire  del  Maugia. 
Gianni,  Jacopo,  74. 
^lappamondo,  Sala  del,   70  n.,  205- 

Marciano,   124. 

Maremma,  21,  32,  50,  51,   116. 

Marescotti,  The,  46  n.,  222  n. 

Marignano,   122  seq. 

Marrina,    174,    242,    244,    279,    282, 

290,  300,  308. 
Martinella,  The,  87  n. 
Martinelli,  The,  46  n. 
]Martino  di  Bartolommeo,  215,  327. 
Mascagni,  Paolo,  142. 
Massa  Marittima,  97. 
Massaritia,    27. 
Masse,  The,  4. 
Mattasala    di  Spinello    de'  Lamber- 

tini,   133. 
Matteino  di  Ser  Ventura  da  INIcnza- 

no,   80. 
Matteo  di  Balducci.     See  Bahfucri, 

Matteo  di  Giorgio,   190. 
Matteo  di  Giovanni,     188,  255,  276, 

283,  287,  303,  305,  313,  331,  332, 

336,  2>ll- 
Mattioli,  Pier  Antonio,   142. 
Maurus,  Bishop  of  Siena,  20. 
Mazenghi,  The,  46  n. 
Medallists,   195. 
Medici,  The,  67. 
Meloria,  Battle  of,  52. 
;Mcm:ni    Lippo,     183,   216,   274,   283, 

Memorialis  offensarum,  29  n.,  91. 
Mendoza.  See  Diego  Don,  Hurt  ado 

de  Mendoza. 
Mengozzi,  Cav.  N.,   143,  207  n. 
Merchants,    Sienese,     41-42  ;     They 

monopolize    the    government,    45 

seq.,  s^seq.;  Their  enterprise,  60. 
Merse,  The  River,  21. 
Mess  a  della  Pace,  La,  82. 
Mico,  Sienese  poet.   132. 
Mignanelli,  The,  46  n. 
Milan,  93,  97,   104. 
Milanesi,  Gaetano,  143. 
Mililes,  28  n.,  29  n.,  56. 

Monislero,  II,  21,  40,  341. 
Monluc,  Blaise  de,  127. 
Montalcino,  32,  33,  34,  121,  122,  126, 

^Vlontanini,  The,  46  n. 
Montanini,  Andrea  and  Guccio,  134. 
Montapcrto,    Battle    of,    34,  38,  60, 

222  n.,  236  n.,   241,  296  n. 
Montaperlo,  Libro  di,   9. 
Montecchiesi,  The,  46  n. 
Montemassi,  207. 
Monte  Ollveto,  100,  344. 
Montepulciano,  32,   ->,t^,  35,  92,   184. 
Monteriggioni,   -^^i. 
Monterotondo,   117. 
Monteselvoli,  222  n. 
Monti  o  Oidini  of  Siena,  46. 

Motile  de''  Dodici,    67,    68.     See 

Monte  de'  Genliluoniini,    46,  47. 
See  Gentiluomini. 

Monte    de'  Move,    66,   67.       See 

Monte  del  Popolo,  90,   104. 

Monte  de' Ri/oi  inatoi  i,   78.     See 
Riforniatoi  i. 
Monticiano,  21. 
Montieri,  32. 
Muntz,  M.  Eugene,  352. 
Museum,  Natural  History",  6. 

Naples,  36,  162,  167. 
Nardini-Despotti,  on    the    facade  of 

the  Duomo,  231  n. 
Negoliatores  abjecli,  68. 
Nelli,  M.  Giustiniano,   140,   141. 
Neroccio  di  Landl,   172,   173  n.,   i86 

seq.,  216,  222,  236,  259,  284,  293, 

Neroni,  Bartolommeo,  238. 
Niccolo  Pisani,  166,  239. 
Nicolas  V,  99. 
Nobilitas  divitiariim,  28. 
Nobles,  See  Genliluoniini. 
Norfolk,  The  Duke  of,   119  u. 


Norton,  Professor  E.  C,  353. 

Nove,  The,  54  seq.;  Their  Stat- 
ute, 55-59  ;  Fall  of  the,  65-67  ; 
Their  banishment,  104  ;  Their 
return  105  ;  Their  power  survives 
the  expulsion  of  the  Petrucci,  in. 

Novellieri  Senesi,   17,  137,  140,  141. 

Noveschi.  67.     See  Nove. 

OcHixo,  Bernardino,   142. 

Ogerio,  32. 

Oliphant,  Mrs.;  her  methods  of  re- 
search, 68  n. 

Omberto,  Count,  115. 

Ombrone,  The  River,  21. 

Onorata  Massaini,   in. 

Opera  del  Duovio,  The,  170,  174, 

Orbetello,    112,   117. 

Orcagna,   183. 

Orders  of  the  City,  48,  56. 

Ordinances  of  the  People,  31. 

Orgia,   22. 

Orgiale,  22. 

Ormanni,  Antoniolo,   244. 

Orsini,  Ceccolo  degli,   70. 

Orsini,  Matteo  Rosso  degli,  49. 

Orso,   167. 

Orvieto,  2ili^  ^59'  161,  168,  183  n. 
194;  Cathedral  of,  compared  with 
that  of  Siena,  231-232. 

Osservanza,  Convent  of  the,  97,  109, 
163,  340. 

Otho,  The  Emperor,  31. 

Otranto,    104. 

Pacchi.\,  Girolamo  del,  190,  226, 
280,  282,  288,  297,  302,  316,  317, 

Pacchiarotto,  190,  192,  239,  272,  280, 

332,  333'  336. 
Padua,   184. 
Pagan ucci,  The,   46  n. 
Pagliaresi,  The,  46  n.   51. 
Painting,  Sienese,   175  seq. 

Palaces  of  Siena. 

Palazzo  Arcivescovile,  265. 

—  Bindi-Sergardi,  260. 

—  Buonsignori  (Tegliaccil,     160, 

—  Chigi,   228. 

—  Constantini,  306. 

—  dei  Diavoli,   154  n.,   162,  310. 

—  Finetti,  276. 

—  Forteguerri,  227. 

—  S.  Galgano,  287. 

—  del  Governo,  290. 

—  Grottanelli,   160,   228 

—  del  ^lagnifico,    155,   163,    196, 
i97>  259. 

—  de'  Marsili,  227. 

—  Petrucci.     See  del  Maguifico. 

—  Piccolomini.  See  rf^/ Coz'^7';/o. 

—  Pollini,   164,  273. 

—  Pubblico,  61,  70,  159,  160,  171, 
196,   199,  202  seq. 

—  Reale,  228. 

—  Salimbeni,  43,   81,   160,   165  n. 
304,   305. 

—  Sallustio  Bandini,  297. 

—  Sansedoni,   160,    199. 

—  Saracini,    160,    1 8g,  222-226. 

—  della  Signoria.     See  Palazzo 

—  .Spannocchi,    1 54  n.,   304. 

—  Tantucci,    156,    165,   305. 

—  Tolomei,    160,  296. 

—  dei  Turchi.     See  Palazzo  de' 

—  Ugurgieri,  44,  45  n.,  278,  297. 
Palio,  The,   145-147.   199. 
Pannocchieschi,  The,  31. 
Pantaneto,  289. 

Paoli,  Cesare,  20  n.,    143. 

Paolo    di  Giovanni    Fei,    225,    3-5' 

Paparoni,  The,  -46  n. 
Parri  di  .Spinello  Aretino,   215. 
Parte  Ghibelliva,  30,  39. 
Pastorini,    195,   235. 


Pavement  of  the  Duomo,  197,  2^7- 

Pazzi  conspiracy,    104. 

Pecci,  Gio.  Antonio,    140. 

Pelagatti,  Niccolo  de',    113. 

Peliegrino  di  Mariano,    189  n.,   ^28. 

Pelori,  Gio.  Battista,   279,  289,  318. 

People.     See  Popolo. 

Pericciuoli,  Giuliano,    164  n. 

Perkins,  Mr  F.  Mason,  152,  218  n., 
240  n.,   351    n. 

Perkins,  Mr  C.  C,  351. 

Perugia,  70,    184,    185. 

Perugino,  276. 

Peruzzi,  Baldassarre.  See  Baldas- 
sarre  Peiuzzi. 

Pestilence,  The,  61,  62,  97,  116- 

Petronio,  S.,  The  church  of  at  Bo- 
logna,   i6g,    170. 

Petrucci,  The,   105- 1  1  i. 

—  Alfonso,    lie 

—  Borghese,    i  10. 

—  Fabio,    t  lO-i  I  I . 

—  Pandolfo,    103,    105-109,    190. 

—  Raffaello,    1 10. 
Philip  de  Montfort,  35. 
Piazza  d'  Armi,   309. 

Piazza  Baldassarre  Peruzzi,  272. 

—  del  Campo  (Vtttorio  Emanuele*, 
44  n.,  50,  53,  98,   198-204,  278. 

—  del  Duomo,  99,   228. 

—  di  S.  Giusto,  28  I . 

—  del  Mercato,   278,   282. 

—  Postierla^  227. 

^  Tolomei,  8[,   296. 
Piccolomini,  The,  46  n.,  48,    I04. 
Piccolomini  ^neas,  120-121. 
Piccolomini    ^neas    Sylvius.       See 

Pius  II. 
Piccolomini  Alessandro,   140. 
Picture  Galleries.     See  Galleria  del- 

le  Belle  Arli,    and  Palazzo  Sa- 

Pienza,   186. 

Pier  Francesco  Fiorentino,   286,  326, 

Pierino  del  Vaga,  235. 
Pietro  degli  Oriuoli,  257,  263. 
Pietro  di  Domenico,    189,  307,  332, 


Pietro  di  Giovanni,  328,  341. 

Pietro  di  Minella,   170,   196,  237. 

Pieve  al  Toppo,   53. 

Pigs,  St.  Anthony's,  200  n. 

Pintoricchio,  190,  192,  242,  244,  260, 

Piombino,   114. 

Pisa,  25  n.,  32,  Y:,,  41,  52,  54,  63, 
123,  162,   167,  183,  i^j,  et passim. 

—  Council  of,    103. 

Pisani.  See  Niccolo  Pisani,  Gio- 
vanni Pisani. 

Pisano  Andrea,   166  n. 

Pispini,  Porta.     See   Gates. 

Pistoia,  35,   167. 

Pitigliano,   116. 

Pius  II,  68,  96-97  n.,  103,  104,  137, 
162,  244  seq- 

Pius  III,   190. 

Poggibonsi,  32,  36. 

Poggio  S.  Cecilia,  52,  53. 

Poggio  delle  Donne,   125. 

Poggio  Imperiale.  Battle  of,  104, 

Poetry,   Political,   Early  example  of, 

39  n- 

Poets,  Sienese,   129-133,   137. 

Polidori,  F.  L.,   142. 

Ponte  a  Valle,  36. 

Pontignano,  341. 

Ponzi,  The,   46  n. 

Popolani,  24,  30.     See  Popolo. 

Popolo ;  defined  46,  47  n.;  First  vic- 
tory of,  24  ;  exercised  jurisdiction 
over  the  towers,  26  ;  compelled 
the  Nobles  to  bear  their  share  of 
taxation,  26,  27  ;  sought  to  be 
made  knights,  28  ;  formed  part 
of  the  Veniiquattro,  30  ;  Seal  of. 

—   .^8o 

30  ;  arms  of,  31  ;  excluded  nobles 

from  office,  45. 
Popolo  di  Mezzo,  46,  57,  63. 
Fopolo  del  minor  numero,  del    nii- 

iiiero    mediocre,  e    del   maggior 

numero,  -jc). 
Popolo  tninnto,  50. 
Popolo,  Monte  del.     See  Monte  del 

Population   of  Siena,   5,  62  n. 
Populus,  28.     See  Popolo. 
Porrina,   290. 

Potesta,  The,  24  seq.,  59,  68. 
Potter3%     See   Ceramics. 
Poveri  Gesuati,    10 1. 
Prato,  35,  52. 

Prediche  V'olgari,  99,  137. 
Provenzani,  The,  40,  46  n. 
Provenzano  Salvani,    37,   38,  39,   43, 

Provveditori.      See  Quatiio  Prov- 

Pugna,  The  game  of,  45  n.,   147. 

QuAiTKO  Provveditori,  56,  291  n. 
Querela,     Seejacopo  delta  Quercia. 
Querciagrossa,   t,t,. 
Quindici,  The,  47  seq. 
Quinto  Settano,   141. 

Radicofam,  39  n.,   109. 

Raffaella  ovvero  delta  belta  creanza 

delle  donne,  140. 
RaflFaello  di  Carlo,  285. 
Ragnoni,  The,  46  n. 
Ramo  di  Paganello,   167. 
Raphael,  192. 
Redi,  Tommaso,  233. 
Renaldini,  The,  46. 
Ressi,  The,  46  n. 
Reymond,  M.,  351. 
Ricasoli,  The,   114. 
Riccio,  II.      Sec  Neroni  Bartolom- 

Richter,  Mrs.,  231  n.,  352. 

Ridda.     See  Ballo  tondo. 
Rifo)  malori.  The,  74-90. 
Rigoletto.     See  Ballo  tondo. 
Rigomagno,   51,  52. 
Rime  spirittiati,   loi,   133. 
Roccastrada,  50. 

Romans  in  Siena,    19,  20,   155,   156. 
Rope  as    symbol    of    civic    concord, 

210  n. 
Rossellino.      See  Bernardo  Rossel- 

Rotharis,  20. 
Rustichetti,  The,  46  n. 
Rutilio  Manetti,  270,   277. 

Sauna  Jllia,  19. 

Saints,  Sienese,   16,  94-102. 

Salimbeni,  The,  43,  46  n.,  71,  73,  75, 

79,  80,  82,  83,  85,  88,   115. 
Salimbeni,  Benuccio,   132. 
Salimbeni,  Notto,  43,  44. 
Salimbeni,  Salimbene,  296  n. 
Salvani,  The,  40,  46  n.,  48,   49,   51. 
San  Filippo,  Bagni  di,   log. 
San  Gimignano,  35,  114,  183  n.,  184, 

San  Leonardo  al  Lago,   343. 
Sano  di  Matteo,    162,   220. 
Sano  di  Pietro,  185,  189  n.,  218,  224, 

225,  225,  239,  269,  270,  282,  284, 

285,  286,  289,  292,  293,  302,  303, 

307,  311,  315,  329,  340. 
San  Prospero,  Hill  of,   119. 
San  Prospero,  Porta  di,   74. 
San   Quirico    in     Osenna.     See  San 

Qnirico  d^Orcia. 
San  Quirico  d' Orcia,  21,   109. 
Sansedoni,  The,    46  n. 
Santa  Colomba,   164,  343. 
Santa  Fiora,  Counts  of,  50,  114,  115. 
Sant'  Andrea  delle  Grazie,  37. 
Sant'  Angelo  in  Colle,  51. 
Sant'  Eugenio.     See  Monistero,  It. 
San  Viene,  Porta.     See  Gates. 
Sapia,  38. 

Saracini,    The,    46    n.,      120  ;    their 

arms,  223. 
Sassetta,    184,    224,    226,    284,    292, 

327.  328. 
. Scanagallo,  Battle  of,   124. 
Scarlino.    123. 
Scialenghi,  The,  31. 
Scotti,  The,  46  n. 
Sculpture,  Sienese,   166  seq. 
Sebastiano  del  Piombo,  223. 
Segna  di   Bonaventura,    180  n.,    301, 

Selvolesi,  The,  46  n. 
Sence,  Senarum,  44  n. 
Senali,  The,  46  n. 
Senator,  84. 
Senio,  Castel,  44  n. 
Sergardi,    Ludovico.       See     (Juinlo 

Sermini,  Gentile,   137. 
Sicilian  Vespers,  52. 
Siena.  See  Churches  and  Convents; 

Fountains  ;     Palaces  ;     Gates  ; 

Population  ;   Water-supply  ;  &c, 

Sigismund,  The  Emperor,  99, 
Signorelli,   190,   224. 
Silvanus,   156. 
Simone  Martini,   180,   181,   206,   207, 

273,   274,   277,  309. 
Sindicamento,  The  57,  68. 
Sixtus  IV,  97  n. 
Soccini,  The,   142. 
Societas  viilitum,    29  n. 
Societas  populi,   29  n.,  30. 
Societates  armorum,   26. 
Societates  contratorum,   26. 
Sodoma,    151,    190,    191,     209,    214, 

218,  219,225,  269,  271,  272,276, 

281,  287,  288,  300,  302,  303,  31  I, 

5t2,  313,  333,  336,  344- 
Sorore,  II  Beato,   265  n. 
Sozzini,   127,   139,    140,    141. 
Spaniards  in  Siena,   118  seq. 
Spedale  della  Scala,    185,     186,    265 


Spedale  della  Scala — continued 

Pellegrinaio,   266. 

Deposito  delle  Donne,  267. 

Infermeria  di  S.  Pio,   267. 

Infermeria  di  S.  Galgano,  267. 

Church,  268. 

Compagnia  di    S.   Caterina  della 
Notte,   268. 

Confraternita      della      Madonna, 

Chapel,   269. 
Spinello  Aretino,    215,   325. 
Staggia,   33. 

Statute  of  the  Nove,  55,    135. 
Stefano  di  Giovanni.     See  Sassetta. 
Stigmata,   The    miracle    of  the,  96- 

97  n. 
Storia  di  Due  Amanti,   137. 
Streets  of  old  Siena,  289  n. 
Strozzi,  Leone,   123. 
Strozzi,  Piero,   123  seq. 
Symonds,  Mr  J.  A.,   47  n.,  94,   100, 

122   n.,  295. 

Tabula  de  Sena.     See  Compagnia 

de'  Buonsignori. 
Taddeo  di   Bartolo,    184,    213,    214, 
215,  262,  267,  268,  283,  294,   299, 
301,  304,320,  326,  342. 
Tagliacozzo,   36,  37. 
Tatiaglie    da    tanagliare   huomini, 

87  n. 
Tarlati,  Guido,   167. 
Tavolette    dipinte,    97    n.,  '  115    n., 

210  n.,  291-294. 
Taxation,  26  seq. 
Terzi,  The,  4,  44-45  n.,  52  n. 
Thirty-six,  The.     See    Trentaset. 
Tino  di  Camaino,   161,   167. 
Tirare  a  una  fune,  210  n. 
Tizio,  Sigismondo,  139. 
Tolomei,  The,  46  n.,  48,  49,  85. 

—  Andrea,   134. 

—  Bernardo,  The  Blessed,   100. 

—  Cavolino,  38. 

—  Giovanni.     See  Bernardo. 


Tolomei  Guccio  de',  64. 

Tominasi,  Giugurta,   140. 

Torre  del  ^langia,  61,  203-204. 

Torrigiani,  243. 

Torrlta,  70,  91,  208. 

Towers,  Sienese,  26,  40,   119. 

Tozzo,  II,  273. 

Tree  of  Libert)',  201   n. 

Trentasei,  The,  40,  45. 

Trollope,  T.  A.,  95,  97  n.,  354. 

Trombetti.  The,  46  n. 

Turini,  The,   170,   171,  195,  203,  213, 

216,  237,  239,  261. 
Turks,  The,  104,  122. 
Twentj'-four,  The.      See   Ventiqiiat- 


Uberhni,  The,  46  n. 
Ugolino,  Duccio's  pupil,   180  n. 
Ugolino  di  Vieri,   194. 
Ugurgieri,    The,     44,     45  n.,    46  n., 

Ugurgieri,  Ciampolo  degli,   136. 
Ulivieri,  The,  46  n. 
University,  Sienese,  5,  61,   168,  295. 
Urban  V,   loi. 
Urban  VIII,  97  n. 
Urbano  da  Cortona,    221,   227,  233, 

235,  308,  316. 

Val  d'  Amhra,  51. 

Valdambrini,  Francesco,  170. 

Val  d'  Elsa,  32. 

Val  di  Chiana,    21,  32,   70,  91,   122, 

Val  di  Merse,  21. 
Val  d'  Orcia,  21. 
Valle  Buona,  38. 

Valvisciola,   157   n. 

Vanni,     Andrea,     74    n.,    184,     224, 

-304,  310,   325. 
Vanni,  Francesco,  272. 
Vanni,  Lippo  di,  208,  218,  315. 
Vecchietta,  186,  215,  219,  220,  224, 

225,  237,  262,  263,  267,    268,  307, 

328,  329.  337- 
Venafro,  Antonio  da,  106. 
Ventiquattro,  Consiglio  de' ,  29,  40, 


Ventura,  Angelo  di,   162,   167,  278. 

Ventura  di  Gualtieri,  31. 

Ventura,  Niccolo    di.  Chronicle    at- 
tributed to,   138. 

Verocchio,   176. 

Victor  Emanuel  II,   128. 

Villa  Farnesina,   192. 

Viscpnti  di  Campiglia,  31. 

Vitricius,    156. 

Volterra,  32,  35.  52,   123,  184,   188. 

WaRNEFRED,    21. 

Water-supply  of  Siena,  4-5. 
Webb,  Mr  Bernard  H.,  152. 
Windows  of  the   palaces    facing  the 

Campo,  Law  concerning,  159  n. 
Witts,  Miss  F.,  95,  354. 
Wolf,  the  emblem  of  the  Commune, 

31,  203,  228,  296. 
Wolf  enters  the  cfty,   117. 
Women,  Learning  of  Sienese,  I  19  n. 
A\^ood-car\ing  in  Siena,    1 96. 
Wool-trade.     See  Arte  della  lana. 

Zdekauer,    Prof.    L.,    108  n.,     135, 
143,  348,  el  passim. 

Part  I. 

Page  7,  line  7.     For  authorites  read  authorities. 

Page  7,  line  8.     For  confermation  read  confirmation. 

Page  10.  lines  11,   12.     For  Nero  di  Donati  read  Neri  di  Donate. 

Page  23,  last  line.  I  took  the  date,  1125,  from  Professor  Paoli's 
Siena,  in  the  Encyclopcedia  Britannica.  It  would,  however,  appear  to  be 
a  misprint  for  1145.— See  Cav.  A.  Lisini's  Preface  to  the  Costihito  del 
Comnne  di  Siena  volgarizzato  nel  MCCCIX-MCCCX.  (Siena,  Tip.  Laz- 
zeri,   1903)  Vol.  I.  page  VII. 

Page  32.  line  17.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  clause  beginning: 
"  while  from  Montalcino  she  was  able  to  dominate  the  Maremma  ",  is  open 
to  misconstruction.  The  "  invasion  "  there  spoken  of,  and  against  which 
Montalcino  was  '•  able  to  guard  ",  would,  of  course,  not  be  an  attack  upon 
Siena  itself.  That  would  either  come  through  the  Val  d'Elsa  or  by  the  way  of 
Chianti.  If^  however,  the  Florentines  attempted  to  advance  upon  Talamone, 
Portercole  and  the  Sienese  Maremma,  they  would,  I  apprehend,  be  likely 
to  march  by  the  way  of  Volterra  (Compare  Rondoni,  Sena  Veins,  p.  40)  ; 
and  Montalcino  might  well  "guard  against"  such  an  invasion  by  joining 
hands  with  Grosseto  in  the  Valley  of  the  Ombrone  ;  thus  effectually  barring 
all  further  progress  to  the  southward. 

Page  41,  line  I.  Before  the  iL'ords  Siena  had  been  excommunicated, 
insert.  With  one  brief  internal. 

Page  70,  line  6.     For  Compania  lead  Compagnia. 

Page  71,  line  12,  et  passitn.  For  Nero  di  Donati  read  Neri  di  Do- 

Page  108,   line  14.     For  Magnificient  lead  Magnificent. 

Page  108,  note  (iK  Add  With  regard  to  the  title  of  //  Magnifico, 
which  was  l^prne  alike  by  Lorenzo  de'  Medici  and  by  Pandolfo  Petrucci,  it 
may  be  noticed  that  Mr  Gardner,  in  his  Story  of  Siena  and  San  Gimignano 
(page  267,  note),  remarks  that  '■'Magnificence  was  a  much  less  pretentious 
title  at  the  end  of  the  Quattrocento  than  it  sounds  now  ".  Speaking  gen- 
erally, this  is,  of  course,  incontrovertible  ;  but  it  is,  I  conceive,  equally 
certain  that,  when  a  man  was  habitually  spoken  of  as  //  Magnifico,  the 
appellation  was  a  much  higher  one  than  when  it  was  used,  like  our  modern 
"  Mr.  ",  in  connection  with  a  name.  Between  such  a  mode  of  address  as 
le  Magnificenze  Vostre  (which  we  find  adopted  in  letters  to  the  Sienese 
magistrates),  or  such  courtesy  titles  as  //  Magnifico  Astorre,  II Magnifico 
Vitilozzo  &c.  &c.     (so  often    encountered    in  the  Perugian  chronicles),  and 

-   o84   - 

II  Magnifico  simply,  there  is  a  very  wide  difference.  May  we  not  find  an 
analogy  in  our  English  word  Esquire  f  John  Smith  Esquire  may  be  simply 
a  retired  grocer  ;  whereas,  if  we  speak  of  John  Smith  as  "an  esquire  ", 
we  imply  that  he  possesses  a  definite  place  in  the  table  of  precedence  above 
that  of  a  mere  "  gentleman  ".  With  regard  to  Pandolfo  Pctrucci  (II  Ma- 
gnifico with  whom  we,  in  this  place,  are  especially  concerned)  it  is  interest- 
ing to  note  that,  in  1496,  he  w^as  spoken  of  as  Illustrissimo,  a  title  which, 
n  those  daj'S,  was,  as  a  rule,  only  applied  to  sovereign  princes. — See  Pecci 
Meviorie  Ct'c,  op.  cit.,  I,   131  note. 

Page  no,  lines  17,  18.  "  It  seemed  as  if  the  month  of  hell  were 
opened— />/^.y^  aperta  la  bocca  delV Inferno  ".  In  the  chronicle  from  which 
the  account  is  drawn,  these  words  do  not  refer  to  the  furj'  of  the  mob,  but 
to  that  of  the  elements— /<wo  stranissimo  tempo,  wherewith  the  fiends  wel- 
comed RaflFaello's  evil  soul. 

Page  132.  line  2i.  After  the  words  "  Scelta  di  Curiosita  Letterarie 
inedite  e  rare  ",  add  the  following :— while  a.  critical  study  of  the  life  and 
works  of  the  poet  will  be  found  in  the  Giornale  storico  delta  letteratura 
italiana  (Torino,  Loescher,  1891)  Vol.   18.     Fasc.   i.,  pp.   1-75. 

Part  II. 

Page  162,  line  28.     For  Bernado  read  Bernardo. 

Page  170.  line  3.     For  Expulsion  read  Vision. 

Page  192,  lines  22-24.  I*  '^  improbable  that  Pintoricchio  himsef 
painted  in  S.  Onofrio. 

Page  193,  note.     For  Dr.  Gustav,  lead  Dr.  Gustavo,  Frizzoni. 

Page  230,  line  4.     For  14th,  read  13th,  century. 

Page  731,  line  9;  p.  260,  line  19;  p.  284,  line  11.  For  Mino  di 
Pellicciaio  read  Jacopo  di  Mino  del  Pellicciaio. 

Page  255,  note,  line  8.     For  "  below  this  "  read  "  below  these  ". 

Page  262,  lines  3-6.  One  of  the  missing'  pjitti  from  the  Baptismal 
Font  of  S.  Giovanni,  evidently  by  Donatello,  has  recently  been  acquired 
by  the  Berlin  Museum.  Another  ptitto,  bearing  a  strong  resemblance,  in 
point  of  style,  to  that  now  in  Berlin,  is  in  the  Museo  Xazionale  (Bargello) 
at  Florence,  and  was  probably  once  intended  for  the  same  Font. 

Page  289,  lines  13-15.  For  "  over  high-altar  "  read  "  over  altar  of 
adjoining  chapel  ". 

Page  297,  lines  20-21.  For  Casa  Sallustio  Bandini  7ead  Casa  di  Sal- 
lustio  Bandini. 

Pago  341,  line  21.     For  Monistcro  jead  II  IMonistero. 

Page  359,  lines  28-29.  For  "  The  ;Majolica  of  Siena  the  Nineteenth 
Century,  &c.'  "  7ead  "  The  Majolica  of  Siena.  In  the  Nineteenth  Cen- 
turv.  &c.  ". 


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